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Technical Paper

Adiabatic Engine Trends-Worldwide

Since the early inception of the adiabatic diesel engine in 1974, marked progress has taken place as a result of research efforts performed all over the world. The use of ceramics for heat engines in production applications has been limited to date, but is growing. Ceramic use for production heat engine has included: combustion prechambers, turbochargers, exhaust port liners, top piston ring inserts, glow plugs, oxygen sensors; and additional high temperature friction and wear components. The potential advantages of an adiabatic engine vary greatly with specific application (i.e., commercial vs. military, stationary vs. vehicular, etc.), and thus, a better understanding of the strengths and weaknesses (and associated risks) of advanced adiabatic concepts with respect to materials, tribology, cost, and payoff must be obtained.
Technical Paper

Combined Cycle Diesel-Stirling Heat Engine

A new concept is described for a combined cycle Diesel-Stirling engine that promises to achieve an extraordinarily high thermal efficiency. The two basic cycles are coupled together in series, the high temperature exhaust gases from an adiabatic Diesel engine are fed into a high efficiency Stirling engine in such a way that both engines produce mechanical power. The whole combined cycle is highly turbocharged in order to get the desired power density, favorable heat transfer conditions and energy saving regeneration of exhaust gas heat. The problems posed by such a combined cycle are examined and calculation results are presented and discussed using a mathematical model developed as a preliminary effort of optimization and evaluation.
Technical Paper

Insulated Miller Cycle Diesel Engine

This paper investigates theoretically the benefits of the Miller cycle diesel engine with and without low heat rejection on thermodynamic efficiency, brake power, and fuel consumption. It further illustrates the effectiveness of thin thermal barrier coatings to improve the performance of military and commercial IC engines. A simple model which includes a friction model is used to estimate the overall improvement in engine performance. Miller cycle is accomplished by closing the intake valve late and the engine components are coated with PSZ for low heat rejection. A significant improvement in brake power and thermal efficiency are observed.
Technical Paper

Coatings for Improving Engine Performance

Thermal barrier coatings are becoming increasingly important in providing thermal insulation for heat engine components. Thermal insulation reduces in-cylinder heat transfer from the engine combustion chamber as well as reducing component structural temperatures. Containment of heat also contributes to increased in-cylinder work and offers higher exhaust temperatures for energy recovery. Lower component structural temperatures will result in greater durability. Advanced ceramic composite coatings also offer the unique properties that can provide reductions in friction and wear. Test results and analysis to evaluate the performance benefits of thin thermal barrier coated components in a single cylinder diesel engine are presented.
Technical Paper

Assessment of Thin Thermal Barrier Coatings for I.C. Engines

This paper investigates theoretically the effects of heat transfer characteristics, such as crank-angle phasing and wall temperature swings, on the thermodynamic efficiency of an IC engine. The objective is to illustrate the fundamental physical basis of applying thin thermal barrier coatings to improve the performance of military and commercial IC engines. A simple model illustrates how the thermal impedance and thickness of coatings can be manipulated to control heat transfer and limit the high temperatures in engine components. A friction model is also included to estimate the overall improvement in engine efficiency by the proper selection of coating thickness and material.
Technical Paper

Improving the Fuel Economy of Insulated Engine by Matching the Fuel System

This paper deals with the analysis of heat release characteristics of an insulated turbocharged, six cylinder, DI contemporary diesel engine. The engine is fully insulated with thin thermal barrier coatings. Effect of insulation on the heat release was experimentally verified. Tests were carried over a range of engine speeds at 100%, 93%, 75% and 50% of rated torque. Fuel injection system was instrumented to obtain injection pressure characteristics. The study shows that rate of heat release, particularly in the major portion of the combustion, is higher for the insulated engine. Improvement in heat release and performance are primarily attributed to reduction in heat transfer loss due to the thin thermal barrier coating. Injection pressure at the rated speed and torque was found to be 138 MPa and there was no degradation of combustion process in the insulated engine. Improvements in BSFC at 93% load are 3.25% and 6% at 1600 and 2600 RPM, respectively.
Technical Paper

Thin Thermal Barrier Coatings for Engines

Contrary to the thick thermal barrier coating approach used in adiabatic diesel engines, the authors have investigated the merits of thin coatings. Transient heat transfer analysis indicates that the temperature swings experienced at combustion chamber surfaces depend primarily on material thermophysical properties, i.e., conductivity, density, and specific heat. Thus, cyclic temperature swings should be alike whether thick or thin (less than 0.25 mm) coatings are applied, Furthermore, thin coatings would lead to lower mean component temperatures and would be easier to apply than thick coatings. The thinly-coated engine concept offers several advantages including improved volumetric efficiency, lower cylinder liner wall temperatures, improved piston-liner tribological behavior, and improved erosion-corrosion resistance and thus greater component durability.