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Technical Paper

Potentials of Miller Cycle on HD Diesel Engines Using a 2-Stage Turbocharging System

2018-04-03
2018-01-0383
Variable valve trains offer the opportunity to apply advanced combustion process strategies such as the Miller cycle. As is well known, applying Miller timing for CI engines is an effective way to reduce NOX emissions and can lead to an increase in engine efficiency. Because of the intended future NOX and GHG limits for on-road HD CI engines, the use of variable valve trains become more and more inevitable. Previous studies of the authors have shown that the improvement potential highly depends on the achievable cylinder charge level. Increasing this (through additional increase in boost pressure) results in a significant decrease in ISFC as well as in an improved NOX-PM trade-off. However, in these considerations the pressure difference of the charge air and the exhaust back pressure was kept on the same level. The present paper investigates the improvement potentials for heavy duty CI engines taking a two-stage turbocharging group into account.
Technical Paper

Strategies for Reducing NOX- and Particulate Matter Emissions in Diesel Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2009-04-20
2009-01-1305
In hybrid electric vehicles the combination of diesel engine and electric motor obviously provides lowest fuel consumption. However, compared with the Otto hybrid system, there are relatively high NOx and particulate matter emissions. This paper describes investigations of various strategies for a significant reduction of exhaust gas emissions in diesel hybrid electric vehicles. By reducing the dynamic operation of the combustion engine by supplementing the engine torque demand with an electric motor and limiting the maximum engine torque, the NOx emissions could be reduced by more than 30% and the particulate matter emissions by more than 20%, without influencing the fuel consumption compared to hybrid electric vehicles with conventional operation strategy.
Technical Paper

Intelligent Energy Management Strategy for a Parallel Hybrid Vehicle

2014-04-01
2014-01-1909
Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV's) are facing increasing challenges in optimizing the energy flow through a vehicle system, in order to improve both fuel economy and vehicle emissions. Energy management of HEV's is a difficult task due to the complexity of the total system in terms of electrical, mechanical and thermal behavior. In this paper, an advanced control strategy for a parallel hybrid vehicle is developed. Four main steps are presented, particularly to achieve a reduction in fuel consumption. The first step is the development of a highly complex HEV model, including dynamic and thermal behavior. Second, a heuristical control strategy is developed to determine the HEV modes and third, a State of Charge (SoC) leveling is developed with the interaction of a fuzzy logic controller. It is proposed to calculate the load point shifting of the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) and the desired battery SoC.
Technical Paper

Potentials of the Miller Cycle on HD Diesel Engines Regarding Performance Increase and Reduction of Emissions

2015-09-06
2015-24-2440
A variable air path on diesel engines offers further potentials to manage the challenges of engine development - such as reduction of emissions and fuel consumption, as well as performance increase. The Miller cycle is one of the possibilities, which is well known as an effective way to reduce process temperatures and so NOX emissions. The present paper discusses the potentials of this strategy for heavy duty diesel engines by identifying and analyzing the effects caused. The investigations were carried out in the upper load range. First the isolated effect of the Miller cycle was analyzed. The results show reduced NOX emissions, although increased PM and CO emissions were measured. Further, the Miller cycle caused a reduction in peak cylinder pressure. This pressure reserve can be used to combine the Miller cycle with further measures while maintaining the maximum cylinder pressure of the reference operation point. On the one hand, a performance increase of about 10% was achieved.
Technical Paper

Composition Platform for Conventional and Hybrid Powertrains

2017-09-04
2017-24-0172
In view of the rapidly increasing complexity of conventional as well as hybrid powertrains, a systematic composition platform seeking for the global optimum powertrain is presented in this paper. The platform can be mainly divided into three parts: the synthesis of the transmission, the synthesis of the internal combustion engine (ICE) and the optimization and evaluation of the entire powertrain. In regard to the synthesis of transmission concepts, a systematical and computer-aided tool suitable both for conventional und hybrid transmissions is developed. With this tool, all the potential transmission concepts, which can realize the desired driving modes or ratios, can be synthesized based on the vehicle data and requirements.
Journal Article

Energy Management in a Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle for Different Driving Conditions

2014-04-01
2014-01-1804
Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are facing increased challenges of optimizing the energy flow through a vehicle system, to enhance both the fuel economy and emissions. Energy management of HEVs is a difficult task due to complexity of total system, considering the electrical, mechanical and thermal behavior. Innovative thermal management is one of the solutions for reaching these targets. In this paper, the potential of thermal management for a parallel HEV with a baseline control strategy under different driving cycles and ambient temperatures is presented. The focus of the investigations is on reducing fuel consumption and increasing comfort for passengers. In the first part of this paper, the developed HEV-model including the validation with measurements is presented. In the second part, the combined thermal management measures, for example the recuperation of exhaust-gas energy, engine compartment encapsulation and the effect on the target functions are discussed.
Journal Article

Comparison of Fuel Consumption and Emissions of Automotive and Large-Bore Diesel Engines

2014-04-01
2014-01-1100
When comparing automotive and large-bore diesel engines, the latter usually show lower specific fuel consumption values, while automotive engines are subject to much stricter emission standards. Within an FVV (Research Association for Combustion Engines) project these differences were identified, quantified and assigned to individual design and operation parameters. The approach was split in three different phases: 1 Comparison of different-sized diesel engines 2 Correlation of differences in fuel consumption to design and operating parameters 3 Further investigations under automotive boundary conditions The comparison in the first phase was made on the basis of operating data and energy balances as well as the separation of losses based on the thermodynamic analysis. To also determine the quantitative effects of each design and operating parameter, a 1D process calculation model of the passenger car engine was transformed gradually to a large-bore engine in the second phase.
Journal Article

Improved Energy Management Using Engine Compartment Encapsulation and Grille Shutter Control

2012-04-16
2012-01-1203
A vehicle thermal management system is required to increase the operating efficiency of components, to transfer the heat efficiently and to reduce the energy required for the vehicle. Vehicle thermal management technologies, such as engine compartment encapsulation together with grille shutter control, enable energy efficiency improvements through utilizing waste heat in the engine compartment for heating powertrain components as well as cabin heating and reducing the aerodynamic drag . In this work, a significant effort is put on recovering waste heat from the engine compartment to provide additional efficiency to the components using a motor compartment insulation technique and grille shutter. The tests are accelerated and the cost is reduced using a co-simulation tool based on high resolution, complex thermal and kinematics models. The results are validated with experimental values measured in a thermal wind tunnel, which provided satisfactory accuracy.
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