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Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Combustion Chamber Geometry Optimization Using Genetic Algorithms and Multi-Dimensional Spray and Combustion Modeling

The recently developed KIVA-GA computer code was used in the current study to optimize the combustion chamber geometry of a heavy -duty diesel truck engine and a high-speed direct-injection (HSDI) small-bore diesel engine. KIVA-GA performs engine simulations within the framework of a genetic algorithm (GA) global optimization code. Design fitness was determined using a modified version of the KIVA-3V code, which calculates the spray, combustion, and emissions formation processes. The measure of design fitness includes NOx, unburned HC, and soot emissions, as well as fuel consumption. The simultaneous minimization of these factors was the ultimate goal. The KIVA-GA methodology was used to optimize the engine performance using nine input variables simultaneously. Three chamber geometry related variables were used along with six other variables, which were thought to have significant interaction with the chamber geometry.
Technical Paper

Effect of Injector Nozzle Hole Size and Number on Spray Characteristics and the Performance of a Heavy Duty D.I. Diesel Engine

An engine emissions and performance study was conducted in conjunction with a series of experiments using a constant volume cold spray chamber. The purpose of the study was to explore the effects of number of holes and hole size on the emissions and performance of a direct injection heavy duty diesel engine. The spray experiments provide insight into the spray parameters and their role in the engine's combustion processes. The fuel system used for both the engine and spray chamber experiments was an electronically controlled, common rail injector. The injector nozzle hole size and number combinations used in the experiments included 225X8 (225 gm diameter holes with 8 holes in the nozzle), 260X6, 260X8, and 30OX6. The engine tests were conducted on an instrumented single cylinder version of the Caterpillar 3400 series heavy duty diesel engine. Data were taken with the engine running at 1600 RPM, 75% load.
Technical Paper

Six-Mode Cycle Evaluation of the Effect of EGR and Multiple Injections on Particulate and NOx Emissions from a D.I. Diesel Engine

An emissions and performance study was conducted to explore the effects of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and multiple injections on the emission of oxides of nitrogen (NOx), particulate emissions, and brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) over a wide range of engine operating conditions. The tests were conducted on an instrumented single cylinder version of the Caterpillar 3400 series heavy duty Diesel engine. Data was taken at 1600 rev/min, and 75% load, and also at operating conditions taken from a 6-mode simulation of the federal transient test procedure (FTP). The fuel system used was an electronically controlled, common rail injector and supporting hardware. The fuel system was capable of as many as four independent injections per combustion event at pressures from 20 to 120MPa.
Technical Paper

Reducing Particulate and NOx Emissions by Using Multiple Injections in a Heavy Duty D.I. Diesel Engine

An experimental study has been completed which evaluated the effectiveness of using double, triple and rate shaped injections to simultaneously reduce particulate and NOx emissions. The experiments were done using a single cylinder version of a Caterpillar 3406 heavy duty D.I. diesel engine. The fuel system used was a common rail, electronically controlled injector that allowed flexibility in both the number and duration of injections per cycle. Injection timing was varied for each injection scheme to evaluate the particulate vs. NOx tradeoff and fuel consumption. Tests were done at 1600 rpm using engine load conditions of 25% and 75% of maximum torque. The results indicate that a double injection with a significantly long delay between injections reduced particulate by as much as a factor of three over a single injection at 75% load with no increase in NOx. Double injections with a smaller dwell gave less improvement in particulate and NOx at 75% load.
Technical Paper

A Computational Investigation of Stepped-Bowl Piston Geometry for a Light Duty Engine Operating at Low Load

The objective of this investigation is to optimize a light-duty diesel engine in order to minimize soot, NOx, carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions and peak pressure rise rate (PPRR) while improving fuel economy in a low oxygen environment. Variables considered are the injection timings, fractional amount of fuel per injection, half included spray angle, swirl, and stepped-bowl piston geometry. The KIVA-CHEMKIN code, a multi-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) program with detailed chemistry is used and is coupled to a multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA) along with an automated grid generator. The stepped-piston bowl allows more options for spray targeting and improved charge preparation. Results show that optimal combinations of the above variables exist to simultaneously reduce emissions and fuel consumption. Details of the spray targeting were found to have a major impact on the combustion process.
Technical Paper

