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Technical Paper

Spectroscopic Analysis of Combustion Flame Fueled with Dimethyl Ether (DME)

2003-05-19
2003-01-1797
To better understand the combustion characteristics of DME, emission intensities of DME combustion radicals from a pre-mixed burner flame were measured by a spectroscope and photomultiplier, Results were compared to other fuels, such as methane and butane. Large peaks in the band spectra from pre-mixed and diffusion DME flames were found near 310 nm, 430 nm, and 515 nm, arising from OH, CH and C2, respectively. The DME emission intensities decreased with increasing the equivalence ratio in this study. Notably, the relative decrease in the C2 band spectra peak was greater than that of the OH band. Comparing the pre-mixed DME and butane flames, the butane band spectra peaks were similar in shape, but much stronger than those for DME. However, it was remarkable that CH and C2 band spectra peaks decreased only slightly with increase in equivalence ratio compared to the DME case.
Technical Paper

Flame Speed Measurements and Predictions of Propane, Butane and Autogas at High Pressures

1998-10-19
982448
Flame propagation at elevated pressures for propane, butane and autogas (20% propane and 80% butane by mass) were investigated. Flame arrival time was measured using ionization probes installed along the wall of a cylindrical combustion chamber. Flame radius was also measured using a laser schlieren technique. Results showed that the flame front speed decreased with increasing initial pressure, and the initial pressure effect on maximum flame front speed was correlated by the relationship Sf = 175·pi-0.15 (for Φ=1.0). Characteristics of flame front speed between propane, butane and autogas were very similar, whereas at fuel-rich conditions flame front speed of butane and autogas were higher than that of propane. A thermodynamic model to predict flame radius and speed as a function of time was derived and tested using measured pressure-time curves.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Combustion Mechanism of a Fuel Droplet Cloud by Numerical Simulation

1998-10-19
982615
The combustion mechanism of a fuel droplet cloud was studied by numerical simulation. We investigated how the flame front speed and combustion products changed depending on the equivalence ratio and initial temperature. Modeling was performed using the KIVA-III software package, a three dimensional analysis software used mainly for internal combustion engine applications. The computational domain was a horizontal 1x1x100 cell sector of a spherical combustion chamber and the fuel was n-decane. Results showed that when all the fuel droplets were assumed to have evaporated, the flame front speed increased from 28 cm/s to 152 cm/s as the equivalence ratio increased. The maximum flame front speed was reached at ϕ=1.1, beyond which it decreased (at richer overall equivalence ratios). With a constant equivalence ratio, the flame front speed decreased near the outside region, because the unburned gas was compressed by the expanding burned gas.
Technical Paper

Flame Front Speed of a Decane Cloud under Microgravity Conditions

1998-10-19
982566
In this study, a piezo disk was used to generate a cloud of n-decane fuel drops, which were mixed with air, then carried into a combustion chamber and ignited by a platinum wire. Microgravity data obtained at the Japan Microgravity Center (JAMIC) were compared to normal gravity data, all at 1Atm pressure and 20+/-1°C initial temperature. Under normal gravity the lean limit was found to be 7.6x106/mm3 (Φ = 1.0), and from this point the flame front speed steadily increased from 20cm/s up to a maximum flame front speed of 210cm/s at a fuel drop density of about 14x106/mm3 (Φ = 1.85). Microgravity data showed a much richer lean limit - about 14.5x106/mm3 (Φ = 1.9), and the flame front speed did not gradually rise to a peak value. Instead, the measurements indicated a peak value of about 250cm/s, with a steep increase followed by a gradual decrease at richer fuel air ratios. A cellular flame structure appeared, and the cell size decreased as the mixture density increased.
Technical Paper

Dual-Fuel Diesel Engine Using Butane

1992-02-01
920690
The authors tried to use LP gas, mainly butane, as the main fuel of diesel engines to reduce soot and to maintain high thermal efficiency. LP gas was injected in the direction of the intake valve directly as a spray to prevent knocking and to preserve high charging efficiency. The newly developed electronic fuel injection provided accurate fuel control and injection timing. As a result, the dual-fuel operation produced high thermal efficiency almost identical to that of diesel engines. Soot in engine exhaust was almost negligible. Three quarters of maximum output was obtained with butane, and only small amount of gas oil for idling, in spite of an high compression ratio of 17 for gas engines. Increasing the proportion of gas oil resulted in maximum output from a diesel engine and almost no soot output.
Technical Paper

