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Technical Paper

Investigations on Low Pressure Gasoline Direct Injection for a Standard GDI Combustion System

2010-09-28
2010-32-0094
In the course of the last few years a continuous increase of the injection pressure level of gasoline direct injection systems appeared. Today's systems use an injection pressure up to 200bar and the trend shows a further increase for the future. Although several benefits go along with the increased injection pressure, the disadvantages such as higher system costs and higher energy demand lead to the question of the lowest acceptable injection pressure level for low cost GDI combustion systems. Lowering injection pressure and costs could enable the technological upgrading from MPFI to GDI in smaller engine segments, which would lead to a reduction of CO2 emission. This publication covers the investigation of a low pressure GDI system (LPDI) with focus on small and low cost GDI engines. The influence of the injection pressure on the fuel consumption and emission behavior was investigated using a 1.4l series production engine.
Technical Paper

Thermodynamic Limits of Efficiency Enhancement of Small Displacement Single-Cylinder Engines

2015-11-17
2015-32-0817
Millions of small displacement single-cylinder engines are used for the propulsion of scooters, motorcycles, small boats and others. These SI-engines represent the basis of an affordable mobility in many countries, but at the same time their efficiency is quite low. Today, the limited fossil fuel resources and the anthropogenic climate require a sustainable development of combustion engines, the reduction of fuel consumption being an important factor. A variety of different strategies (turbo-charging, cylinder deactivation, direct injection, etc.) are investigated here to increase the efficiency of multi-cylinder engines. In the case of small displacement single-cylinder engines, other strategies are required because of their special design and the high pressure on costs. In the context of this paper different layout parameters which have an influence on the working process are investigated, with the aim of increasing the efficiency of small displacement single-cylinder engines.
Technical Paper

Evaluating the Behavior of Carbureted Engines using a Fast Response Fuel Consumption Measurement Device with Minor Impact on Engine Characteristics

2013-10-15
2013-32-9128
Meeting future legislative targets for SI engines by means of low cost technologies is a big challenge for engineers. Despite the use of simple and cost efficient components these engines have to fulfill customer requirements in terms of power and fuel economy, representing the most important selling arguments. Without the possibility of integrating modern technologies like fuel injection systems for mixture preparation instead of simple carburetors, it is very complex to find viable solutions that enable the achievement of these targets. A main key to improve emission behavior, fuel economy and performance on carbureted engines is to get an insight in the mixture preparation process, especially under transient conditions.
Technical Paper

Real World Operation of a Standard Lawn Mower Engine from a Scientific Perspective

2013-10-15
2013-32-9124
This paper introduces a research project on a spark ignition engine used in non-road applications. The aim is to illustrate the present situation as basis for comparison and to identify possible improvement potential in terms of performance, efficiency or exhaust and noise emissions. The study is carried out in two steps. First a standard walk-behind lawn mower is equipped with measuring instrumentation for recording the cutting forces and the engine variables during real world operation. The tests are carried out on three different lawn types and two different blade types are investigated. Consequently, in a second step the engine is analysed on the engine test bench in stationary and transient operating mode. A complete engine mapping is done regarding all relevant variables. Additionally to the outdoor tests, fuel consumption and engine out emissions are measured on the engine dynamometer. The recorded data enables a detailed analysis of the engine behaviour.
Technical Paper

Extended Expansion Engine with Mono-Shaft Cam Mechanism for Higher Efficiency - Layout Study and Numerical Investigations of a Twin Engine

2014-11-11
2014-32-0102
The automotive industry has made great efforts in reducing fuel consumption. The efficiency of modern spark ignition (SI) engines has been increased by improving the combustion process and reducing engine losses such as friction, gas exchange and wall heat losses. Nevertheless, further efficiency improvement is indispensable for the reduction of CO2 emissions and the smart usage of available energy. In the previous years the Atkinson Cycle, realized over the crank train and/or valve train, is attracting considerable interest of several OEMs due to the high theoretical efficiency potential. In this publication a crank train-based Atkinson cycle engine is investigated. The researched engine, a 4-stroke 2 cylinder V-engine, basically consists of a special crank train linkage system and a novel Mono-Shaft valve train concept.
Technical Paper

Results, Assessment and Legislative Relevance of RDE and Fuel Consumption Measurements of Two-Wheeler-Applications

2017-11-05
2017-32-0042
The reduction of environmentally harmful gases and the ambitions to reduce the exploitation of fossil resources lead to stricter legislation for all mobile sources. Legislative development significantly affected improvements in emissions and fuel consumptions over the last years, mainly measured under laboratory conditions. But real world operating scenarios have a major influence on emissions and it is already well known that these values considerably differ from officially published figures [1]. There are regulated emissions by the European Commission by means of real driving scenarios for passenger cars. A methodology to measure real drive emissions RDE is therefore well approved for automotive applications but was not adapted for two-wheeler-applications yet [2]. Hence measurements have been performed on-road and on chassis dynamometer for motorcycles with the state of the art RDE measurement equipment to be prepared for possible future legislation.
Technical Paper

Current Findings in Measurement Technology and Measurement Methodology for RDE and Fuel Consumption for Two-Wheeler-Applications

2017-11-05
2017-32-0041
Real world operating scenarios have a major influence on emissions and fuel consumption. To reduce climate-relevant and environmentally harmful gaseous emissions and the exploitation of fossil resources, deep understanding concerning the real drive behavior of mobile sources is needed because emissions and fuel consumption of e.g. passenger cars, operated in real world conditions, considerably differ from the officially published values which are valid for specific test cycles only [1]. Due to legislative regulations by the European Commission a methodology to measure real drive emissions RDE is well approved for heavy duty vehicles and automotive applications but may not be adapted similar to two-wheeler-applications. This is due to several issues when using the state of the art portable emission measurement system PEMS that will be discussed.
Technical Paper

