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Technical Paper

26 X 6.6 Radial-Belted Aircraft Tire Performance

1991-09-01
912157
Preliminary results from testing of 26 X 6.6 radial-belted and bias-ply aircraft tires at NASA Langley's Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) are reviewed. These tire tests are part of a larger, on going joint NASA/FAA/Industry Surface Traction and Radial Tire (START) Program involving three different tire sizes. The 26 X 6.6 tire size evaluation includes cornering performance tests throughout the aircraft ground operational speed range for both dry and wet runway surfaces. Static test results to define 26 X 6.6 tire vertical stiffness properties are also presented and discussed.
Technical Paper

Spin-Up Studies of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Main Gear Tire

1988-10-01
881360
One of the factors needed to describe the wear behavior of the Space Shuttle Orbiter main gear tires is their behavior during the spin-up process. An experimental investigation of tire spin-up processes was conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center's Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF). During the investigation, the influence of various parameters such as forward speed and sink speed on tire spin-up forces were evaluated. A mathematical model was developed to estimate drag forces and spin-up times and is presented. The effect of prerotation was explored and is discussed. Also included is a means of determining the sink speed of the orbiter at touchdown based upon the appearance of the rubber deposits left on the runway during spinup.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Runway Surface and Braking on Shuttle Orbiter Main Gear Tire Wear

1992-10-01
922038
In 1988, a 1067 m long touchdown zone on each end of the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) was modified from its original heavy-broom finish with transverse grooves configuration to a longitudinal corduroy surface texture with no transverse grooves. The intent of this modification was to reduce the spin-up wear on the Orbiter main gear tires and provide for somewhat higher crosswind capabilities at that site. The modification worked well, so it was proposed that the remainder of the runway be modified as well to permit even higher crosswind landing capability. Tests were conducted at the NASA Langley Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) to evaluate the merit of such a modification. This paper discusses the results of these tests, and explains why the proposed modification did not provide the expected improvement and thus was not implemented.
Technical Paper

NASA Evaluation of Type II Chemical Depositions

1993-09-01
932582
Recent findings from NASA Langley tests to define effects of aircraft Type II chemical deicer depositions on aircraft tire friction performance are summarized. The Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) is described together with the scope of the tire cornering and braking friction tests conducted up to 160 knots ground speed. Some lower speed 32-96 km/hr (20-60 mph) test run data obtained using an Instrumented Tire Test Vehicle (ITTV) to determine effects of tire bearing pressure and transverse grooving on cornering friction performance are also discussed. Recommendations are made concerning which parameters should be evaluated in future testing.
Technical Paper

Braking, Steering, and Wear Performance of Radial-Belted and Bias-Ply Aircraft Tires

1992-04-01
921036
Preliminary braking, steering, and tread wear performance results from testing of 26 x 6.6 and 40 x 14 radial-belted and bias-ply aircraft tires at NASA Langley's Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) are reviewed. These tire tests are part of a larger, ongoing joint NASA/FAA/Industry Surface Traction And Radial Tire (START) Program involving these two different tire sizes as well as an H46 x 18-20 tire size which has not yet been evaluated. Both dry and wet surface conditions were evaluated on two different test surfaces - nongrooved Portland cement concrete and specially constructed, hexagonal-shaped concrete paver blocks. Use of paver blocks at airport facilities has been limited to ramp and taxiway areas and the industry needs a tire friction evaluation of this paving material prior to additional airport pavement installations.
Technical Paper

Flow Rate and Trajectory of Water Spray Produced by an Aircraft Tire

1986-10-01
861626
One of the risks associated with wet runway aircraft operation is the ingestion of water spray produced by an aircraft's tires into its engines. This problem can be especially dangerous at or near rotation speed on the takeoff roll. An experimental investigation was conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center Hydrodynamics Research Facility to measure the flow rate and trajectory of water spray produced by an aircraft nose tire operating on a flooded runway. The effects of various parameters on the spray patterns including distance aft of nosewheel, speed, load, and water depth were evaluated. Variations in the spray pattern caused by the airflow about primary structure such as the fuselage and wing are discussed. A discussion of events in and near the tire footprint concerning spray generation is included.
Technical Paper

