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Technical Paper

Comparison of ABS Configurations and Their Effects on Stopping Performance and Stability for a Class 8 Straight-Truck

2005-11-01
2005-01-3610
Direct vehicle performance comparisons were made between a full 6s/6m and a simpler 4s/4m system, as applied to a 6x4 Class 8 straight truck having a walking-beam rear suspension design. The 4s/4m system was run in both intermediate-axle control and trailing axle-control configurations. The systems were compared with modern air-disc brakes on the vehicle The systems were compared at LLVW (unladen) and GVWR (fully loaded) for high speed stopping performance and stability on a high-μ surface and a wetted split-μ surface, as well as Brake-in-Curve stability on a wetted low-μ 500-ft radius turn. In this paper, stopping distances are statistically compared to quantify effects of the various ABS control strategies on dry and wet stopping efficiency. In addition, newer techniques of using wheel-slip histograms generated from in-stop data are used to compare more detailed system behavior and predict their effects on vehicle stability under braking.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Heavy Truck Foundation Brake Performance Measured with an Inertia Brake Dynamometer and Analyses of Brake Output Responses to Dynamic Pressure Inputs

2005-11-01
2005-01-3611
In support of NHTSA's studies of heavy truck brake types and their effects on vehicle stopping performance and stability, the NHTSA Vehicle Research and Test Center (VRTC) has evaluated four foundation brake types on their Greening Brake Dynamometer. Several sample assemblies of each type of brake were tested to better understand variability. Braking tests were run under the “Laboratory Test Procedure for FMVSS 121D Air Brake Systems - Dynamometer” (TP- 121D-01) procedures. Afterward, the test scope was expanded to include higher speeds and higher severity conditions than those specified Test Procedure. This paper reports on the differences in braking effectiveness between two traditional S-Cam air brake types and two recently introduced Air Disc brake types. Burnish procedure trends are briefly discussed and compared. Responses of the pneumatic brakes to both constant-pressure and dynamic inputs are also compared and discussed.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Foundation Brake Configuration on Class-8 Tractor Wet Stopping Performance and Stability

2004-10-26
2004-01-2702
This paper discusses wet stopping performance and stability comparisons of various foundation brake systems on Class-8 truck tractors (having a GVWR greater than 33,000 lbs.). For these studies, four configurations of foundation brakes were fitted to two modern 6×4 conventional truck tractors without modification to the control, application, or ABS systems. The foundation brakes compared include standard S-cam drum brakes on all six positions, two hybrid configurations (high-output S-cam drum and then air disc brakes on the steer axles), and air disc brakes on all six brake positions. The truck tractors were tested in two weight configurations, LLVW and GVWR using an unbraked control semitrailer. Analytical analyses of wet brake-in-curve testing indicate that the hybrid brake systems (employing higher-torque brakes on the steer axle only) might degrade brake-incurve performance. This disadvantage appeared to exist for both load conditions.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Foundation Brake Configuration on Class-8 Tractor Dry Stopping Performance

2004-10-26
2004-01-2701
This paper discusses dry stopping performance comparisons of various foundation brake systems on Class-8 truck tractors (having a GVWR greater than 33,000 lbs.). For these studies, four configurations of foundation brakes were fitted to two modern 6x4 conventional truck tractors without modification to the control, application, or ABS systems. Foundation brakes compared include standard S-cam drum brakes on all six positions, high-output S-cam drum and then air disc brakes on the steer axles, and air disc brakes on all six brake positions. Discussions include analyses of stopping distance from 60 mph (96.6 kph) for all test conditions. The truck tractors were tested in two weight configurations, LLVW (i.e., bobtail) and GVWR (50,000 lbs. total axle weight, using an unbraked control semitrailer).
Technical Paper

Air Disc and S-Cam Brake Stopping Performance Comparison for Class 8 Tractor and Trailer Combinations

2005-11-01
2005-01-3614
In an effort to reduce the dry stopping distance required for heavy trucks, it is imperative to increase the effectiveness of the foundation brake systems. Where brakes are torque limited, increasing the brake output can be obtained by increasing brake size, chamber size, slack length, and friction of the braking materials. Looking just at the aspect of foundation brakes, the majority of current tractor and trailer brakes are of the S-Cam and Drum type. Two commercially available alternatives that produce higher output are Air Disc brakes and larger sized S-Cam brakes. Using one type, or a combination of these brakes (discs and drums on different axles) warrants a comparative study. The goal is to improve the effectiveness of the brake system, while maintaining or improving upon vehicle stability during braking. NHTSA's Vehicle Research and Test Center recently completed a brake test study of the effectiveness and stability characteristics of tractor and trailer combinations.
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