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Technical Paper

Modeling the Effects of EGR and Injection Pressure on Emissions in a High-Speed Direct-Injection Diesel Engine

2001-03-05
2001-01-1004
Experimental data is used in conjunction with multi-dimensional modeling in a modified version of the KIVA-3V code to characterize the emissions behavior of a high-speed, direct-injection diesel engine. Injection pressure and EGR are varied across a range of typical small-bore diesel operating conditions and the resulting soot-NOx tradeoff is analyzed. Good agreement is obtained between experimental and modeling trends; the HSDI engine shows increasing soot and decreasing NOx with higher EGR and lower injection pressure. The model also indicates that most of the NOx is formed in the region where the bulk of the initial heat release first takes place, both for zero and high EGR cases. The mechanism of NOx reduction with high EGR is shown to be primarily through a decrease in thermal NOx formation rate.
Technical Paper

Gas Efficient Liquid Atomization Using Micro-Machined Spray Nozzles

1996-02-01
960859
Improved atomization is important in fuel injection applications since atomization influences fuel-air mixing and vaporization rates. The present paper explores the use of low pressure gas/air injection and methods to achieve a dispersed two-phase flow to enhance the atomization process. Gas-driven twin-fluid atomization has been achieved by combining X-ray lithographic/micro-machining technology to mechanically disperse a driving gas into a liquid to be sprayed. This technique forces the gas through a designed pattern of micron sized holes thereby yielding a field of micro-bubbles immediately upstream of the < I mm. diameter discharge orifice. Precise control of both uniformity of hole diameter and inter-hole spacing is critical to producing a well dispersed bubbly flow. The results show that the method of gas injection influences the liquid breakup process. Results are given for steady-flow atomization with low pressure injection into ambient air.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Measurement and Modeling of Liquid Fuel Spray Penetration in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

1997-05-01
971591
Liquid fuel penetration was measured using an endoscopebased imaging system in an operating single-cylinder heavy-duty direct injection diesel engine with simulated turbocharging. Sprays were imaged via the elastic backscatter technique without significantly altering the engine geometry. Light loads (or pilot injections) were also studied because the spray breakup, mixing and vaporization processes can be isolated since they are less influenced by heat feedback from the flame than in a full injection case. The pilot injections included cases with three different fuel amounts (10%, 15% and 20% of the fuel injected in the baseline case, i.e., 75% load and 1600 rev/min) with different start-of-injection timings. Maximum liquid penetration lengths beyond which the fuel is completely vaporized were observed for all the cases studied. The maximum lengths varied from 23 mm to 28 mm for the different start-of-injection timings.
Technical Paper

Effects of Injection Pressure and Nozzle Geometry on Spray SMD and D.I. Emissions

1995-10-01
952360
A study was performed to correlate the Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD), NOx and particulate emissions of a direct injection diesel engine with various injection pressures and different nozzle geometry. The spray experiments and engine emission tests were conducted in parallel using the same fuel injection system and same operating conditions. With high speed photography and digital image analysis, a light extinction technique was used to obtain the spray characteristics which included spray tip penetration length, spray angle, and overall average SMD for the entire spray. The NOx and particulate emissions were acquired by running the tests on a fully instrumented Caterpillar 3406 heavy duty engine. Experimental results showed that for higher injection pressures, a smaller SMD was observed, i.e. a finer spray was obtained. For this case, a higher NOx and lower particulate resulted.
Technical Paper

Six-Mode Cycle Evaluation of the Effect of EGR and Multiple Injections on Particulate and NOx Emissions from a D.I. Diesel Engine

1996-02-01
960316
An emissions and performance study was conducted to explore the effects of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and multiple injections on the emission of oxides of nitrogen (NOx), particulate emissions, and brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) over a wide range of engine operating conditions. The tests were conducted on an instrumented single cylinder version of the Caterpillar 3400 series heavy duty Diesel engine. Data was taken at 1600 rev/min, and 75% load, and also at operating conditions taken from a 6-mode simulation of the federal transient test procedure (FTP). The fuel system used was an electronically controlled, common rail injector and supporting hardware. The fuel system was capable of as many as four independent injections per combustion event at pressures from 20 to 120MPa.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Effects of Fuel Injection Characteristics on Diesel Engine Soot and NOx Emissions

