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Technical Paper

Combining Fuel Borne Catalyst, Catalytic Wash Coat and Diesel Particulate Filter

2001-03-05
2001-01-0902
In view of increasing concern over diesel particulates and tightening legislation to control their emission, much work has been done to develop diesel particulate filters (DPFs) and systems to allow them to work reliably. Although a filter will effectively trap solid particles, any material in the vapour phase, such as unburned hydrocarbons, may pass through the filter and subsequently condense. The use of a catalytic wash coat, either on the DPF itself or on a separate substrate, has been proposed to oxidise these hydrocarbons and thus reduce the total material emitted. The use of fuel borne catalysts to aid the regeneration of trapped material within the DPF is also well documented. Such catalyst will also catalyse the oxidation of any hydrocarbons bound up within the particulate. The oxidation of such hydrocarbon occurs at a lower temperature than that of carbon itself, thus allowing lower temperature regeneration of the DPF.
Technical Paper

Retrofitting of Diesel Particulate Filters - Particulate Matter and Nitrogen Dioxide

2003-05-19
2003-01-1883
A diesel particulate filter (DPF) is a crucial weapon in the fight to control the downsides traditionally associated with diesel engined vehicles. The DPF not only produces the benefits required from an environmental standpoint but also has the consumer benefit of eliminating the visible black smoke associated with diesel engines. Thus DPFs have now become a reality, both for series production vehicles and as a retrofit application. Inevitably there are a number of alternative types of DPF and alternative techniques are used for ensuring they continue to function in an acceptable manner. Due to the complexity of the diesel combustion process and the emissions produced it is only to be expected that a device intended primarily to control one parameter would have some effect on other parameters. This paper looks at some different DPF technologies and how they effect emissions, with the emphasis on particulate emissions and the speciation of oxides of nitrogen.
Technical Paper

Particulates Reduction in Diesel Engines Through the Combination of a Particulate Filter and Fuel Additive

1998-10-19
982654
Exhaust emissions legislation for diesel engines generally limits only the mass of emitted particulate matter. This limitation reflects the concerns and measurement technology at the time the legislation was drafted. However, evolving diesel particulate filter (DPF) systems offer the potential for reductions in the mass and more importantly, the number of particles emitted from diesel exhausts. Particulate filters require frequent cleaning or regeneration of accumulated soot, if the engine is to continue to operate satisfactorily. Exothermic reactions during regeneration can lead to severe thermal gradients in the filter system resulting in damage. Fuel additives have been evaluated to show significant reductions in light off temperature which allow frequent small regeneration events to occur, under mild operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Novel Additive for Particulate Trap Regeneration

1995-10-01
952355
One of the most promising ways to insure the periodic regeneration of a particulate trap, consists of additising the fuel with organo-metallic compounds. The present paper deals with a novel alkali product, able to promote natural regenerations, for exhaust temperatures as low as 200 °C, and treatment rates as low as 5 ppm metal. Tests have been carried out on a soot reactor and on an engine bench, with various trap locations in the exhaust, showing that the regeneration occurrence depends on temperature, soot mass loaded inside the porous structure and engine conditions. A complete trap cleaning still needs gas temperatures up to 400 °C, which can be encountered for high load conditions of the engine.
Technical Paper

The Effect of DI Nozzle Fouling on Fuel Spray Characteristics

1992-10-01
922232
The atomisation characteristics of DI diesel engine fuel injection nozzles have been the subject of intensive study over the last decade. Much of this work has been related to clean, single hole nozzles spraying into quiescent air, at either ambient conditions or elevated pressures and temperatures. Experience shows that fuel injector nozzles may foul very rapidly in field service, and that this might have a significant effect on the performance of the engine particularly with regard to emissions. The build up of material on the injector nozzle can be controlled by the addition of suitable fuel additives. This paper describes test procedures developed to assess deposit build up and to indicate the efficacy of keep clean additives. The paper then goes on to describe high speed photographic techniques for studying the fuel spray characteristics of clean and fouled injectors in a firing engine.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Performance and Emissions Using Different Fuel/Additive Combinations

1988-02-01
880635
It is probable that diesel fuel quality in Europe will fall as the need to blend conversion components into the diesel pool increases. In particular diesel ignition quality and stability could decrease and carbon residue and aromatic content increase. This paper discusses the effects of worsening fuel quality on combustion, injection characteristics and emissions and the efficacy of appropriate additives in overcoming these effects. Both direct injection and indirect injection engines were used in the investigations.
Technical Paper

Possible Influence of High Injection Pressure on Diesel Fuel Stability: A Review and Preliminary Study

2009-06-15
2009-01-1878
Recent developments in diesel engines and fuel injection equipment combined with the change to ULSD and bio-blends have resulted in increased reports regarding deposits within injectors and filters. A review of known fuel degradation mechanisms and other relevant chemistries suggests the effects of high pressure and high shear environments should be examined as the most probable causes of increasing deposit formation. Existing fuel quality tests do not correlate with reported fouling propensity. Analytical studies have shown that there are only subtle chemical changes for the materials within the standard diesel boiling range. The implications for further scientific study are discussed.
Technical Paper

