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Technical Paper

A Model for Predicting Spatially and Time Resolved Convective Heat Transfer in Bowl-in-Piston Combustion Chambers

A new model for corrective in-cylinder heat transfer has been developed which calculates heat transfer coefficients based on a description of the in-cylinder flow field. The combustion chamber volume is divided into three regions in which differential equations for angular momentum, turbulent kinetic energy and turbulent dissipation are solved. The resultant heat transfer coefficients are strongly spatially non-uniform, unlike those calculated from standard correlations, which assume spatial uniformity. When spatially averaged, the heat transfer coefficient is much more peaked near TDC of the compression stroke as compared to that predicted by standard correlations. This is due to the model's dependence on gas velocity and turbulence, both of which are amplified near TDC. The new model allows a more accurate calculation of the spatial distribution of the heat fluxes. This capability is essential for calculation of heat transfer and of component thermal loading and temperatures.
Technical Paper

Warmup Characteristics of a Spark Ignition Engine as a Function of Speed and Load

The warmup characteristics of an engine have an important impact on a variety of design issues such as performance, emissions and durability. A computer simulation has been developed which permits a detailed transient simulation of the engine warmup period from initial ambient conditions to a fully warmed up state. The simulation combines a detailed crankangle-by-crankangle calculation of in-cylinder processes and of engine air flow, with finite element heat conduction calculations of heat transfer from the gases, through the structure to the coolant. The paper describes one particular application of the simulation to the warmup of a 2.5ℓ spark ignited engine from cold start to a fully warmed up state at several speeds ranging from 1600 to 5200 rpm and loads ranging from 25% to 100% at each speed. The response of structure temperatures, charge temperature at IVC and of the exhaust temperature has been calculated and is documented in terms of characteristic warmup times.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of Structural Effects of Fiber Matrix Reinforcement in Aluminum Diesel Pistons

Selective reinforcement of squeeze-cast aluminum pistons by fiber matrix inserts is a method of improving high temperature strength in piston zones subject to severe thermal and mechanical loads in highly loaded diesel engines. An investigation was carried out into the effects of selective fiber-matrix reinforcement on the thermal and stress state of an aluminum piston for a heavy-duty truck diesel engine application. Specifically, effects of geometry of the reinforced zone (fiber matrix), fiber density in the matrix, fiber orientation and piston combustion bowl shape were sought. Thermal and structural finite element analysis of the configurations were carried out. Thermal analyses were fully coupled to a simulation of a highly rated heavy-duty diesel.
Technical Paper

Examination of Key Issues in Low Heat Rejection Engines

A comprehensive diesel engine system model, representing in detail engine heat transfer processes, has been applied to a study of insulated diesel engines. The study involved a broad design analysis matrix covering a range of engine configurations with and without inter-cooling and exhaust heat recovery devices, three operating conditions and seven heat rejection packages. The main findig of this study is that the retained heat conversion efficiency (RHCE), of the in-cylinder heat retained by insulation to piston work, is 35-40 percent; these levels of RHCE are larger than those predicted by previous models. This means that a significant part of the retained heat is converted directly to piston work rather than being merely available in the exhaust stream, from which it would be recoverable with a much lower efficiency.
Technical Paper

Thermal Shock Calculations in I.C. Engines

An integrated transient engine simulation methodology has been developed to allow the calculation of a thermal shock as it propagates in time through the engine structure. It links, in a fully consistent way, a very comprehensive thermodynamic model of in-cylinder processes, including a detailed gas-phase heat transfer representation, with a turbocharger/air flow/plenum model and a finite element model of the structure. The methodology tracks the turbocharger boost increase and the cycle-by-cycle build-up of in-cylinder heat transfer during engine load and speed changes, producing a transient thermal response in the structure, until new steady-state is reached. The presented results highlight the calculated transient engine performance response and the thermal and stress response of various metal and ceramic components during sudden speed and load changes in heavy duty diesel engines.
Technical Paper

Heat Radiation in D.I. Diesel Engines

A new model for radiation heat transfer in DI diesel engines has been developed. The model calculates the heat transfer rates as a function of the instantaneous values of the radiation zone size, radiation temperature, and of the absorption coefficient of the soot-laden gas. The soot concentration levels are calculated from kinetic expressions for soot formation and burnup. The spatial distribution of the radiant heat flux along the combustion chamber walls is calculated by a zonal model. The model has been applied to a conventional heavy duty highway DI diesel engine to generate predictions over a range of engine speeds and loads. These predictions indicated a wide variation in the ratio of radiation to the total heat transfer, ranging from less than ten percent to more than thirty percent, depending on the speed and load.