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Technical Paper


This paper reviews the exhaust emissions from direct injection diesel engines in the initial period following startup. The tests were undertake in “cold start” mode (temperature of cooling water and lube oil equal ambient temperature) and “warm start” modes (after getting equilibrium state). Both results were compared. Exhaust emissions in the period of run from cold start to warmed-up is very important to satisfy present day standards worldwide.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Properties on Exhaust Emissions from the Latest Light-Duty DI Diesel Engine

The great reduction in future diesel engine emission limits, especially PM and NOx, forces one to develop means to comply with stringent legislation. Environmentally friendly fuels are regarded as a very effective means to decrease emissions. Although the emission reduction is less than could be achieved by the most modern engine technology or alternative fuels, the immediate net effect of reformulated diesel fuel on emissions is significant, as it takes place over the whole vehicle population. The experimental results presented in this paper were obtained within a research program investigating the effect of different fuels upon emissions from compression-ignition automotive engines. The research were carried out in the laboratories of the BOSMAL Automotive R & D Centre in co-operation to Institute of Internal Combustion Engines at Poznan University of Technology. The partial results of this research program were presented in SAE Paper 2002-01-2219.
Technical Paper

Cold Start Emissions Investigation at Different Ambient Temperature Conditions

A vital question for car manufacturers in countries where the temperature over night falls below freezing, is the significant increase of CO (carbon monoxide) and HC (hydrocarbon) emissions during the start and warm-up of spark ignition engines. ECE (Economic Commission for Europe) (UDC) (Urban Driving Cycle) cycles, divided into elementary phases, have been used to determine the level of harmful CO and HC emissions and fuel consumption in the cold start and warm up phase. Tests were undertaken on cars conditioned in temperatures ranging from +22°C to -15°C have shown significant increases in CO and HC as the temperature decreases.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Emission from Passenger Cars During Engine Cold Start and Warm-Up

An increased of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons emissions from gasoline engines in ambient temperatures at or below 0°C is a key issue, not only in Scandinavia or northern parts of the USA and Canada, but also in countries of Central and Eastern Europe. It is typical of Poland and neighbouring countries that for six to seven months (from October to April) air temperature fails to about 0°C at night, while in winter months this temperature often fails below -10 to even -20°C. Due to this, in these countries the cars are started in the morning when the engine and all other parts of the car are considerably cool. This paper presents a special climatic conditions in view of their effect on the actual exhaust emission from a car with SI engine and results of emission tests for such gaseous pollutants as CO, HC and NOx, achieved during tests performed on a chassis dynamometer according to ECE and FTP 75 cycles.
Technical Paper

Investigations into Exhaust Particulate Emissions from Multiple Vehicle Types Running on Two Chassis Dynamometer Driving Cycles

This paper reports testing conducted on multiple vehicle types over two European legislative driving cycles (the current NEDC and the incoming WLTC), using a mixture of legislative and non-legislative measurement devices to characterise the particulate emissions and examine the impact of the test cycle and certain vehicle characteristics (engine/fuel type, idle stop system, inertia) on particulate emissions. European legislative measurement techniques were successfully used to quantify particle mass (PM) and number (PN); an AVL Microsoot sensor was also used. Overall, the two driving cycles used in this study had a relatively limited impact on particulate emissions from the test vehicles, but certain differences were visible and in some cases statistically significant.
Technical Paper

The Comparison of the Emissions from Light Duty Vehicle in On-road and NEDC Tests

The investigations into the emissions from light-duty vehicles have been carried out on a chassis dynamometer (NEDC test in Europe and FTP75 test in the US). Such tests do not entirely reflect the real road conditions and that is why we should analyze the correlation of the laboratory versus on-road test results. The paper presents the on-road test results obtained in an urban and extra urban cycles. For these measurements a portable SEMTECH DS analyzer by SENSORS has been used. The device is an analyzer enabling an on-line measurement of the emission gases concentration in a real driving cycle under real road conditions. The road tests were performed on road portions of several kilometers each. The obtained results were compared with the results obtained for the same vehicle during the NEDC test on a chassis dynamometer. The comparative analysis was performed including the urban and extra-urban cycles.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Pure RME and Biodiesel Blends with High RME Content on Exhaust Emissions from a Light Duty Diesel Engine