A Dual Fuel Injector for Diesel Engines

1985-09-01
851584
The authors designed and produced a new dual fuel injector that allows two different kinds of fuel to be injected. This injector contains both a throttle type nozzle and a hole type which are located coaxially. The injection timing as well as the fuel quantity can be controlled individually. The running test using two lines of gas oil brought a good reduction of NOx and exhaust smoke. The experiment using gas oil and alcohol also brought a satisfactory reduction of exhaust emission.
Technical Paper

Study on Improvement of Combustion and Effect of Fuel Property in Advanced Diesel Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-1117
The tasks to improve diesel emissions and fuel consumption must be accomplished with urgency. However, due to the trade-off relationship between NOx emissions, soot emissions and fuel consumption, clean diesel combustion should be achieved by both innovative combustion and fuel technologies. The objective of this study is to extend the clean diesel combustion operating range (Engine-out emission: NOx ≺ 0.2 g/kWh, Soot ≺ 0.02 g/kWh). In this study, performance of a single-cylinder test engine equipped with a hydraulic valve actuation system and an ultra-high pressure fuel injection system was investigated. Also evaluated, were the effects of fuel properties such as auto-ignitability, volatility and aromatic hydrocarbon components, on combustion performance. The results show that applying a high EGR (Exhaust gas recirculation) rate can significantly reduce NOx emission with an increase in soot emission.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Fuel Impurities Effect on DME Powered Diesel Engine System

2010-04-12
2010-01-0468
DME as a fuel for compression ignition (diesel) engines has been actively studied for about ten years due to its characteristically low pollution and reputation as a “smokeless fuel”. During this time, the practical application is taking shape based on necessary tasks such as analysis of injection and combustion, engine performance, and development of experimental vehicles. At this moment, standardization of DME as a fuel was started under ISO in 2007. There are concerns regarding the impurities in DME regarding the mixing during production and distribution as well as their effect on additives for lubricity and odor. In this report, the effect of DME fuel impurities on performance of a DME powered diesel engine was investigated. The platform was a DME engine with common-rail fuel injection and was evaluated under partial load stable mode and Japanese transient mode (JE05) testing parameters.
Technical Paper

Spectroscopic Investigation of the Combustion Process in an LPG Lean-burn SI Engine

1999-10-25
1999-01-3510
Band spectrum images for CH, OH and CHO were taken in a heavy duty type LPG lean-burn SI engine, to investigate the combustion process as it pertains to the pollutant formation process in the post flame region. Full spectra and band spectrum flame images were observed with a bottom view single cylinder research engine and two high speed cameras. NOx emissions were also measured for excess air ratios ranging from 1.0 to 1.6. A thermodynamic model, including the detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for LPG and NOx formation reactions, was developed to predict the major reaction species in the post flame region, and NOx emissions during the combustion process. The model qualitatively described the flame images for each band spectrum and could predict the measured NOx emissions very well.
Technical Paper

Combustion Process Modeling using a Reduced Mechanism in an LPG Lean Burn SI Engine

1999-10-25
1999-01-3481
Flame propagation characteristics, in a heavy-duty type LPG lean burn SI engine, were investigated by simulation methodology, using the global one step and the ten step chemical kinetic reaction mechanisms, respectively. The swirl ratio and equivalence ratio were varied to investigate their effects on flame front speed. The effect of increased swirl intensity on flame speed was very minor at ranges of equivalence ratio of this study. Flame front shape, however, was affected by swirl intensity. Circular flame front formed for a higher swirl ratio, which is in a qualitative accordance with that of measurements. Comparison between calculation and measurements of flame propagation characteristics shows a good agreement for both the global one step and the ten step chemical kinetic model. This work concludes that the reduced chemical kinetic reactions, consisting of ten steps, is useful for flame propagation study in an LPG SI engine.
Technical Paper

