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Technical Paper

Uncertainty in Sampling and TEM Analysis of Soot Particles in Diesel Spray Flame

2013-04-08
2013-01-0908
For better understanding of soot formation and oxidation processes applicable to diesel engines, the size, morphology, and nanostructure of soot particles directly sampled in a diesel spray flame generated in a constant-volume combustion chamber have been investigated using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). For this soot diagnostics, the effects of the sampling processes, TEM observation methodology and image processing methods on the uncertainty in the results have not been extensively discussed, mainly due to the complexity of the analysis.
Technical Paper

High-Speed Imaging of Soot Luminosity and Spectral Analysis of In-Cylinder Pressure Trace during Diesel Knock

2014-04-01
2014-01-1259
The present study focuses on the observation of knock phenomena in a small-bore optical diesel engine. Current understanding is that a drastic increase of pressure during the premixed burn phase of the diesel combustion causes gas cavity resonances, which in turn induce a high frequency pressure ringing. The frequency and severity of this ringing can be easily measured by using a pressure transducer. However, visual information of flames under knocking conditions is limited especially for a small-bore diesel engine. To fill this gap, high-speed imaging of soot luminosity is performed in conjunction with in-cylinder pressure measurement during knocking cycles in an automotive-size optical diesel engine. From the experiments, flames were observed to oscillate against the direction of the swirl flow when the pressure ringing occurred.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Analysis on the Spray Penetration of Ethanol, Gasoline and Iso-Octane Fuel in a Spark-Ignition Direct-Injection Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1413
This study aims to clarify the spray development of ethanol, gasoline and iso-octane fuel, delivered by a multi-hole injector and spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) fuelling system. The focus is on how fuel properties impact temporal and spatial evolution of sprays at realistic ambient conditions. Two optical facilities were used: (1) a constant-flow spray chamber simulating cold-start conditions and (2) a single-cylinder SIDI engine running at normal, warmed-up operating conditions. In these optical facilities, high-speed Mie-scattering imaging is performed to measure penetrations of spray plumes at various injection pressures of 4, 7, 11 and 15 MPa. The results show that the effect of fuel type on the tip penetration length of the sprays depends on the injection conditions and the level of fuel jet atomisation and droplet breakup.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Study of the Influence of Different Operating Conditions on the Combustion Development in an Automotive-Size Diesel Engine

2015-09-01
2015-01-1852
In this paper, numerical simulations of an automotive-size optical diesel engine have been conducted employing the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations with the standard k-ε turbulence model and a reduced n-heptane chemical mechanism implemented in OpenFOAM. The current paper builds on a previous work where the model has been validated for the same engine using optical diagnostic data. The present study investigates numerically the influence of different operating conditions - relevant for modern diesel engines - on the mixture formation development under non-reactive conditions as well as low- and high-temperature ignition behaviour and flame evolution in the presence of strong jet-wall interactions typically encountered in automotive-size diesel engines. Also, emissions of CO and unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) are considered.
Technical Paper

Double Injection Strategies for Ethanol-Fuelled Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) Combustion in a Single-Cylinder Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2016-10-17
2016-01-2303
Ethanol has been selected as a fuel for gasoline compression ignition (GCI) engines realising partially premixed charge combustion, considering its higher resistance to auto-ignition, higher evaporative cooling and oxygen contents than widely used gasoline, all of which could further improve already high efficiency and low smoke/NOx emissions of GCI engines. The in-cylinder phenomena and engine-out emissions were measured in a single-cylinder automotive-size common-rail diesel engine with a special emphasis on double injection strategies implementing early first injection near BDC and late second injection near TDC.
Technical Paper

Multiple Injection Strategy Investigation for Well-Mixed Operation in an Optical Wall-Guided Spark-Ignition Direct-Injection (WG-SIDI) Engine through Flame Shape Analysis

