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Technical Paper

Modeling the Effects of EGR and Injection Pressure on Emissions in a High-Speed Direct-Injection Diesel Engine

Experimental data is used in conjunction with multi-dimensional modeling in a modified version of the KIVA-3V code to characterize the emissions behavior of a high-speed, direct-injection diesel engine. Injection pressure and EGR are varied across a range of typical small-bore diesel operating conditions and the resulting soot-NOx tradeoff is analyzed. Good agreement is obtained between experimental and modeling trends; the HSDI engine shows increasing soot and decreasing NOx with higher EGR and lower injection pressure. The model also indicates that most of the NOx is formed in the region where the bulk of the initial heat release first takes place, both for zero and high EGR cases. The mechanism of NOx reduction with high EGR is shown to be primarily through a decrease in thermal NOx formation rate.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Assessment of Turbulence Production, Reynolds Stress and Length Scale (Dissipation) Modeling in a Swirl-Supported DI Diesel Engine

Simultaneous measurements of the radial and the tangential components of velocity are obtained in a high-speed, direct-injection diesel engine typical of automotive applications. Results are presented for engine operation with fuel injection, but without combustion, for three different swirl ratios and four injection pressures. With the mean and fluctuating velocities, the r-θ plane shear stress and the mean flow gradients are obtained. Longitudinal and transverse length scales are also estimated via Taylor's hypothesis. The flow is shown to be sufficiently homogeneous and stationary to obtain meaningful length scale estimates. Concurrently, the flow and injection processes are simulated with KIVA-3V employing a RNG k-ε turbulence model. The measured turbulent kinetic energy k, r-θ plane mean strain rates ( 〈Srθ〉, 〈Srr〉, and 〈Sθθ〉 ), deviatoric turbulent stresses , and the r-θ plane turbulence production terms are compared directly to the simulated results.
Technical Paper

Characterization of the Mixing of Fresh Charge with Combustion Residuals Using Laser Raman Scattering with Broadband Detection

Spontaneous Raman scattering with broadband signal collection is used to simultaneously measure the mole fractions of CO2, H2O, N2, O2, and fuel (C3H8) in a spark-ignition engine operating at low load. Both cycle-averaged and single-shot, cycle-resolved measurements of the mixing between residual and fresh charge are made from the beginning of the intake stroke to TDC compression. The measurements are made at twelve locations simultaneously with sub-millimeter spatial precision, which is sufficient to resolve the characteristic scales of inhomogeneity in most cases. Analysis of the spatial covariance functions provides a measure of the noise contribution to the measured mole fractions and, in certain instances, allows the determination of whether the measured composition fluctuations are associated with spatial inhomogeneities or with cyclic variations in overall charge composition.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Gas Velocity Measurements Comparing Crankcase and Blower Scavenging in a Fired Two-Stroke Cycle Engine

The in-cylinder flow field of a Schnürle (loop) scavenged two-stroke engine has been examined under conditions simulating both blower and crankcase driven scavenging. Measurements of the radial component of velocity were obtained along the cylinder centerline during fired operation at delivery ratios of 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8. Both mean velocity profiles and root mean square velocity fluctuations near top center show a strong dependence on the scavenging method. Complementary in-cylinder pressure measurements indicate that combustion performance is better under blower driven scavenging for the engine geometry studied. IN THE PAST TEN YEARS the engine research and development community has demonstrated a renewed interest in two-stroke engine technology. Many manufacturers have new engine designs operating on test stands and in prototype vehicles being road tested.
Technical Paper

Quantitative In-Cylinder Fluid Composition Measurements Using Broadband Spontaneous Raman Scattering

A measurement technique is described which permits quantitative, multi-point, in-cylinder fluid composition measurements in an internal combustion engine. The technique is based on spontaneous Raman scattering with broadband signal collection, and provides simultaneous determination of the mole fractions of H2O, CO2, N2, O2, and fuel (C3H8). Calibration and data reduction procedures which largely eliminate interference between the signals from the various species are discussed. Mean mole fractions obtained in an optical access engine from the beginning of the intake stroke to the end of the compression stroke are reported. The mean mole fractions of the individual species are used to obtain independent estimates of the mean mole fraction of burnt residual gases, which, in turn, are used to evaluate the accuracy and consistency of the data. An over-prediction of the CO2 mole fraction in hot exhaust gases is found to be the most significant shortcoming of the technique.
Technical Paper