The use of biofuels (biodiesel and gasoline-alcohol blends) in vehicle powertrains has grown in recent years in European Union, the United States, Japan, India, Brazil and many other countries due to limited fossil fuel sources and necessary reduction of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. European car manufacturers have approved up to 5 percent of biodiesel blend in diesel fuel (B5 biodiesel blend) which meets European fuel standards EN 14214 and EN 590. The goal for research is to achieve higher biodiesel content in diesel fuel B10 and B20, without resorting to larger diesel engines and fuel feed system modernization. This paper evaluates the possibility of using higher FAME content in biodiesel blends (mixture of diesel fuel and Fatty Acid Methyl Esters) in modern Euro 4 vehicle with direct-injection, common-rail and turbocharged light-duty diesel engine with standard engine ECU calibration and standard injection equipment (not tuned for biodiesel).
Technical Paper

A Study of RME-Based Biodiesel Blend Influence on Performance, Reliability and Emissions from Modern Light-Duty Diesel Engines

The paper evaluates the possibility of using different biodiesel blends (mixture of diesel fuel and Fatty Acid Methyl Esters) in modern Euro 4/ Euro 5 direct-injection, common-rail, turbocharged, light-duty diesel engines. The influence of different quantity of RME in biodiesel blends (B5, B20, B30) on the emission measurement of gaseous pollutants, such as: carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), carbon dioxide (CO2) and particulate matter (PM) for light-duty-vehicle (LDV) during NEDC cycle on the chassis dynamometer as well as engine performance and reliability in engine dyno tests were analysed. All test results presented have been to standard diesel fuel. The measurement and analysis illustrate the capability of modern light-duty European diesel engines fueled with low and medium percentages of RME in biodiesel fuel with few problems.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Oxygenated Diesel Fuels on a Diesel Vehicle PM/NOx Emission Trade-Off

Research on the influence of oxygenated diesel fuels on the PM/NOx emission trade-off was carried out with use of 11 different synthetic oxygenated compounds, representing 3 chemical groups (glycol ethers, maleates, carbonates). Each of oxygenates were evaluated as a fuel additive at a concentration of 5% v/v in the same base diesel fuel. The tests were conducted on a passenger car equipped with a common rail turbocharged diesel engine over the European cycle NEDC and US FTP-75 cycle. All the tested oxygenates caused a reduction in PM emissions and most of them caused a certain increase in NOx emissions. The changes in emissions depended on the oxygenate type and cycle. In general, the favorable and unfavorable influence of oxygenated compounds was more intensive during the NEDC, which is a softer and less transient cycle than the FTP-75. The most favorable changes in the PM/NOx emission trade-off were obtained for maleates and carbonates.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Synthetic Oxygenates on Euro IV Diesel Passenger Car Exhaust Emissions - Part 3

The paper presents the test results relating to the influence of carbonate oxygenated additives to diesel fuel on exhaust emissions. Following the previous tests of glycol ethers (SAE Paper 2007-01-0069) and maleates (SAE Paper 2008-01-1813), the authors decided to use carbonates to obtain an even greater reduction in PM emissions. The significant effectiveness of carbonates on PM emission reduction was confirmed in tests performed by the authors. Diethyl carbonate was the most effective oxygenated compound with regard to PM emission reduction among all the 11 oxygenates which have been tested so far. Moreover, it is important to note that diethyl carbonate caused only a small increase in NOx emissions, thus it allowed for an essential improvement in the PM/NOx trade-off. A significant increase in the CO and HC emissions was, however, a negative effect of the use of carbonates.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Synthetic Oxygenates on Euro IV Diesel Passenger Car Exhaust Emissions - Part 2