Heavy-Duty Diesel Combustion Optimization Using Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm and Multi-Dimensional Modeling

A multi-objective genetic algorithm methodology was applied to a heavy-duty diesel engine at three different operating conditions of interest. Separate optimizations were performed over various fuel injection nozzle parameters, piston bowl geometries and swirl ratios (SR). Different beginning of injection (BOI) timings were considered in all optimizations. The objective of the optimizations was to find the best possible fuel economy, NOx, and soot emissions tradeoffs. The input parameter ranges were determined using design of experiment methodology. A non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA II) was used for the optimization. For the optimization of piston bowl geometry, an automated grid generator was used for efficient mesh generation with variable geometry parameters. The KIVA3V release 2 code with improved ERC sub-models was used. The characteristic time combustion (CTC) model was employed to improve computational efficiency.
Technical Paper

Engine Development Using Multi-dimensional CFD and Computer Optimization

The present work proposes a methodology for diesel engine development using multi-dimensional CFD and computer optimization. A multi-objective genetic algorithm coupled with the KIVA3V Release 2 code was used to optimize a high speed direct injection (HSDI) diesel engine for passenger car applications. The simulations were conducted using high-throughput computing with the CONDOR system. An automated grid generator was used for efficient mesh generation with 11 variable piston bowl geometry parameters. The first step in the procedure was to search for an optimal nozzle and piston bowl design. In this case, spray targeting, swirl ratio, and piston bowl shape were optimized separately for two full-load cases using simpler efficient combustion models (the characteristic time scale model and the shell ignition model). The optimal designs from the two optimizations were then validated using a combustion model with detailed chemistry (KIVA-CHEMKIN model and ERC n-heptane mechanism).
Technical Paper

Operating a Heavy-Duty Direct-Injection Compression-Ignition Engine with Gasoline for Low Emissions

A study of partially premixed combustion (PPC) with non-oxygenated 91 pump octane number1 (PON) commercially available gasoline was performed using a heavy-duty (HD) compression-ignition (CI) 2.44 l Caterpillar 3401E single-cylinder oil test engine (SCOTE). The experimental conditions selected were a net indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) of 11.5 bar, an engine speed of 1300 rev/min, an intake temperature of 40°C with intake and exhaust pressures of 200 and 207 kPa, respectively. The baseline case for all studies presented had 0% exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), used a dual injection strategy a -137 deg ATDC pilot SOI and a -6 deg ATDC main start-of-injection (SOI) timing with a 30/70% pilot/main fuel split for a total of 5.3 kg/h fueling (equating to approximately 50% load). Combustion and emissions characteristics were explored relative to the baseline case by sweeping main and pilot SOI timings, injection split fuel percentage, intake pressure, load and EGR levels.
Technical Paper

A Comprehensive Combustion Model for Biodiesel-Fueled Engine Simulations

A comprehensive biodiesel combustion model is presented for use in multi-dimensional engine simulations. The model incorporates realistic physical properties in a vaporization model developed for multi-component fuel sprays and applies an improved mechanism for biodiesel combustion chemistry. Previously, a detailed mechanism for methyl decanoate and methyl-9-decenoate was reduced from 3299 species to 85 species to represent the components of biodiesel fuel. In this work, a second reduction was performed to further reduce the mechanism to 69 species. Steady and unsteady spray simulations confirmed that the model adequately reproduced liquid penetration observed in biodiesel spray experiments. Additionally, the new model was able to capture expected fuel composition effects with low-volatility components and fuel blend sprays penetrating further.
Technical Paper

Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Heavy-Duty Engine Operation at Mid-and High-Loads with Conventional and Alternative Fuels

Engine experiments and multi-dimensional modeling were used to explore Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) to realize highly-efficient combustion with near zero levels of NOx and PM. In-cylinder fuel blending using port-fuel-injection of a low reactivity fuel and optimized direct-injection of higher reactivity fuels was used to control combustion phasing and duration. In addition to injection and operating parameters, the study explored the effect of fuel properties by considering both gasoline-diesel dual-fuel operation, ethanol (E85)-diesel dual fuel operation, and a single fuel gasoline-gasoline+DTBP (di-tert butyl peroxide cetane improver). Remarkably, high gross indicated thermal efficiencies were achieved, reaching 59%, 56%, and 57% for E85-diesel, gasoline-diesel, and gasoline-gasoline+DTBP respectively.
Technical Paper