Influence of Spray-Target and Squish Height on Sources of CO and UHC in a HSDI Diesel Engine During PPCI Low-Temperature Combustion

Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) imaging during the expansion stroke, exhaust gas emissions, and cylinder pressure measurements were used to investigate the influence on combustion and CO/UHC emissions of variations in squish height and fuel spray targeting on the piston. The engine was operated in a highly dilute, partially premixed, low-temperature combustion mode. A small squish height and spray targeting low on the piston gave the lowest exhaust emissions and most rapid heat release. The LIF data show that both the near-nozzle region and the squish volume are important sources of UHC emissions, while CO is dominated by the squish region and is more abundant near the piston top. Emissions from the squish volume originate primarily from overly lean mixture. At the 3 bar load investigated, CO and UHC levels in mixture leaving the bowl and ring-land crevice are low.
Technical Paper

A Computational Investigation of the Effects of Swirl Ratio and Injection Pressure on Mixture Preparation and Wall Heat Transfer in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

In a recent study, quantitative measurements were presented of in-cylinder spatial distributions of mixture equivalence ratio in a single-cylinder light-duty optical diesel engine, operated with a non-reactive mixture at conditions similar to an early injection low-temperature combustion mode. In the experiments a planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) methodology was used to obtain local mixture equivalence ratio values based on a diesel fuel surrogate (75% n-heptane, 25% iso-octane), with a small fraction of toluene as fluorescing tracer (0.5% by mass). Significant changes in the mixture's structure and composition at the walls were observed due to increased charge motion at high swirl and injection pressure levels. This suggested a non-negligible impact on wall heat transfer and, ultimately, on efficiency and engine-out emissions.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Instantaneous Flamelet Surface Normals and the Burning Rate in a SI Engine

A recently developed technique, crossed-plane imaging, is extended to measure instantaneous flamelet surface normals in a single-cylinder, optical SI engine. Two simultaneous, orthogonal acetone PLIF images are used to measure the instantaneous flamelet orientation in three dimensions. The images are also used to measure contours of constant mean reaction progress variable < c> and the mean flamelet crossing density. Statistics of the flamelet surface normal are presented in spherical coordinates in terms of a polar angle, f, and an azimuthal angle,q; the pole is aligned with the normal to a constant surface. The data are used to estimate marginal probability density functions (PDF's) in f and q. The estimated marginal PDF's are found to be well represented by the same functional forms applied previously to turbulent V-flames. The flamelet surface density and the mean fractional increase in flamelet surface area due to turbulence are also estimated.
Technical Paper

Quantitative Measurements of Residual and Fresh Charge Mixing in a Modern SI Engine Using Spontaneous Raman Scattering

Line-imaging of Raman scattered light is used to simultaneously measure the mole fractions of CO2, H2O, N2, O2, and fuel (premixed C3H8) in a modern 4-valve spark-ignition engine operating at idle. The measurement volume consists of 16 adjacent sub-volumes, each 0.27 mm in diameter × 0.91 mm long, giving a total measurement length of 14.56 mm. Measurements are made 3 mm under the centrally-located spark plug, offset 3 mm from the spark plug center towards the exhaust valves. Data are taken in 15 crank angle degree increments starting from top center before the intake stroke (-360 CAD) through top center of the compression stroke (0 CAD).
Technical Paper

The Influence of Swirl on HSDI Diesel Combustion at Moderate Speed and Load

Heat release analysis of the in-cylinder pressure records and images of the naturally occurring combustion luminosity obtained in an optical engine are used to explore the effect of variable swirl ratio on the diesel combustion process. Swirl ratios Rs at IVC of 1.5, 2.5, and 3.5 were investigated. The engine is equipped with common-rail fuel injection equipment, and the combustion chamber geometry is maintained as close as possible to typical engines intended for automotive applications. The operating condition employed was 2000 rpm, with a gross IMEP of 5.0 bar and 800 bar injection pressure. Swirl ratio is found to exert a measurable influence on most of the combustion process, from ignition to late-cycle oxidation. Ignition delay decreases with increasing Rs, as do the magnitudes of the initial premixed burn, the peak rates of heat release, and the maximum rates of pressure rise.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Charge Dilution and Injection Timing on Low-Temperature Diesel Combustion and Emissions