2016-10-17
2016-01-2162
One major drawback of spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) engines is increased particulate matter (PM) and unburned hydrocarbon emissions at high load, due to wall wetting and a reduction in available air/fuel mixing time when compared to port-fuel injection (PFI). It is therefore necessary to understand the mechanics behind injection strategies which are capable of reducing these emissions while also maintaining the performance and efficiency of the engine. This study investigates the effect of varying the number fuel injection events and equivalence ratio on the operation of a wall-guided SIDI (WG-SIDI) engine. Of particular interest is how increased mixture homogeneity achieved by the double injection events impacts in-cylinder conditions and flame development.
Technical Paper

Influence of Engine Speed on Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) Combustion in a Single-Cylinder Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0742
The present study aims to evaluate the effects of engine speed on gasoline compression ignition (GCI) combustion implementing double injection strategies. The double injection comprises of near-BDC first injection for the formation of a premixed charge and near-TDC second injection for the combustion phasing control. The engine performance and emissions testing of GCI combustion has been conducted in a single-cylinder light-duty diesel engine equipped with a common-rail injection system and fuelled with a conventional gasoline with 91 RON. The double injection strategy was investigated for various engine speeds ranging 1200~2000 rpm and the second injection timings between 12°CA bTDC and 3°CA aTDC.
Technical Paper

A Comparison between In-Flame and Exhaust Soot Nanostructures in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0710
Soot particles emitted from modern diesel engines, despite significantly lower total mass, show higher reactivity and toxicity than black-smoking old engines, which cause serious health and environmental issues. Soot nanostructure, i.e. the internal structure of soot particles composed of nanoscale carbon fringes, can provide useful information to the investigation of the particle reactivity and its oxidation status. This study presents the nanostructure details of soot particles sampled directly from diesel flames in a working diesel engine as well as from exhaust gases to compare the internal structure of soot particles in the high formation stage and after in-cylinder oxidation. Thermophoretic soot sampling was conducted using an in-house-designed probe with a lacy transmission electron microscope (TEM) grid stored at the tip.
Technical Paper

Influence of Injection Timing for Split-Injection Strategies on Well-Mixed High-Load Combustion Performance in an Optically Accessible Spark-Ignition Direct-Injection (SIDI) Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0657
One major drawback of spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) engines is increased particulate matter (PM) emissions at high load, due to increased wall wetting and a reduction in available mixture preparation time when compared to port-fuel injection (PFI). It is therefore necessary to understand the mechanics behind injection strategies which are capable of reducing these emissions while also maintaining the performance and efficiency of the engine. Splitting the fuel delivery into two or more injections is a proven way of working towards this goal, however, many different injection permutations are possible and as such there is no clear consensus on what constitutes an ideal strategy for any given objective. In this study, the effect of the timing of the first and second injections for an evenly split dual injection strategy are investigated in an optical SIDI engine running at 1200 RPM with an unthrottled intake.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Soot Reduction Using Microwave Generated Plasma in an Optically Accessible Small-Bore Diesel Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0246
The present study explores the effect of in-cylinder generated non-thermal plasma on hydroxyl and soot development. Plasma was generated using a newly developed Microwave Discharge Igniter (MDI), a device which operates based on the principle of microwave resonation and has the potential to accentuate the formation of active radical pools as well as suppress soot formation while stimulating soot oxidation. Three diagnostic techniques were employed in a single-cylinder small-bore optical diesel engine, including chemiluminescence imaging of electronically excited hydroxyl (OH*), planar laser induced fluorescence imaging of OH (OH-PLIF) and planar laser induced incandescence (PLII) imaging of soot. While investigating the behaviour of MDI discharge under engine motoring conditions, it was found that plasma-induced OH* signal size and intensity increased with higher in-cylinder pressures albeit with shorter lifetime and lower breakdown consistency.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Charge Dilution and Injection Timing on Low-Temperature Diesel Combustion and Emissions