The paper presents the test results of the influence of maleate oxygenated additives to diesel fuel on exhaust emissions. Following the previous tests of glycol ethers (SAE Paper 2007-01-0069), the authors decided to use maleates as oxygenates to obtain greater changes in PM/NOx trade-off than the changes obtained as a result of the use of glycol ethers. It was found that in the NEDC maleates at the same concentration as in the case of glycol ethers ensure more favourable changes of PM/NOx trade-off and, as a matter of fact, caused greater reduction in PM emissions without the growth of NOx emissions, however, at the cost of CO and HC emissions. The tests performed in the FTP-75 confirmed a significantly weaker influence of maleates, both positive (PM) and negative (CO, HC) than in the NEDC. They did not find in both cycles any influence of maleates at the tested concentration upon fuel consumption and CO2 emissions.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Various Petrol-Ethanol Blends on Exhaust Emissions and Fuel Consumption of an Unmodified Light-Duty SI Vehicle

Due to limited fossil fuel resources and a need to reduce anthropogenic CO₂ emissions, biofuel usage is increasing in multiple markets. Ethanol produced from the fermentation of biomass has been of interest as a potential partial replacement for petroleum for some time; for spark-ignition engines, bioethanol is the alternative fuel which is currently of greatest interest. At present, the international market for ethanol fuel consists of E85 fuel (with 85 percent ethanol content), as well as lower concentrations of ethanol in petrol for use in standard vehicles (E5, E10). The impact of different petrol-ethanol blends on exhaust emissions from unmodified vehicles remains under investigation. The potential for reduced exhaust emissions, improved security of fuel supply and more sustainable fuel production makes work on the production and usage of ethanol and its blends an increasingly important research topic.
Technical Paper

A Study of Gasoline-Ethanol Blends Influence on Performance and Exhaust Emissions from a Light-Duty Gasoline Engine

This paper evaluates the possibility of using bioethanol blends (mixtures of gasoline fuel and ethanol derived from biomass) of varying strengths in an unmodified, small-displacement European Euro 5 light-duty gasoline vehicle. The influence of different proportions of bioethanol in the fuel blend (E5, E10, E25, E50 and E85) on the emission of gaseous pollutants, such as: carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, oxides of nitrogen and carbon dioxide was tested at normal (22°C) and low (-7°C) ambient temperatures for a light-duty vehicle during the NEDC cycle on a chassis dynamometer. Engine performance metrics were also tested. All test results are presented in comparison to standard European gasoline (E5). Tailpipe emission data presented here suggest that modest improvements in air quality could result from usage of low-to-mid ethanol blends in the vehicle tested.
Technical Paper

Excess Emissions and Fuel Consumption of Modern Spark Ignition Passenger Cars at Low Ambient Temperatures

Cold starts are demanding events for spark-ignition (SI) internal combustion engines. When the temperatures of the engine oil, coolant and the engine block are close to the ambient temperature, start-up can be difficult to achieve without fuel enrichment, which results in significant excesses in exhaust emissions and fuel consumption. In general, the lower the ambient temperature, the more substantial these problems are. Many nations frequently experience sub-zero ambient temperatures, and the European Union (among others) has specified an emissions test at low ambient temperature (-7°C). Passenger cars typically experience one to two cold start events per day, and so both cold starts and the warm-up period that follows are significant in terms of exhaust emissions. This paper examines emissions at low ambient temperatures with a special focus on cold start; emissions are also compared to start-up at a higher ambient temperature (24°C).
Technical Paper

Analysis of Emission Factors in RDE Tests As Well as in NEDC and WLTC Chassis Dynamometer Tests

This paper presents a study of passenger cars in terms of emissions measurements in tests conducted under real driving conditions (RDE - Real Driving Emissions) by means of PEMS (Portable Emission Measurement System) equipment. A special feature of the RDE tests presented in this paper is that they were performed under Polish conditions and the specified parameters may differ from those in most other European Union countries. Emission correction coefficients have been defined, based on the test results, equal to the increase (or decrease) of driving emissions during the laboratory (‘chassis dyno’) test or during normal usage in relation to the EU emission standards (emission class) of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Investigations into Particulate Emissions from Euro 5 Passenger Cars with DISI Engines Tested at Multiple Ambient Temperatures