Performance and Emissions of an LPG Lean-Burn Engine for Heavy Duty Vehicles

1999-05-03
1999-01-1513
Performance and emissions of an LPG lean burn engine for heavy duty vehicles were measured. The piston cavity, swirl ratio, propane - butane fuel ratio, and EGR were varied to investigate their effects on combustion, and thus engine performance. Three piston cavities were tested: a circular flat-bottomed cavity with sloped walls (called the “bathtub” cavity), a round bottomed cavity (called the “dog dish” cavity), and a special high-turbulence cavity (called the “nebula” cavity). Compared to the bathtub and dog dish cavities, the nebula type cavity showed the best performance in terms of cyclic variation and combustion duration. It was capable of maintaining leaner combustion, thus resulting in the lowest NOx emissions. High swirl improved combustion by achieving a high thermal efficiency and low NOx emissions. In general, as the propane composition increased, cyclic variation fell, NOx emissions increased, and thermal efficiency was improved.
Technical Paper

Development of an LPG DI Diesel Engine Using Cetane Number Enhancing Additives

1999-10-25
1999-01-3602
A feasibility study of an LPG DI diesel engine has been carried out to study the effectiveness of two selected cetane enhancing additives: Di-tertiary-butyl peroxide (DTBP) and 2-Ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN). When more than either 5 wt% DTBP or 3.5 wt% 2EHN was added to the base fuel (100 % butane), stable engine operation over a wide range of engine loads was possible (BMEPs of 0.03 to 0.60 MPa). The thermal efficiency of LPG fueled operation was found to be comparable to diesel fuel operation at DTBP levels over 5 wt%. Exhaust emissions measurements showed that NOx and smoke levels can be significantly reduced using the LPG+DTBP fuel blend compared to a light diesel fuel at the same experimental conditions. Correlations were derived for the measured ignition delay, BMEP, and either DTBP concentration or cetane number. When propane was added to a butane base fuel, the ignition delay became longer.
Technical Paper

KIVA Simulation for Mixture Formation Processes in an In-Cylinder Injected LPG SI Engine

2000-10-16
2000-01-2805
This is a preliminary work for the development of a stratified combustion engine using liquefied petroleum gas(LPG) as an alternative fuel. The main objective of this research is to find out the optimizing engine parameters from the viewpoint of mixture formation with the aid of simulation, where the KIVA_ code was used. The combustion characteristics of LPG and gasoline are different because of their different physical properties. Therefore, the numerical simulation was performed for optimizing engine parameters by changing the piston and cylinder geometry, as well as injection conditions. Result showed that geometry of combustion chamber has a great influence on mixture stratification. Also, weaker swirl seems to be better for mixture formation in the vicinity of the spark plug.
Technical Paper

The Prediction of Autoignition in a DME Direct Injection Diesel Engine

2000-06-19
2000-01-1827
The ignition delay under various temperature and pressure conditions considering volumetric change is investigated both by experiments and simulation to give some basic data of ignition delay for a DME DI diesel engine. The combustion process in a DME direct injected diesel engine was also observed to help understanding of the difference between DME combustion and that of a diesel fuel. For DME fuel, it was clear that the luminous flame duration is much shorter than that of diesel fuel. The calculated results of ignition delay for high equivalence(ϕ =0.4 in this study) showed good accord qualitatively to those of measured at wide range of temperature and pressure conditions investigated in this work. There exists the negative temperature coefficient region near the temperature of 800K. This study shows basic guideline for optimal injection timing for DME fueled compression ignition engines.
Technical Paper

Effects of Injection Conditions on Mixture Formation Process in a Premixed Compression Ignition Engine

2000-06-19
2000-01-1831
The mixture formation process in a premixed compression ignition engine was numerically analyzed. This study aimed to find out effective injection conditions for lean mixture formation with high homogeneity, since the NOx and soot emissions in the engine are closely related to the mixture homogeneity. To calculate fuel spray behavior, a practical computer code GTT (Generalized Tank and Tube) was employed. In a model for the premixed compression ignition engine, the effects of injection parameters, such as injection timing, initial droplet size, spray angle, injection velocity, nozzle type (pintle and hole) and injection position / direction, on the mixture homogeneity near ignition timing (or TDC) were investigated. To evaluate the homogeneity of the mixture, an index was defined based on the spatial distribution of fuel mass fraction. The fuel vapor mass fractions as well as the homogeneity indices, obtained as a function of time, were compared under various boundary conditions.
Technical Paper

Effects of Initial In-Cylinder Flow Field on Mixture Formation in a Premixed Compression Ignition Engine