Deposit Formation in the Holes of Diesel Injector Nozzles: A Critical Review

2008-10-06
2008-01-2383
Current developments in fuels and emissions regulations are resulting in increasingly severe operating environment for the injection system. Formation of deposits within the holes of the injector nozzle or on the outside of the injector tip may have an adverse effect on overall system performance. This paper provides a critical review of the current understanding of the main factors affecting deposit formation. Two main types of engine test cycles, which attempt to simulate field conditions, are described in the literature. The first type involves cycling between high and low load. The second involves steady state operation at constant speed either at medium or high load. A number of influences on the creation of deposits are identified. This includes fouling through thermal condensation and cracking reactions at nozzle temperatures of around 300°C. Also the design of the injector holes is an influence, because it can influence cavitation.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Parameters Ensuring Reliable Regeneration of a Sintered Metal Particulate Filter using a Fuel Borne Catalyst

2008-10-06
2008-01-2485
The operating cycle of many vehicles fitted with diesel particulate filters is such that soot accumulates within the filter and must periodically be oxidised. Work was carried out on a passenger car engine to elucidate how fuel borne catalyst (FBC) to soot ratio, oxygen mass flow rate, temperature and soot loading influence the oxidation rate of soot accumulated in a sintered metal filter (SMF). Results show that soot loading had a major influence; increased soot loading increased the oxidation rate. The other parameter had a smaller influence with increasing oxygen flow rate and FBC/soot ratio each increasing the oxidation rate.
Technical Paper

DPF Technology for Older Vehicles and High Sulphur Fuel

2005-01-19
2005-26-020
The most cost-effective way to reduce the level of diesel particulate emissions is to retrofit exhaust aftertreatment devices. While diesel oxidation catalysts will reduce the mass of particles emitted, they will not significantly reduce the number of ultrafine particles, that are considered the most harmful to health. Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) are therefore considered the most effective retrofit devices. One obstacle to the widespread adoption of DPFs is that many DPF technologies require low sulphur fuel. Using a Fuel Borne Catalyst (FBC) to facilitate regeneration of the DPF allows a sulphur tolerant DPF system to be produced.
Technical Paper

Assessment of the Performance of Diesel Particulate Filter Systems with Fuel Additives for Enhanced Regeneration Characteristics

1999-03-01
1999-01-0112
Diesel particulate filter (DPF) are well known as a developing form of exhaust after-treatment for compression ignition engines. Subjected to extensive testing in experimental form, DPFs have yet to achieve widespread application in regular use on production road vehicles, despite their potential for delivering reductions of typically 90% in diesel exhaust particulate emissions. Tests have shown that different additives are effective in enhancing performance in a range of DPF types, and on engines of different configurations. Efforts have been made to correlate performance with engine operating regime, by linking soot particulate condition to the frequency of regeneration. A performance index has been developed to try to predict regeneration characteristics with additive treated fuel. The work has shown that there are engine operating conditions producing soot which is less likely to burn off in the DPF.
Technical Paper

Improved Diesel Particulate Filter Regeneration Performance Using Fuel Soluble Additives

1999-10-25
1999-01-3562
Interest has been growing in many countries in the potential use of diesel particulate filters (DPF). This type of after treatment technology has been shown to make very significant reductions in both the mass of particulate emitted in diesel exhaust gas, and also in the number of fine particulates, which have been linked in recent years with concerns for human health. Work carried out during a development programme investigating the capability of fuel soluble metallic additives to assist DPF regeneration, indicated superior performance from a novel combination of metals in fuel soluble form. Earlier work showed that a fuel soluble combination of organo-metallic additives based on sodium and strontium gave very effective regeneration characteristics, and was capable of burning out carbon at temperatures from about 160°C.
Technical Paper

The Long Distance Road Trial of a Combined Diesel Particulate Filter and Fuel Additive

2000-10-16
2000-01-2849
Trapping diesel particulates is effective in reducing both the number and the mass of fine particulate emissions from diesel engines, but unless the accumulated soot can be burned out or regenerated periodically, the vehicle to which the trap is fitted will cease to function after a relatively short time. A programme of work with soot traps using a low treat rate iron-strontium organo-metallic fuel additive to assist and secure regeneration has been carried out. As part of this programme, an advanced specification diesel engine passenger car equipped with a diesel particulate filter (DPF), was operated on roads in the UK for approximately 18 months, during which time the vehicle covered over 50,000 km After completion of 50,000 km on roads, the vehicle was operated on a chassis dynamometer to increase the distance covered with a DPF more rapidly to a final total of 80,000 km.
Technical Paper

Emissions Characteristics of Diesel Vehicles Equipped With Particulate Filters and Using Fuel Additive For Regeneration

2000-06-19
2000-01-1925
Four vehicles were chosen to cover a range of engine technologies. These vehicles were fitted with diesel particulate filters (DPFs) of differing technology. Three of the vehicles have been driven on the road using an additised fuel to demonstrate totally passive operation of the DPF. As part of this programme all three vehicles underwent regulated emissions testing to demonstrate that there was no deterioration in emissions during the programme. Additionally a light commercial vehicle was tested to demonstrate the effect on emissions of the combination of additised fuel and the DPF. The performance of the DPFs during on-road use has already been reported; this paper therefore concentrates on discussion of the results of the emissions testing.
Technical Paper