The effects of charge dilution on low-temperature diesel combustion and emissions were investigated in a small-bore single-cylinder diesel engine over a wide range of injection timing. The fresh air was diluted with additional N2 and CO2, simulating 0 to 65% exhaust gas recirculation in an engine. Diluting the intake charge lowers the flame temperature T due to the reactant being replaced by inert gases with increased heat capacity. In addition, charge dilution is anticipated to influence the local charge equivalence ratio ϕ prior to ignition due to the lower O2 concentration and longer ignition delay periods. By influencing both ϕ and T, charge dilution impacts the path representing the progress of the combustion process in the ϕ-T plane, and offers the potential of avoiding both soot and NOx formation.
Technical Paper

On the Cyclic Variability and Sources of Unburned Hydrocarbon Emissions in Low Temperature Diesel Combustion Systems

The cycle-to-cycle variability and potential sources of unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions are examined in a single-cylinder, light-duty diesel test engine operating in low-temperature combustion regimes. A fast flame ionization detector (FID) was employed to examine both cycle-to-cycle variations in UHC emissions and intra-cycle emissions behavior. A standard suite of emissions measurements, including CO, CO2, NOx, and soot, was also obtained. Measurements were made spanning a broad range of intake O2 concentrations-to examine the UHC behavior of dilution-controlled combustion regimes-and spanning a broad range of injection timings-to clarify the behavior of increased UHC emissions in late-injection combustion regimes. Both low- and moderate-loads were investigated. The cycle-resolved UHC data showed that the coefficient of variation of single-cycle UHC did not increase with increases in UHC emissions as either O2 concentration or injection timing was varied.
Technical Paper

Fuel Injection and Mean Swirl Effects on Combustion and Soot Formation in Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

High-speed video imaging in a swirl-supported (Rs = 1.7), direct-injection heavy-duty diesel engine operated with moderate-to-high EGR rates reveals a distinct correlation between the spatial distribution of luminous soot and mean flow vorticity in the horizontal plane. The temporal behavior of the experimental images, as well as the results of multi-dimensional numerical simulations, show that this soot-vorticity correlation is caused by the presence of a greater amount of soot on the windward side of the jet. The simulations indicate that while flow swirl can influence pre-ignition mixing processes as well as post-combustion soot oxidation processes, interactions between the swirl and the heat release can also influence mixing processes. Without swirl, combustion-generated gas flows influence mixing on both sides of the jet equally. In the presence of swirl, the heat release occurs on the leeward side of the fuel sprays.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Swirl Ratio and Fuel Injection Parameters on CO Emission and Fuel Conversion Efficiency for High-Dilution, Low-Temperature Combustion in an Automotive Diesel Engine

Engine-out CO emission and fuel conversion efficiency were measured in a highly-dilute, low-temperature diesel combustion regime over a swirl ratio range of 1.44-7.12 and a wide range of injection timing. At fixed injection timing, an optimal swirl ratio for minimum CO emission and fuel consumption was found. At fixed swirl ratio, CO emission and fuel consumption generally decreased as injection timing was advanced. Moreover, a sudden decrease in CO emission was observed at early injection timings. Multi-dimensional numerical simulations, pressure-based measurements of ignition delay and apparent heat release, estimates of peak flame temperature, imaging of natural combustion luminosity and spray/wall interactions, and Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV) measurements of in-cylinder turbulence levels are employed to clarify the sources of the observed behavior.
Technical Paper

Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Turbulent Flows in a Diesel Engine

This paper presents a study of the turbulence field in an optical diesel engine operated under motored conditions using both large eddy simulation (LES) and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The study was performed in a laboratory optical diesel engine based on a recent production engine from VOLVO Car. PIV is used to study the flow field in the cylinder, particularly inside the piston bowl that is also optical accessible. LES is used to investigate in detail the structure of the turbulence, the vortex cores, and the temperature field in the entire engine, all within a single engine cycle. The LES results are compared with the PIV measurements in a 40 × 28 mm domain ranging from the nozzle tip to the cylinder wall. The LES grid consists of 1283 cells. The grid dynamically adjusts itself as the piston moves in the cylinder so that the engine cylinder, including the piston bowl, is described by the grid.
Technical Paper

