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Technical Paper

Development of Thermal Modeling in Support of Engine Cooling Design

The growing interest on environmental issues related to vehicles is pushing up the research on reciprocating internal combustion engines which seems to be endless and able to insure to combustion engines a long future. Euro standards imposed a significant reduction of pollutant emissions and were the stimulus to favor the conception of technologies which represented real breakthroughs; the recent directives on greenhouse gases emissions further reinforced the concept of reducing fuel consumption and, consequently, carbon dioxide emissions. So, new technological efforts have to be made on internal combustion engines in order to achieve this additional target: several technological options are already available or under studying, but only a few of these are suitable, in particular, in terms of costs attendance per unit of CO2 saved. Among these technologies, a revision of engine cooling system seems to have good potentiality.
Technical Paper

Performances and Opportunities of an Engine Cooling System with a Double Circuit at Two Temperature Levels

In the last years, the design of internal combustion engines (ICE) has evolved significantly, mainly because of the changing demand of mobility, the need to limit the pollution produced by vehicles, and recently, the opportunity to reduce emissions of climate-altering gases. Among the more interesting technologies, those connected to a revision of the engine cooling, as well as, in general, of the thermal needs on board vehicle (oil cooling, intercooling of the turbocharging air, EGR cooling, cabin conditioning...) appear very promising, also because characterized by a lower cost increase per unit of CO₂ saved. In this paper, the Authors present a mathematical model of an internal combustion engine physically consistent that appraises the performances of conventional and unconventional engine cooling systems and the integration of vehicle thermal needs.
Technical Paper

A Fully Transient Model For Advanced Engine Thermal Management

Cooling system design has a crucial role in defining engine performance and operational limits. Many further improvements can be obtained both in the precision in controlling temperatures of the various engine parts (especially during transient operation), and in the energy consumption of the system. Moreover, the warm-up transient can be relevantly reduced producing benefic effects on vehicle emissions and interior conditioning and comfort. Taking the lead by these considerations, the authors developed an integrated model of an engine cooling system, which is characterized by a complete modularity and permits the simulation of any possible design configuration. The model acts as a “virtual engine cooling system”: its coupling with simple ECU models permits an off-line evaluation of the efficiency of new control strategies, model-based too. In this work a novel model for the engine thermal behavior is proposed to be included in the described modeling architecture.
Journal Article

A Model Approach to the Sizing of an ORC Unit for WHR in Transportation Sector

Internal combustion engines are actually one of the most important source of pollutants and greenhouse gases emissions. In particular, on-the-road transportation sector has taken the environmental challenge of reducing greenhouse gases emissions and worldwide governments set up regulations in order to limit them and fuel consumption from vehicles. Among the several technologies under development, an ORC unit bottomed exhaust gas seems to be very promising, but it still has several complications when it is applied on board of a vehicle (weight, encumbrances, backpressure effect on the engine, safety, reliability). In this paper, a comprehensive mathematical model of an ORC unit bottomed a heavy duty engine, used for commercial vehicle, has been developed.
Journal Article

Experimental Analysis of an Organic Rankine Cycle Plant Bottoming a Heavy-Duty Engine Using Axial Turbine as Prime Mover

The use of reciprocating internal combustion engines (ICE) dominates the sector of the on-road transportation, both for passengers and freight. CO2 reduction is the present technological driver, considering the major worldwide greenhouse reduction targets committed by most governments in the western world. In the near future (2020) these targets will require a significant reduction with respect to today’s goals, reinforcing the importance of reducing fuel consumption. In ICEs more than one third of the fuel energy used is rejected into the environment as thermal waste through exhaust gases. Therefore, a greater fuel economy could be achieved if this energy is recovered and converted into useful mechanical or electrical power on board. For long haul vehicles, which run for hundreds of thousands of miles per year at relatively steady conditions, this recovery appears especially worthy of attention.
Technical Paper

A New Approach for Designing and Testing Engine Coolant Pump Electrically Actuated

Fuel consumption reduction and CO2 emissions saving are the present drivers of the technological innovation in Internal Combustion Engines for the transportation sector. Among the numerous technologies which ensure such benefits, the role of the cooling pump has been recognized, mainly referred to the possibility to improve engine performances during warm up. During engine homologation, an additional benefit on the fuel consumption can be also reached reducing the energy demand of the pump. In fact, during the cycle, propulsion power requested by the vehicle is low and the importance of the energy absorbed by the pump became significant, since the pump operates far from its maximum efficiency.