1994-03-01
940523
The three-dimensional KIVA code has been used to study the effects of injection pressure and split injections on diesel engine performance and soot and NOx emissions. The code has been updated with state-of-the-art submodels including: a wave breakup atomization model, drop drag with drop distortion, spray/wall interaction with sliding, rebounding, and breaking-up drops, multistep kinetics ignition and laminar-turbulent characteristic time combustion, wall heat transfer with unsteadiness and compressibility, Zeldovich NOx formation, and soot formation with Nagle Strickland-Constable oxidation. The computational results are compared with experimental data from a single-cylinder Caterpillar research engine equipped with a high-pressure, electronically-controlled fuel injection system, a full-dilution tunnel for soot measurements, and gaseous emissions instrumentation.
Technical Paper

Effects of Injection Pressure and Nozzle Geometry on D.I. Diesel Emissions and Performance

1995-02-01
950604
An emissions and performance study was performed to show the effects of injection pressure, nozzle hole inlet condition (sharp and rounded edge) and nozzle included spray angle on particulate, NOx, and BSFC. The tests were conducted on a fully instrumented single-cylinder version of the Caterpillar 3406 heavy duty engine at 75% and 25% load at 1600 RPM. The fuel system consisted of an electronically controlled, hydraulically actuated, unit injector capable of injection pressures up to 160 MPa. Particulate versus NOx trade-off curves were generated for each case by varying the injection timing. The 75% load results showed the expected decrease in particulate and flattening of the trade-off curve with increased injection pressure. However, in going from 90 to 160 MPa, the timing had to be retarded to maintain the same NOx level, and this resulted in a 1 to 2% increase in BSFC. The rounded edged nozzles were found to have an increased discharge coefficient.
Technical Paper

Measurement of the Effect of Injection Rate and Split Injections on Diesel Engine Soot and NOx Emissions

1994-03-01
940668
This study was conducted to develop an understanding of how rate-shaped and split injections can affect the soot and NOx emissions of a heavy-duty diesel engine. The tests were performed on a single cylinder version of the Caterpillar 3406 production engine, modified to accept an electronically-controlled, high-pressure common-rail injection system that offers a very high degree of flexibility in injection timing, split injections, and rate shaping of the initial injection. The engine was instrumented for particulate measurements with a full dilution tunnel, and CO, CO2 and NOx emission meters. Cylinder pressure was used to study heat release rates, and the response to changes in the injection scheme. The results show that rate-shaped injection, when optimized for lowest BSFC, does not appreciably affect pressure rise or peak cylinder gas pressures.
Technical Paper

On the Dependence of Spray Angle and Other Spray Parameters on Nozzle Design and Operating Conditions

1979-02-01
790494
In the Atomization regime, liquid jets breakup either within the nozzle or immediately upon entering the chamber gas and drops much smaller than the jet diameter are formed. The mechanism of Atomization, which is presently unknown, was investigated by the simultaneous use of two photographic techniques. The initial transient was observed with a 106 frames/s camera and the steady state by a technique similar to spark photography. The experiment range was: liquid pressure 500 to 2500 psia; five mixtures of water and glycerol to vary the liquid viscosity; air, nitrogen, helium, and xenon at up to 600 psia as chamber gases to separate gas pressure from gas density effects; and 14 nozzle designs. Not changed were the temperature (room value), the nozzle diameter (340 μ), and the surface tension (70 dyne/cm).
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Fuel Blending of Gasoline/Diesel for Improved Efficiency and Lowest Possible Emissions on a Multi-Cylinder Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2010-10-25
2010-01-2206
In-cylinder fuel blending of gasoline with diesel fuel is investigated on a multi-cylinder light-duty diesel engine as a strategy to control in-cylinder fuel reactivity for improved efficiency and lowest possible emissions. This approach was developed and demonstrated at the University of Wisconsin through modeling and single-cylinder engine experiments. The objective of this study is to better understand the potential and challenges of this method on a multi-cylinder engine. More specifically, the effect of cylinder-to-cylinder imbalances and in-cylinder charge motion as well as the potential limitations imposed by real-world turbo-machinery were investigated on a 1.9-liter four-cylinder engine. This investigation focused on one engine condition, 2300 rpm, 5.5 bar net mean effective pressure (NMEP). Gasoline was introduced with a port-fuel-injection system.
Technical Paper