Numerical Optimization of a Light-Duty Compression Ignition Engine Fuelled With Low-Octane Gasoline

In automotive industry it has been a challenge to retain diesel-like thermal efficiency while maintaining low emissions. Numerous studies have shown significant progress in achieving low emissions through the introduction of common-rail injection systems, multiple injections and exhaust gas recirculation and by using a high octane number fuel, like gasoline, to achieve adequate premixing. On the other hand, low temperature combustion strategies, like HCCI and PCCI, have also shown promising results in terms of reducing both NOx and soot emissions simultaneously. With the increasing capacity of computers, multi-dimensional CFD engine modeling enables a reasonably good prediction of combustion characteristics and pollutant emissions, which is the motivation behind the present research. The current research effort presents an optimization study of light-duty compression ignition engine performance, while meeting the emission regulation targets.
Technical Paper

Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) in a Single-Cylinder Air-Cooled HSDI Diesel Engine

An experimental investigation of Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) combustion was conducted in a small single-cylinder HSDI diesel generator engine and compared to standard Direct Injection (DI) diesel combustion to assess the validity of this combustion strategy for high efficiency operation and simultaneous NOx and soot emission reduction in cylinder for this type of engine. A Yanmar L70AE engine was modified from its unit injector mechanical fuel system to operate with a more flexible, electrically controlled common rail DI fuel system in order to achieve the high level of injection event control required for RCCI combustion. RCCI combustion was realized using split, early DI diesel fuel and Port Fuel Injected (PFI) gasoline for 25%, 50% and 75% engine loads (~3, 4.3 and 5.5 bar IMEPn). The effects of intake air temperature, DI injection timing and combustion phasing on engine efficiency, emissions and combustion stability were explored.
Technical Paper

Extension of the Lower Load Limit of Gasoline Compression Ignition with 87 AKI Gasoline by Injection Timing and Pressure

Previous work has demonstrated the capabilities of gasoline compression ignition to achieve engine loads as high as 19.5 bar BMEP with a production multi-cylinder diesel engine using gasoline with an anti-knock index (AKI) of 87. In the current study, the low load limit of the engine was investigated using the same engine hardware configurations and 87 AKI fuel that was used to achieve 19.5 bar BMEP. Single injection, “minimum fueling” style injection timing and injection pressure sweeps (where fuel injection quantity was reduced at each engine operating condition until the coefficient of variance of indicated mean effective pressure rose to 3%) found that the 87 AKI test fuel could run under stable combustion conditions down to a load of 1.5 bar BMEP at an injection timing of −30 degrees after top dead center (°aTDC) with reduced injection pressure, but still without the use of intake air heating or uncooled EGR.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Boost Pressure on Emissions and Fuel Consumption of a Heavy-Duty Single-Cylinder D.I. Diesel Engine

An electronically controlled Caterpillar single-cylinder oil test engine (SCOTE) was used to study diesel combustion. The SCOTE retains the port, combustion chamber, and injection geometry of the production six cylinder, 373 kW (500 hp) 3406E heavy-duty truck engine. The engine was equipped with an electronic unit injector and an electronically controlled common rail injector that is capable of multiple injections. An emissions investigation was carried out using a six-mode cycle simulation of the EPA Federal Transient Test Procedure. The results show that the SCOTE meets current EPA mandated emissions levels, despite the higher internal friction imposed by the single-cylinder configuration. NOx versus particulate trade-off curves were generated over a range of injection timings for each mode and results of heat release calculations were examined, giving insight into combustion phenomena in current “state of the art” heavy-duty diesel engines.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Operating Parameters Using A Response Surface Method

A study of statistical optimization of engine operating parameters was conducted. The objective of the study was to develop a strategy to efficiently optimize operating parameters of diesel engines with multiple injection and EGR capabilities. Previous studies have indicated that multiple injections with EGR can provide substantial simultaneous reductions in emissions of particulate and NOx from heavy-duty diesel engines, but careful optimization of the operating parameters is necessary in order to receive the full benefit of these combustion control techniques. The goal of the present study was to optimize the control parameters to reduce emissions and brake specific fuel consumption. An instrumented single-cylinder heavy-duty diesel engine was used with a prototype mechanically actuated (cam driven) fuel injection system.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Reduction of Engine Emissions and Fuel Consumption Using Genetic Algorithms and Multi-Dimensional Spray and Combustion Modeling