Practicability and Influencing Factors of a Lean Burn Mode for Two-Stroke Engines in Hand-Held Powertools

2017-11-05
2017-32-0043
For many applications, such as scooters, hand-held power tools and many off-road vehicles, two-stroke engines are used as a preferred propulsion unit. These engines convince by a good power to weight ratio, a high durability and low maintenance technology and are therefore the first choice in this field of application. In general, already much development effort has been expended to improve those systems. However, an increasing environmental awareness, the protection of health and the shortage of fossil resources are the driving factors to further enhance the internal combustion process of those adapted two-stroke engines. The current focus here is on the reduction of emissions and fuel consumption with an at least constant power output. An approach to address an improvement of engine efficiency can be covered by applying a lean combustion burn mode.
Technical Paper

Overview of Different Gas Exchange Concepts for Two-Stroke Engines

2018-10-30
2018-32-0041
The concept of a loop scavenged two-stroke engine, controlling the intake and exhaust port by the moving piston, is a proven way to realize a simple and cheap combustion engine. But without any additional control elements for the gas exchange this concept quickly reaches its limits for current emission regulations. In order to fulfil more stringent emission and fuel consumption limits with a two-stroke engine, one of the most important measures is to avoid scavenging losses of fuel and oil. Additionally, it is necessary to follow a lambda = 1 concept for a 3-way exhaust gas after-treatment. Therefore, using internal mixture preparation systems in combination with different concepts to control the gas exchange process, the two-stroke engine could become a choice for automotive applications, especially as a Range Extender in a Plugin Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV).
Technical Paper

Combustion Analysis with Residual Gas as a Design Parameter for Two-Stroke Engines

2018-10-30
2018-32-0045
In a variety of applications, two-stroke engines assert their usage as a propulsion unit, for examples in off-road vehicles, scooters, hand-held power tools and others. The outstanding power to weight ratio is the key advantage for two-stroke engines. Furthermore, two-stroke engines convince with high durability and low maintenance demand. However, an increasing environmental awareness, the protection of health and the shortage of fossil resources are the driving factors to further enhance the internal combustion process of two-stroke engines. The reduction of emissions and fuel consumption with a constant power level is focused on. Developments deal with the optimization of the combustion process itself or the enhancement of the exhaust gas aftertreatment. Especially in very small two-stroke engines an exhaust gas aftertreatment system is rarely applied, due to disadvantages regarding component temperatures and product costs.
Technical Paper

Artificial Neural Network Based Predictive Real Drive Emission and Fuel Economy Simulation of Motorcycles

2018-10-30
2018-32-0030
As the number of different engine and vehicle concepts for powered-two wheelers is very high and will even rise with hybridization, the simulation of emissions and fuel consumption is indispensable for further development towards more environmentally friendly mobility. In this work, an adaptive artificial neural network based predictive model for emission and fuel consumption simulation of motorcycles operated in real world conditions is presented. The model is developed in Matlab and Simulink and is integrated into a longitudinal vehicle dynamic simulation whereby it is possible to simulate various and not yet measured test cycles. Subsequently, it is possible to predict real drive emissions RDE and on-road fuel consumption by a minimum of previous measurement effort.
Journal Article

Investigations and Analysis of Working Processes of Two-Stroke Engines with the Focus on Wall Heat Flux

2016-11-08
2016-32-0028
Small displacement two-stroke engines are widely used as affordable and low-maintenance propulsion systems for motorcycles, scooters, hand-held power tools and others. In recent years, considerable progress regarding emission reduction has been reached. Nevertheless, a further improvement of two-stroke engines is necessary to cover protection of health and environment. In addition, the shortage of fossil fuel resources and the anthropogenic climate change call for a sensual use of natural resources and therefore, the fuel consumption and engine efficiency needs to be improved. With the application of suitable analyses methods it is possible to find improving potential of the working processes of these engines. The thermodynamic loss analysis is a frequently applied method to examine the working process and is universally adaptable.
Journal Article

Future Engine Technology in Hand-Held Power Tools

2012-10-23
2012-32-0111
Today mankind is using highly sophisticated tools which contribute to maintain the standard of living. Nevertheless, these tools have to be further improved in the near future in order to protect health and environment as well as to ensure prosperity. Two-stroke engines equipped with a carburettor are the most used propulsion technology in hand-held power tools like chain saws and grass trimmers. The shortage of fossil resources and the necessary reduction of carbon dioxide emissions ask for improved engine efficiency. Concurrently, customers demand for an easy usage with high performance at all operating conditions, e.g. varying ambient temperature and pressure and different fuels. Moreover, world-wide emission limits will be even stricter in future. The improvement of the emission level, fuel consumption and customer benefits, while keeping the present advantages of two-stroke engines, like high specific power and simplicity, are the goals of this research work.
Journal Article

Advantages and Challenges of Lean Operation of Two-Stroke Engines for Hand-Held Power Tools

2014-11-11
2014-32-0009
One of the most significant current discussions worldwide is the anthropogenic climate change accompanying fossil fuel consumption. Sustainable development in all fields of combustion engines is required with the principal objective to enhance efficiency. This certainly concerns the field of hand-held power tools as well. Today, two-stroke SI engines equipped with a carburetor are the most widely used propulsion technology in hand-held power tools like chain saws and grass trimmers. To date, research tended to focus on two-stroke engines with rich mixture setting. In this paper the advantages and challenges of leaner and/or lean operation are discussed. Experimental investigations regarding the influence of equivalence ratio on emissions, fuel consumption and power have been performed. Accompanying 3D-CFD simulations support the experiments in order to gain insight into these complex processes. The investigations concentrate on two different mixture formation processes, i.e.
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