2005-10-24
2005-01-3837
The effects of charge dilution on low-temperature diesel combustion and emissions were investigated in a small-bore single-cylinder diesel engine over a wide range of injection timing. The fresh air was diluted with additional N2 and CO2, simulating 0 to 65% exhaust gas recirculation in an engine. Diluting the intake charge lowers the flame temperature T due to the reactant being replaced by inert gases with increased heat capacity. In addition, charge dilution is anticipated to influence the local charge equivalence ratio ϕ prior to ignition due to the lower O2 concentration and longer ignition delay periods. By influencing both ϕ and T, charge dilution impacts the path representing the progress of the combustion process in the ϕ-T plane, and offers the potential of avoiding both soot and NOx formation.
Technical Paper

Two-stage Fuel Direct Injection in a Diesel Fuelled HCCI Engine

2007-07-23
2007-01-1880
Two-stage fuel direct injection (DI) has the potential to expand the operating region and control the auto-ignition timing in a Diesel fuelled homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine. In this work, to investigate the dual-injection HCCI combustion, a stochastic reactor model, based on a probability density function (PDF) approach, is utilized. A new wall-impingement sub-model is incorporated into the stochastic spray model for direct injection. The model is then validated against measurements for combustion parameters and emissions carried out on a four stroke HCCI engine. The initial results of our numerical simulation reveal that the two-stage injection is capable of triggering the charge ignition on account of locally rich fuel parcels under certain operating conditions, and consequently extending the HCCI operating range.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Swirl Ratio and Fuel Injection Parameters on CO Emission and Fuel Conversion Efficiency for High-Dilution, Low-Temperature Combustion in an Automotive Diesel Engine

2006-04-03
2006-01-0197
Engine-out CO emission and fuel conversion efficiency were measured in a highly-dilute, low-temperature diesel combustion regime over a swirl ratio range of 1.44-7.12 and a wide range of injection timing. At fixed injection timing, an optimal swirl ratio for minimum CO emission and fuel consumption was found. At fixed swirl ratio, CO emission and fuel consumption generally decreased as injection timing was advanced. Moreover, a sudden decrease in CO emission was observed at early injection timings. Multi-dimensional numerical simulations, pressure-based measurements of ignition delay and apparent heat release, estimates of peak flame temperature, imaging of natural combustion luminosity and spray/wall interactions, and Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV) measurements of in-cylinder turbulence levels are employed to clarify the sources of the observed behavior.
Technical Paper

Studying the Influence of Direct Injection on PCCI Combustion and Emissions at Engine Idle Condition Using Two Dimensional CFD and Stochastic Reactor Model

2008-04-14
2008-01-0021
A detailed chemical model was implemented in the KIVA-3V two dimensional CFD code to investigate the effects of the spray cone angle and injection timing on the PCCI combustion process and emissions in an optical research diesel engine. A detailed chemical model for Primary Reference Fuel (PRF) consisting of 157 species and 1552 reactions was used to simulate diesel fuel chemistry. The model validation shows good agreement between the predicted and measured pressure and emissions data in the selected cases with various spray angles and injection timings. If the injection is retarded to -50° ATDC, the spray impingement at the edge of the piston corner with 100° injection angle was shown to enhance the mixing of air and fuel. The minimum fuel loss and more widely distributed fuel vapor contribute to improving combustion efficiency and lowering uHC and CO emissions in the engine idle condition.
Technical Paper

Effects of Multiple Injections in a HSDI Diesel Engine Equipped with Common Rail Injection System

2004-03-08
2004-01-0127
Diesel fuel injection system is the most important part of the direct-injection diesel engine and, in recent years, it has become one of the critical technologies for emission control with the help of electronically controlled fuel injection. Common rail injection system has great flexibility in injection timing, pressure and multi-injections. Many studies and applications have reported the advantages of using common rail system to meet the strict emission regulation and to improve engine performance for diesel engines. The main objective of this study is to investigate the effect of pilot-, post- and multiple-fuel injection strategies on engine performance and emissions. The study was carried out on a single cylinder optical direct injection diesel engine equipped with a high pressure common rail fuel injection system. Spray and combustion evolutions were visualized through a high speed charge-coupled device (CCD) camera.
Technical Paper

Combustion Control Using Two-Stage Diesel Fuel Injection in a Single-Cylinder PCCI Engine