2000-03-06
2000-01-0331
To find more effective lean mixture preparation methods for smokeless and low NOx combustion, a numerical study of the effects of in-cylinder flow field before injection on mixture formation in a premixed compression ignition engine was conducted. Premixed compression ignition combustion is a very attractive method to reduce both NOx and soot emissions, but it still has some problems, such as high HC and CO emissions. In case of early direct injection, it is important to avoid wall wetting by spray impingement, which can cause higher HC and CO emissions. Since it is not easy to examine the effects of initial flow and injection parameters on mixture formation over the wide range by practical engine tests, a computer program named “GTT (Generalized Tank and Tube)” code was used to simulate the in-cylinder phenomena before autoignition.
Technical Paper

Chemical Kinetic Study of a Cetane Number Enhancing Additive for an LPG DI Diesel Engine

2000-03-06
2000-01-0193
The oxidation mechanism of DTBP (Di-tertiary-butyl peroxide) and its role in butane oxidation have been investigated, as it pertains to the development of an LPG DI diesel engine. Ignition delay contours were analyzed to investigate the role of DTBP (ϕ≈0.2 to the total oxygen) in butane oxidation. At higher pressure and lower temperature regions, it was apparent that the addition of DTBP significantly enhances the ignition delay of butane, whereas at lower pressures and higher temperatures, this effect diminishes. Results of this study showed that the role of DTBP to enhance the ignition delay of the base fuel is through rapid heat release, rather than by radicals produced by decomposition during the base fuel ignition delay. Formaldehyde is a principal species involved in reactions for heat release in the higher pressure lower temperature region, comparable to diesel engine operating conditions.
Technical Paper

A Study of Fuel Auto-ignitability on Premixed Compression Ignition Characteristics

2008-04-14
2008-01-0062
It has been clarified that diesel fuel properties have a great effect on the exhaust emissions and fuel consumption of a conventional diesel combustion regime. And as other diesel combustion regimes are applied in order to improve exhaust emissions and fuel consumption, it can be supposed that the fuel properties also have significant effects. The purpose of this study is to propose the optimum diesel fuel properties for a premixed compression ignition (PCI) combustion regime. In this paper, the effect of the auto-ignitability of diesel fuels on exhaust emissions and fuel consumption was evaluated using a heavy-duty single-cylinder test engine. In all experiments, fuels were injected using an electronically controlled, common-rail diesel fuel injector, and most experiments were conducted under high EGR conditions in order to reduce NOx emissions.
Technical Paper

Development of LPG SI and CI Engines for Heavy Duty Vehicles

2000-06-12
2000-05-0166
Development of LPG SI and CI engines for heavy duty vehicles has been carried out. In order to measure the performance and emissions of an LPG lean burn SI engine, the piston cavity, swirl ratio, and propane-butane fuel ratio were varied and tested. Compared to the bathtub and dog dish cavities, the nebula type cavity showed the best performance in terms of cyclic variation and combustion duration. High swirl improved combustion by achieving a high thermal efficiency and low NOx emissions. A feasibility study of an LPG DI diesel engine also has been carried out to study the effectiveness of the selected cetane enhancing additives:Di-tertiary-butyl peroxide (DTBP). When more than 5 wt% DTBP was added to the base fuel, stable engine operation over a wide range of engine loads was possible. The thermal efficiency of LPG fueled operation was found to be comparable to diesel fuel operation at DTBP levels over 5 wt%.
Technical Paper

Observation of Flame Propagation in an LPG Lean Burn SI Engine

1999-03-01
1999-01-0570
Using an extended bottom view piston having a quartz window, flame propagation observation and flame contour analysis were carried out to investigate the combustion characteristics of a heavy-duty type LPG lean burn engine. The swirl ratio and piston cavity configuration were varied to investigate their effects on combustion and engine performance. Gradual reduction of NOx but increased hydrocarbon emissions were measured for leaner mixtures compared to the stoichiometric operation. High swirl apparently accelerated the initial flame kernel development, as evidenced by a shorter crank angle interval from the spark ignition to the maximum cylinder pressure. The ‘D’ type cavity, with an increased squish area located below the intake valve, was shown to have the shortest burn duration among the piston cavities tested. The experimental flame propagation observation procedure was shown to be useful for the study of the combustion process in engines.
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