Effect of Intake Pressure on Performance and Emissions in an Automotive Diesel Engine Operating in Low Temperature Combustion Regimes

A single-cylinder, light-duty, diesel engine was used to investigate the effect of changes in intake pressure (boost) on engine performance and emissions in low-temperature combustion (LTC) regimes. Two different LTC strategies were examined: a dilution-controlled regime characterized by high rates of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) with early-injection (roughly 30° BTDC), and a late-injection (near TDC) regime employing moderate EGR levels. For both strategies, moderate (8 bar IMEP) and low (3 bar IMEP) load conditions were tested at intake pressures of 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 bar. For both LTC strategies, increased intake pressure reduces emissions of unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) and CO, with corresponding improvements in combustion efficiency and indicated specific fuel consumption (ISFC), particularly at high load. Depending on the operating condition, UHC and CO emissions can stem from either over-lean or over-rich mixtures.
Technical Paper

Experimental Assessment of Reynolds-Averaged Dissipation Modeling in Engine Flows

The influence of the constant C3, which multiplies the mean flow divergence term in the model equation for the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation, is examined in a motored diesel engine for three different swirl ratios and three different spatial locations. Predicted temporal histories of turbulence energy and its dissipation are compared with experimentally-derived estimates. A “best-fit” value of C3 = 1.75, with an approximate uncertainty of ±0.3 is found to minimize the error between the model predictions and the experiments. Using this best-fit value, model length scale behavior corresponds well with that of measured velocity-correlation integral scales during compression. During expansion, the model scale grows too rapidly. Restriction of the model assessment to the expansion stroke suggests that C3 = 0.9 is more appropriate during this period.
Technical Paper

The Evolution of Flow Structures and Turbulence in a Fired HSDI Diesel Engine

In-cylinder fluid velocity is measured in an optically accessible, fired HSDI engine at idle. The velocity field is also calculated, including the full induction stroke, using multi-dimensional fluid dynamics and combustion simulation models. A detailed comparison between the measured and calculated velocities is performed to validate the computed results and to gain a physical understanding of the flow evolution. Motored measurements are also presented, to clarify the effects of the fuel injection process and combustion on the velocity field evolution. The calculated mean in-cylinder angular momentum (swirl ratio) and mean flow structures prior to injection agree well with the measurements. Modification of the mean flow by fuel injection and combustion is also well captured.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Effects of EGR and Injection Pressure on Soot Formation in a High-Speed Direct-Injection (HSDI) Diesel Engine Using a Multi-Step Phenomenological Soot Model

Low-temperature combustion concepts that utilize cooled EGR, early/retarded injection, high swirl ratios, and modest compression ratios have recently received considerable attention. To understand the combustion and, in particular, the soot formation process under these operating conditions, a modeling study was carried out using the KIVA-3V code with an improved phenomenological soot model. This multi-step soot model includes particle inception, surface growth, surface oxidation, and particle coagulation. Additional models include a piston-ring crevice model, the KH/RT spray breakup model, a droplet wall impingement model, a wall heat transfer model, and the RNG k-ε turbulence model. The Shell model was used to simulate the ignition process, and a laminar-and-turbulent characteristic time combustion model was used for the post-ignition combustion process.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Swirl Ratio on Turbulent Flow Structure in a Motored HSDI Diesel Engine - A Combined Experimental and Numerical Study

Simultaneous two-component measurements of gas velocity and multi-dimensional numerical simulation are employed to characterize the evolution of the in-cylinder turbulent flow structure in a re-entrant bowl-in-piston engine under motored operation. The evolution of the mean flow field, turbulence energy, turbulent length scales, and the various terms contributing to the production of the turbulence energy are correlated and compared, with the objectives of clarifying the physical mechanisms and flow structures that dominate the turbulence production and of identifying the source of discrepancies between the measured and simulated turbulence fields. Additionally, the applicability of the linear turbulent stress modeling hypothesis employed in the k-ε model is assessed using the experimental mean flow gradients, turbulence energy, and length scales.