Cornering and Wear Behavior of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Main Gear Tire

1987-10-01
871867
One of the factors needed to describe the handling characteristics of the Space Shuttle Orbiter during the landing rollout is the response of the vehicle's tires to variations in load and yaw angle. An experimental investigation of the cornering characteristics of the Orbiter main gear tires was conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility. This investigation compliments earlier work done to define the Orbiter nose tire cornering characteristics. In the investigation, the effects of load and yaw angle were evaluated by measuring parameters such as side load and drag load, and obtaining measurements of aligning torque. Because the tire must operate on an extremely rough runway at the Shuttle Landing Facility at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), tests were also conducted to describe the wear behavior of the tire under various conditions on a simulated KSC runway surface. Mathematical models for both the cornering and the wear behavior are discussed.
Technical Paper

Cornering and Wear Characteristics of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Nose-Gear Tire

1989-09-01
892347
Tests of the Space Shuttle Orbiter nose-gear tire have been completed at NASA Langley's Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility. The purpose of these tests was to determine the cornering and wear characteristics of the Space Shuttle Orbiter nose-gear tire under realistic operating conditions. The tire was tested on a simulated Kennedy Space Center runway surface at speeds from 100 to 180 kts. The results of these tests defined the cornering characteristics which included side forces and associated side force friction coefficient over a range of yaw angles from 0° to 12°. Wear characteristics were defined by tire tread and cord wear over a yaw angle range of 0° to 4° under dry and wet runway conditions. Wear characteristics were also defined for a 15 kt crosswind landing with two blown right main-gear tires and nose-gear steering engaged.
Technical Paper

Orbiter Post-Tire Failure and Skid Testing Results

1989-09-01
892338
An investigation was conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center's Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) to define the post-tire failure drag characteristics of the Space Shuttle Orbiter main tire and wheel assembly. Skid tests on various materials were also conducted to define their friction and wear rate characteristics under higher speed and bearing pressures than any previous tests. The skid tests were conducted to support a feasibility study of adding a skid to the orbiter strut between the main tires to protect an intact tire from failure due to overload should one of the tires fail. Roll-on-rim tests were conducted to define the ability of a standard and a modified orbiter main wheel to roll without a tire. Results of the investigation are combined into a generic model of strut drag versus time under failure conditions for inclusion into rollout simulators used to train the shuttle astronauts.
Technical Paper

Aircraft Radial-Belted Tire Evaluation

1990-09-01
901913
An overview is given of the ongoing joint NASA/FAA/Industry Surface Traction And Radial Tire (START) Program being conducted at NASA Langley's Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF). The START Program involves tests using three different tire sizes to evaluate tire rolling resistance, braking, and cornering performance throughout the aircraft ground operational speed range for both dry and wet runway surfaces. Preliminary results from recent 40 x 14 size bias-ply, radial-belted, and H-type aircraft tire tests are discussed. The paper concludes with a summary of the current program status and planned ALDF test schedule.
Technical Paper

Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility, A Unique Facility with New Capabilities

1985-10-01
851938
The Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF), formerly called the Landing Loads Track, is described. The paper gives a historical overview of the original NASA Langley Research Center Landing Loads Track and discusses the unique features of this national test facility. Comparisions are made between the original track characteristics and the new capabilities of the Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility following the recently completed facility update. Details of the new propulsion and arresting gear systems are presented along with the novel features of the new high-speed carriage. The data acquisition system is described and the paper concludes with a review of future test programs.
Technical Paper

The Generation of Tire Cornering Forces in Aircraft with a Free-Swiveling Nose Gear

1985-10-01
851939
Various conditions can cause an aircraft to assume a roll or tilt angle on the runway, causing the nose tire(s) to produce significant uncommanded cornering forces if the nose gear is free to swivel. An experimental investigation was conducted using a unique towing system to measure the cornering forces generated by a tilted aircraft tire. The effects of various parameters on these cornering forces including tilt angle, trail, rake angle, tire inflation pressure, vertical load, and twin-tire configuration were evaluated. Corotating twin-tires produced the most severe cornering forces due to tilt angle. A discussion of certain design and operational considerations is included.
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