2004-03-08
2004-01-0938
A diesel-fueled premixed charged compression ignition (PCCI) combustion technique using a two-stage injection strategy has been investigated in a single cylinder optical engine equipped with a common-rail fuel system. Although PCCI combustion has the advantages of reducing NOx and PM emissions, difficulties in vaporization of a diesel fuel and control of the combustion phase hinder the development of the PCCI engine. A two-stage injection strategy was applied to relieve these problems. The first injection, named as main injection, was an early direct injection of diesel fuel into the cylinder to achieve premixing with air. The second injection was a diesel injection of a small quantity (1.5 mm3) as an ignition promoter and combustion phase controller near TDC. Effects of injection pressure, injected fuel quantity and compression ratio were studied with variation of an intake air temperature.
Journal Article

In-Flame Soot Sampling and Particle Analysis in a Diesel Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-0912
In-flame soot sampling based on the thermophoresis of particles and subsequent transmission electron microscope (TEM) imaging has been conducted in a diesel engine to study size, shape and structure of soot particles within the reacting diesel jet. A direct TEM sampling is pursued, as opposed to exhaust sampling, to gain fundamental insight about the structure of soot during key formation and oxidation stages. The size and shape of soot particles aggregate structure with stretched chains of spherical-like primary particles is currently an unknown for engine soot modelling approaches. However, the in-flame sampling of soot particles in the engine poses significant challenges in order to extract meaningful data. In this paper, the engine modification to address the challenges of high-pressure sealing and avoiding interference with moving valves and piston are discussed in detail.
Journal Article

Spray Penetrations of Ethanol, Gasoline and Iso-Octane in an Optically Accessible Spark-Ignition Direct-Injection Engine

2014-11-01
2014-01-9079
The spray development of ethanol, gasoline and iso-octane has been studied in an optically accessible, spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) engine. The focus is on how fuel properties impact temporal and spatial evolution of sprays at realistic ambient conditions. Two optical facilities were used: (1) a constant-flow spray chamber simulating cold-start conditions and (2) a single-cylinder SIDI engine running at normal, warmed-up operating conditions. In these optical facilities, high-speed Mie-scattering imaging is performed to measure penetrations of spray plumes at various injection pressures of 4, 7, 11 and 15 MPa. The results show that the effect of fuel type on the tip penetration length of the sprays depends on the injection conditions and the level of fuel jet atomisation and droplet breakup.
Journal Article

Automated Detection of Primary Particles from Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) Images of Soot Aggregates in Diesel Engine Environments

2015-09-01
2015-01-1991
The major challenge of the post-processing of soot aggregates in transmission electron microscope (TEM) images is the detection of soot primary particles that have no clear boundaries, vary in size within the fractal aggregates, and often overlap with each other. In this study, we propose an automated detection code for primary particles implementing the Canny Edge Detection (CED) and Circular Hough Transform (CHT) on pre-processed TEM images for particle edge enhancement using unsharp filtering as well as image inversion and self-subtraction. The particle detection code is tested for soot TEM images obtained at various ambient and injection conditions, and from five different combustion facilities including three constant-volume combustion chambers and two diesel engines.
Journal Article

A Comparative Analysis on Engine Performance of a Conventional Diesel Fuel and 10% Biodiesel Blends Produced from Coconut Oils

2015-09-06
2015-24-2489
This paper presents engine performance and emissions of coconut oil-derived 10% biodiesel blends in petroleum diesel demonstrating simultaneous reduction of smoke and NOx emissions and increased brake power. The experiments were performed in a single-cylinder version of a light-duty diesel engine for three different fuels including a conventional diesel fuel and two B10 fuels of chemical-catalyst-based methyl-ester biodiesel (B10mc) and biological-catalyst-based ethyl-ester biodiesel (B10eb). The engine tests were conducted at fixed speed of 2000 rpm and injection pressure of 130 MPa. In addition to the fuel variation, the injection timing and rate of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) were also varied because they impact the combustion and thus the efficiency and emissions significantly.
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