Improving Diesel Engine Performance Using Low and High Pressure Split Injections for Single Heat Release and Two-Stage Combustion

2010-04-12
2010-01-0340
This study explores an Adaptive Injection Strategy (AIS) that employs multiple injections at both low and high pressures to reduce spray-wall impingement, control combustion phasing, and limit pressure rise rates in a Premixed Compression Ignition (PCI) engine. Previous computational studies have shown that reducing the injection pressure of early injections can prevent spray-wall impingement caused by long liquid penetration lengths. This research focuses on understanding the performance and emissions benefits of low and high pressure split injections through experimental parametric sweeps of a 0.48 L single-cylinder test engine operating at 2000 rev/min and 5.5 bar nominal IMEP. This study examines the effects of 2nd injection pressure, EGR, swirl ratio, and 1st and 2nd injection timing, for both single heat release and two-peak high temperature heat release cases. In order to investigate the AIS concept experimentally, a Variable Injection Pressure (VIP) system was developed.
Technical Paper

Operating a Heavy-Duty Direct-Injection Compression-Ignition Engine with Gasoline for Low Emissions

2009-04-20
2009-01-1442
A study of partially premixed combustion (PPC) with non-oxygenated 91 pump octane number1 (PON) commercially available gasoline was performed using a heavy-duty (HD) compression-ignition (CI) 2.44 l Caterpillar 3401E single-cylinder oil test engine (SCOTE). The experimental conditions selected were a net indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) of 11.5 bar, an engine speed of 1300 rev/min, an intake temperature of 40°C with intake and exhaust pressures of 200 and 207 kPa, respectively. The baseline case for all studies presented had 0% exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), used a dual injection strategy a -137 deg ATDC pilot SOI and a -6 deg ATDC main start-of-injection (SOI) timing with a 30/70% pilot/main fuel split for a total of 5.3 kg/h fueling (equating to approximately 50% load). Combustion and emissions characteristics were explored relative to the baseline case by sweeping main and pilot SOI timings, injection split fuel percentage, intake pressure, load and EGR levels.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Mixing and Temperature Effects on HC/CO Emissions for Highly Dilute Low Temperature Combustion in a Light Duty Diesel Engine

2007-04-16
2007-01-0193
There is a significant global effort to study low temperature combustion (LTC) as a tool to achieve stringent emission standards with future light duty diesel engines. LTC utilizes high levels of dilution (i.e., EGR > 60% with <10%O2 in the intake charge) to reduce overall combustion temperatures and to lengthen ignition delay, This increased ignition delay provides time for fuel evaporation and reduces in-homogeneities in the reactant mixture, thus reducing NOx formation from local temperature spikes and soot formation from locally rich mixtures. However, as dilution is increased to the limits, HC and CO can significantly increase. Recent research suggests that CO emissions during LTC result from the incomplete combustion of under-mixed fuel and charge gas occurring after the premixed burn period [1, 2]1. The objective of the present work was to increase understanding of the HC/CO emission mechanisms in LTC at part-load.
Technical Paper

Efficiency and Emissions Mapping of RCCI in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-0289
In-cylinder blending of gasoline and diesel to achieve Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) has been shown to reduce NOX and particulate matter (PM) emissions while maintaining or improving brake thermal efficiency as compared to conventional diesel combustion (CDC). The RCCI concept has an advantage over many advanced combustion strategies in that the fuel reactivity can be tailored to the engine speed and load allowing stable low-temperature combustion to be extended over more of the light-duty drive cycle load range. Varying the premixed gasoline fraction changes the fuel reactivity stratification in the cylinder providing further control of combustion phasing and pressure rise rate than the use of EGR alone. This added control over the combustion process has been shown to allow rapid engine operating point exploration without direct modeling guidance.
Technical Paper

A Computational Investigation of the Effects of Swirl Ratio and Injection Pressure on Mixture Preparation and Wall Heat Transfer in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-1105
In a recent study, quantitative measurements were presented of in-cylinder spatial distributions of mixture equivalence ratio in a single-cylinder light-duty optical diesel engine, operated with a non-reactive mixture at conditions similar to an early injection low-temperature combustion mode. In the experiments a planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) methodology was used to obtain local mixture equivalence ratio values based on a diesel fuel surrogate (75% n-heptane, 25% iso-octane), with a small fraction of toluene as fluorescing tracer (0.5% by mass). Significant changes in the mixture's structure and composition at the walls were observed due to increased charge motion at high swirl and injection pressure levels. This suggested a non-negligible impact on wall heat transfer and, ultimately, on efficiency and engine-out emissions.
Technical Paper