A computational optimization study is performed for a heavy-duty direct-injection diesel engine using the recently developed KIVA-GA computer code. KIVA-GA performs full cycle engine simulations within the framework of a Genetic Algorithm (GA) global optimization code. Design fitness is determined using a one-dimensional gas -dynamics code for calculation of the gas exchange process, and a three-dimensional CFD code based on KIVA-3V for spray, combustion and emissions formation. The performance of the present Genetic Algorithm is demonstrated using a test problem with a multi-modal analytic function in which the optimum is known a priori. The KIVA-GA methodology is next used to simultaneously investigate the effects of six engine input parameters on emissions and performance for a high speed, medium load operating point for which baseline experimental validation data is available.
Technical Paper

Use of a Pressure Reactive Piston to Control Diesel PCCI Operation - A Modeling Study

The heavy-duty diesel engine industry is required to meet stringent emission standards. There is also the demand for more fuel efficient engines by the customer. In a previous study on an engine with variable intake valve closure timing, the authors found that an early single injection and accompanying premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion provides advantages in emissions and fuel economy; however, unacceptably high peak pressures and rates of pressure-rise impose a severe operating constraint. The use of a Pressure Reactive Piston assembly (PRP) as a means to limit peak pressures is explored in the present work. The concept is applied to a heavy-duty diesel engine and genetic algorithms (GA) are used in conjunction with the multi-dimensional engine simulation code KIVA-3V to provide an optimized set of operating variables.
Technical Paper

Stoichiometric Combustion in a HSDI Diesel Engine to Allow Use of a Three-way Exhaust Catalyst

The objectives of this study were 1) to evaluate the characteristics of rich diesel combustion near the stoichiometric operating condition, 2) to explore the possibility of stoichiometric operation of a diesel engine in order to allow use of a three-way exhaust after-treatment catalyst, and 3) to achieve practical operation ranges with acceptable fuel economy impacts. Boost pressure, EGR rate, intake air temperature, fuel mass injected, and injection timing variations were investigated to evaluate diesel stoichiometric combustion characteristics in a single-cylinder high-speed direct injection (HSDI) diesel engine. Stoichiometric operation in the Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) combustion regime and standard diesel combustion were examined to investigate the characteristics of rich combustion. The results indicate that diesel stoichiometric operation can be achieved with minor fuel economy and soot impact.
Technical Paper

A Computational Investigation into the Effects of Spray Targeting, Bowl Geometry and Swirl Ratio for Low-Temperature Combustion in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

A computational study was performed to evaluate the effects of bowl geometry, fuel spray targeting and swirl ratio under highly diluted, low-temperature combustion conditions in a heavy-duty diesel engine. This study is used to examine aspects of low-temperature combustion that are affected by mixing processes and offers insight into the effect these processes have on emissions formation and oxidation. The foundation for this exploratory study stems from a large data set which was generated using a genetic algorithm optimization methodology. The main results suggest that an optimal combination of spray targeting, swirl ratio and bowl geometry exist to simultaneously minimize emissions formation and improve soot and CO oxidation rates. Spray targeting was found to have a significant impact on the emissions and fuel consumption performance, and was furthermore found to be the most influential design parameter explored in this study.
Technical Paper

Effects of Engine Operating Parameters on near Stoichiometric Diesel Combustion Characteristics

Stoichiometric combustion could enable a three-way catalyst to be used for treating NOx emissions of diesel engines, which is one of the most difficult species for diesel engines to meet future emission regulations. Previous study by Lee et al. [1] showed that diesel engines can operate with stoichiometric combustion successfully with only a minor impact on fuel consumption. Low NOx emission levels were another advantage of stoichiometric operation according to that study. In this study, the characteristics of stoichiometric diesel combustion were evaluated experimentally to improve fuel economy as well as exhaust emissions The effects of fuel injection pressure, boost pressure, swirl, intake air temperature, combustion regime (injection timing), and engine load (fuel mass injected) were assessed under stoichiometric conditions.