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Technical Paper

Development of Brain Injury Criteria (BrIC)

Rotational motion of the head as a mechanism for brain injury was proposed back in the 1940s. Since then a multitude of research studies by various institutions were conducted to confirm/reject this hypothesis. Most of the studies were conducted on animals and concluded that rotational kinematics experienced by the animal's head may cause axonal deformations large enough to induce their functional deficit. Other studies utilized physical and mathematical models of human and animal heads to derive brain injury criteria based on deformation/pressure histories computed from their models.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Traumatic Brain Injuries Using the Next Generation of Simulated Injury Monitor (SIMon) Finite Element Head Model

The objective of this study was to investigate potential for traumatic brain injuries (TBI) using a newly developed, geometrically detailed, finite element head model (FEHM) within the concept of a simulated injury monitor (SIMon). The new FEHM is comprised of several parts: cerebrum, cerebellum, falx, tentorium, combined pia-arachnoid complex (PAC) with cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF), ventricles, brainstem, and parasagittal blood vessels. The model's topology was derived from human computer tomography (CT) scans and then uniformly scaled such that the mass of the brain represents the mass of a 50th percentile male's brain (1.5 kg) with the total head mass of 4.5 kg. The topology of the model was then compared to the preliminary data on the average topology derived from Procrustes shape analysis of 59 individuals. Material properties of the various parts were assigned based on the latest experimental data.
Technical Paper

On the Development of the SIMon Finite Element Head Model

The SIMon (Simulated Injury Monitor) software package is being developed to advance the interpretation of injury mechanisms based on kinematic and kinetic data measured in the advanced anthropomorphic test dummy (AATD) and applying the measured dummy response to the human mathematical models imbedded in SIMon. The human finite element head model (FEHM) within the SIMon environment is presented in this paper. Three-dimensional head kinematic data in the form of either a nine accelerometer array or three linear CG head accelerations combined with three angular velocities serves as an input to the model. Three injury metrics are calculated: Cumulative strain damage measure (CSDM) – a correlate for diffuse axonal injury (DAI); Dilatational damage measure (DDM) – to estimate the potential for contusions; and Relative motion damage measure (RMDM) – a correlate for acute subdural hematoma (ASDH).
Technical Paper

Machine Learning Based Model for Predicting Head Injury Criterion (HIC)

The objective of this study is to develop a machine learning based predictive model from the available crash test data and use it for predicting injury metrics. In this study, a model was developed for predicting the head injury criterion, HIC15, using pre-test features (vehicle, test, occupant and restraint related). This problem was solved as a classification task, in which HIC15 with a threshold of 700 was divided into three classes i.e. low, medium and high. Crash test data was collected from the NHTSA database and was split into training and test datasets. Predictive models were developed from the training dataset using cross-validation while the test dataset was only used at the final step to evaluate the chosen predictive model. A logistic regression based predictive model was chosen as it demonstrated minimal overfitting and gave the highest F1 score (0.81) on the validation dataset. This chosen model gave a F1 score of 0.82 on the test (new/unseen) dataset.