A Method for Assessing the Low Temperature Regeneration Performance of Diesel Particulate Filters and Fuel-borne Catalysts

2000-06-19
2000-01-1922
Fuel-borne catalysts are now an accepted means of aiding the self-regeneration of diesel particulate filters (DPFs). In the past it has been possible to assess the effect of these fuel additives by investigating the temperature at which the filter reaches a pressure drop equilibrium. Under these temperature conditions, the particulate matter is oxidised at the same rate as it is being deposited and there is thus no change in pressure drop across the filter. This technique adequately demonstrates the oxidation temperature of the carbon in the presence of the catalyst. However, it is now well known that such fuel additives also influence the low temperature oxidation of particulate bound hydrocarbons. This phenomenon is not detected by the filter equilibrium technique.
Technical Paper

The Emerging Market for Biodiesel and the Role of Fuel Additives

2007-07-23
2007-01-2033
With growing concern over greenhouse gases there is increasing emphasis on reducing CO2 emissions. Despite engine efficiency improvements plus increased dieselisation of the fleet, increasing vehicle numbers results in increasing CO2 emissions. To reverse this trend the fuel source must be changed to renewable fuels which are CO2 neutral. A common route towards this goal is to substitute diesel fuel with esterified seed oils, collectively known as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters. However a fundamental change to the fuel chemistry produces new challenges in ensuring compatibility between fuel and engine performance/durability. This paper discusses the global situation and shows how fuel additives can overcome the challenges presented by the use of biodiesel.
Technical Paper

Metal Emissions, NO2 and HC Reduction from a Base Metal Catalysed DPF/FBC System

2006-04-03
2006-01-0420
Due to concerns over NO2 emissions from platinum catalysts a base metal catalysed diesel particulate filter (DPF) has been developed and used in combination with fuel borne catalysts (FBC). Results are presented showing reductions in HC, NOX, NO2, and PAH emissions along with an assessment of the emissions of metals used in the FBC and the catalysed DPF. This data is used to show the likely reduction in overall iron and other metal emissions as a result of using the catalysed DPF/FBC system. A similar system has also been assessed for durability for over 2000 hours when fitted to a bus in regular service in Switzerland.
Technical Paper

A Cost Effective Solution to Reduce Particulate Emissions

2003-01-18
2003-26-0006
Growing concern over the health effects of airborne particles and a desire to reduce the associated cost has resulted in legislation, regulations and other measures, in the industrialised world to severely restrict particulate emissions from diesel-fuelled automotive transport. Developing countries are also introducing initiatives to try and reduce emissions, an example is the legislation in India to replace diesel engines with gas fuelled engines in some major conurbations. Such measures are expensive, both in terms of replacing the engines of the vehicles and of implementing the required infrastructure. There is still also debate over whether such measures reduce the number of ultra-fine particulates. A well-proven alternative is to fit diesel engines with Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs), either as original equipment or as a retrofit system. Regenerating DPFs has in the past been an obstacle to their widespread application.
Technical Paper

Experience of Fitting London Black Cabs with Fuel Borne Catalyst Assisted Diesel Particulate Filters - Part 2 Non-Regulated Emissions Measurements

2002-10-21
2002-01-2785
Forthcoming emissions legislation is driving the passenger car manufacturers towards the fitting of Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) as original equipment. In areas with a particular problem such as heavily congested city centres, retrospective legislation has also been introduced, for example in Hong Kong and Tokyo. Legislation mandating the retrofitting of DPFs obviously has an immediate effect on particulate emissions. Other authorities are thus investigating the efficacy of such measures. However with the increasing use of DPF technology concerns are now being raised over some currently unregulated emissions such as ultra fine particulate and NO2, although total particulate mass and oxides of nitrogen are regulated. To add to the data base for such issues a programme of work was run using London Black Cabs. Four cars were fitted with a DPF, an on-board dosing system to meter a fuel borne catalyst (FBC) into the fuel and a data logger to monitor the DPF performance.
Technical Paper

Experience of Fitting London Black Cabs with Fuel Borne Catalyst Assisted Diesel Particulate Filters - Part 1 Regulated Emissions and Regeneration Performance

2002-10-21
2002-01-2784
Forthcoming emissions legislation is driving the passenger car manufacturers towards the fitting of Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) as original equipment. However such initiatives are not retrospective and due to the replacement rate of the vehicle fleet, there is a time lag before the full benefit of the new measures are fully realised. To overcome this drawback, in areas with a particular problem such as heavily congested city centres, retrospective legislation has been introduced, for example in Hong Kong and Tokyo. Legislation mandating the retrofitting of DPFs obviously has an immediate effect on particulate emissions. Other authorities are thus investigating the efficacy of such measures. To add to the data base for such assessments Octel is running a demonstration programme using London Black Cabs. Four cars have been fitted with a DPF, an on-board dosing system to meter a fuel borne catalyst (FBC) into the fuel and a data logger to monitor the DPF performance.
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