Homogeneous Charge Progressive Combustion (HCPC): CFD Study of an Innovative Diesel HCCI Concept

2009-04-20
2009-01-1344
This paper concerns a study of an innovative concept to control HCCI combustion in diesel-fueled engines. The concept consists in forming a pre-compressed homogeneous charge outside the cylinder and in gradually admitting it into the cylinder during the combustion process. This new combustion concept has been called Homogeneous Charge Progressive Combustion (HCPC). CFD analysis was conducted to understand the feasibility of the HCPC concept and to identify the parameters that control and influence this novel HCCI combustion. A CFD code with detailed kinetic chemistry (AVL FIRE) was used in the study. Results in terms of pressure, heat release rate, temperature, and emissions production are presented that demonstrate the validity of the HCPC combustion concept.
Technical Paper

An Analysis on Time Scale Separation for Engine Simulations with Detailed Chemistry

2011-09-11
2011-24-0028
The simulation of combustion chemistry in internal combustion engines is challenging due to the need to include detailed reaction mechanisms to describe the engine physics. Computational times needed for coupling full chemistry to CFD simulations are still too computationally demanding, even when distributed computer systems are exploited. For these reasons the present paper proposes a time scale separation approach for the integration of the chemistry differential equations and applies it in an engine CFD code. The time scale separation is achieved through the estimation of a characteristic time for each of the species and the introduction of a sampling timestep, wherein the chemistry is subcycled during the overall integration. This allows explicit integration of the system to be carried out, and the step size is governed by tolerance requirements.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Pressure Oscillation Modes and Audible Noise in RCCI, HCCI, and CDC

2013-04-08
2013-01-1652
This study uses Fourier analysis to investigate the relationship between the heat release event and the frequency composition of pressure oscillations in a variety of combustion modes. While kinetically-controlled combustion strategies such as HCCI and RCCI offer advantages over CDC in terms of efficiency and NOX emissions, their operational range is limited by audible knock and the possibility of engine damage stemming from high pressure rise rates and oscillations. Several criteria such as peak pressure rise rate, ringing intensity, and various knock indices have been developed to quantify these effects, but they fail to capture all of the dynamics required to form direct comparisons between different engines or combustion strategies. Experiments were performed with RCCI, HCCI, and CDC on a 2.44 L heavy-duty engine at 1300 RPM, generating a significant diversity of heat release profiles.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Effects of High EGR, High Equivalence Ratio, and Mixing Time on Emissions Levels in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine for PCCI Combustion

2006-04-03
2006-01-0026
Experiments were performed on a single-cylinder heavy-duty Caterpillar SCOTE 3401E engine at high speed (1737 rev/min) and loads up to 60% of full load for fully Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) combustion. The engine was equipped with a high pressure (150 MPa) Caterpillar 300B HEUI fuel injection system. The engine was run with EGR levels up to 75% and with equivalence ratios up to 0.95. These experiments resulted in compliance of NOx and PM emissions to 2010 emissions mandates levels up to the tested load. The set of experiments also demonstrated the importance of cylinder charge preparation by way of optimized start-of-combustion timing for sufficient in-cylinder mixing. It was found that increased EGR rates, even with the correspondingly increased equivalence ratios, increase mixing time and substantially decrease PM emissions.
Technical Paper

Studying the Roles of Kinetics and Turbulence in the Simulation of Diesel Combustion by Means of an Extended Characteristic-Time-Model

1999-03-01
1999-01-1177
A study was performed that takes into account both turbulence and chemical kinetic effects in the numerical simulation of diesel engine combustion in order to better understand the importance of their respective roles at changing operating conditions. An approach was developed which combines the simplicity and low computational and storage requests of the laminar-and-turbulent characteristic-time model with a detailed combustion chemistry model based on well-known simplified mechanisms. Assuming appropriate simplifications such as steady state or equilibrium for most of the radicals and intermediate species, the kinetics of hydrocarbons can be described by means of three overall steps. This approach was integrated in the KIVA-II code. The concept was validated and applied to a single-cylinder, heavy-duty engine. The simulation covers a wide range of operating conditions.
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