Particulate matter in vehicular exhaust is now under great scrutiny. In the EU, direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engines running on petrol now have limits for particulate emissions set for both mass and number. Current legislative test procedures represent a best-case scenario - more aggressive driving cycles and lower ambient temperatures can increase particulate emissions massively. Ambient temperature is generally the environmental parameter of most importance regarding particulate emissions from an engine, particularly for the reasonably brief periods of operation typical for passenger cars operating from a cold start. Two Euro 5 vehicles with DI SI engines were laboratory tested at three ambient temperatures on two different commercially available fuels, with particulate emissions results compared to results from the same fuels when the vehicles were tested at 25°C.
Technical Paper

Regulated Emissions, Unregulated Emissions and Fuel Consumption of Two Vehicles Tested on Various Petrol-Ethanol Blends

Ethanol has a long history as an automotive fuel and is currently used in various blends and formats as a fuel for spark ignition engines in many areas of the world. The addition of ethanol to petrol has been shown to reduce certain types of emissions, but increase others. This paper presents the results of a detailed experimental program carried out under standard laboratory conditions to determine the influence of different quantities of petrol-ethanol blends (E5, E10, E25, E50 and E85) on the emission of regulated and unregulated gaseous pollutants and particulate matter. The ethanol-petrol blends were laboratory tested in two European passenger cars on a chassis dynamometer over the New European Driving Cycle, using a constant volume sampler and analyzers for quantification of both regulated and unregulated emissions.
Technical Paper

Chassis Dynamometer Testing of Ammonia Emissions from Light-Duty SI Vehicles in the Context of Emissions of Reactive Nitrogen Compounds

Ammonia is a reactive nitrogen compound (RNC - nitrogen-based gaseous molecules with multiple adverse impacts on human health and the biosphere). A three-way catalyst can produce substantial quantities of ammonia through various reaction pathways. This study presents a brief literature review, and presents experimental data on ammonia emissions from seven Euro 5 passenger cars, using different gasoline fuels and a CNG fuel. All vehicles were tested on a chassis dynamometer over the New European Driving Cycle. For six of the vehicles, ammonia was quantified directly at tailpipe (using two different analyzers); emissions from one vehicle were subjected to Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) analysis. Emissions of ammonia from these vehicles were generally low in comparison to other chassis dynamometer studies, perhaps attributable to the favorable laboratory test conditions and the age of the vehicles.
Technical Paper

Euro III / Euro IV Emissions - A Study of Cold Start and Warm Up Phases with a SI (Spark Ignition) Engine

The European driving cycle, deleting the first 40 seconds of idle after the start up phase, and the US FTP 75 cycle are compared in this paper. The paper presents an analysis of emission tests for CO, HC and NOx measured during tests performed on a chassis dynamometer under laboratory conditions. The tests are reviewed and the results discussed. The objective of the study was to determine the influence of the test cycle on the measured emission of CO, HC and NOx, and the changes of fuel consumption at the initial phase of engine operation. Differences in catalyst warm up rates when running NEDC, ECE + EUDC and FTP 75 cycles are demonstrated. Methods of reduction in these harmful emissions and the results of tests with new technologies targeted at the reduction of CO, HC and NOx under cold start are also discussed.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Uncertainty of the Emission Measurement of Gaseous Pollutants on Chassis Dynamometer

This paper evaluates the accuracy of emission measurement of regulated gaseous pollutants from vehicles tested on chassis dynamometers. The paper describes sources of error during exhaust emissions measurement. A model of uncertainty using statistical analysis and standard uncertainty propagation techniques has been used. The model, based on individual uncertainties of different instruments used in the measurement process, as well statistical analysis evaluating uncertainties resulting from the errors introduced by the vehicle, the driver and the chassis dynamometer were all used to compute the total uncertainty of the emission measurement. The paper shows that current CVS system and analytical techniques used to measure exhaust emissions are not sufficient to meet Euro 5 standards. Either an improvement to the CVS system or the development of a new emission sampling system is a prerequisite to measure the emissions from vehicles complying with Euro 5 or SULEV.