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Technical Paper

Spectroscopic Analysis of Combustion Flame Fueled with Dimethyl Ether (DME)

2003-05-19
2003-01-1797
To better understand the combustion characteristics of DME, emission intensities of DME combustion radicals from a pre-mixed burner flame were measured by a spectroscope and photomultiplier, Results were compared to other fuels, such as methane and butane. Large peaks in the band spectra from pre-mixed and diffusion DME flames were found near 310 nm, 430 nm, and 515 nm, arising from OH, CH and C2, respectively. The DME emission intensities decreased with increasing the equivalence ratio in this study. Notably, the relative decrease in the C2 band spectra peak was greater than that of the OH band. Comparing the pre-mixed DME and butane flames, the butane band spectra peaks were similar in shape, but much stronger than those for DME. However, it was remarkable that CH and C2 band spectra peaks decreased only slightly with increase in equivalence ratio compared to the DME case.
Technical Paper

Flame Speed Measurements and Predictions of Propane, Butane and Autogas at High Pressures

1998-10-19
982448
Flame propagation at elevated pressures for propane, butane and autogas (20% propane and 80% butane by mass) were investigated. Flame arrival time was measured using ionization probes installed along the wall of a cylindrical combustion chamber. Flame radius was also measured using a laser schlieren technique. Results showed that the flame front speed decreased with increasing initial pressure, and the initial pressure effect on maximum flame front speed was correlated by the relationship Sf = 175·pi-0.15 (for Φ=1.0). Characteristics of flame front speed between propane, butane and autogas were very similar, whereas at fuel-rich conditions flame front speed of butane and autogas were higher than that of propane. A thermodynamic model to predict flame radius and speed as a function of time was derived and tested using measured pressure-time curves.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Combustion Mechanism of a Fuel Droplet Cloud by Numerical Simulation

1998-10-19
982615
The combustion mechanism of a fuel droplet cloud was studied by numerical simulation. We investigated how the flame front speed and combustion products changed depending on the equivalence ratio and initial temperature. Modeling was performed using the KIVA-III software package, a three dimensional analysis software used mainly for internal combustion engine applications. The computational domain was a horizontal 1x1x100 cell sector of a spherical combustion chamber and the fuel was n-decane. Results showed that when all the fuel droplets were assumed to have evaporated, the flame front speed increased from 28 cm/s to 152 cm/s as the equivalence ratio increased. The maximum flame front speed was reached at ϕ=1.1, beyond which it decreased (at richer overall equivalence ratios). With a constant equivalence ratio, the flame front speed decreased near the outside region, because the unburned gas was compressed by the expanding burned gas.
Technical Paper

Flame Front Speed of a Decane Cloud under Microgravity Conditions

1998-10-19
982566
In this study, a piezo disk was used to generate a cloud of n-decane fuel drops, which were mixed with air, then carried into a combustion chamber and ignited by a platinum wire. Microgravity data obtained at the Japan Microgravity Center (JAMIC) were compared to normal gravity data, all at 1Atm pressure and 20+/-1°C initial temperature. Under normal gravity the lean limit was found to be 7.6x106/mm3 (Φ = 1.0), and from this point the flame front speed steadily increased from 20cm/s up to a maximum flame front speed of 210cm/s at a fuel drop density of about 14x106/mm3 (Φ = 1.85). Microgravity data showed a much richer lean limit - about 14.5x106/mm3 (Φ = 1.9), and the flame front speed did not gradually rise to a peak value. Instead, the measurements indicated a peak value of about 250cm/s, with a steep increase followed by a gradual decrease at richer fuel air ratios. A cellular flame structure appeared, and the cell size decreased as the mixture density increased.
Technical Paper

Dual-Fuel Diesel Engine Using Butane

1992-02-01
920690
The authors tried to use LP gas, mainly butane, as the main fuel of diesel engines to reduce soot and to maintain high thermal efficiency. LP gas was injected in the direction of the intake valve directly as a spray to prevent knocking and to preserve high charging efficiency. The newly developed electronic fuel injection provided accurate fuel control and injection timing. As a result, the dual-fuel operation produced high thermal efficiency almost identical to that of diesel engines. Soot in engine exhaust was almost negligible. Three quarters of maximum output was obtained with butane, and only small amount of gas oil for idling, in spite of an high compression ratio of 17 for gas engines. Increasing the proportion of gas oil resulted in maximum output from a diesel engine and almost no soot output.
Technical Paper

The Dependence of Carbon/Hydrogen Ratio on Soot Particle Size

1992-02-01
920689
This paper deals with the process regarding how dehydrogenation of soot particles takes place. The measured carbon/hydrogen ratios plotted against mean-diameter of soots fall on a straight line passing through the origin. It is shown that in the course of soot particle growth CM ratio increases linearly with the particle diameter: D. This is an indication of the fact that the number of carbon grows in proportion to D3, whereas that of hydrogen is proportional to D2. It is there by concluded that hydrogen sit only on surface of soot particles.
Technical Paper

Effects of Particle Size Distribution on Soot Particle Measurement by Transmissive Light Extinction Method

1986-09-01
861234
This paper presents the result of a theoretical study on the effects of particle size distribution on the soot particle measurement method. The principal equations are rear-ranged into a concise form, and a wide variation of size distribution functions are introduced to calculate the effects. It was found that the mean extinction coefficient is very weakly dependent on the shape of size distribution functions and can be approximated to that for the Sauter mean diameter with insignificant error. The volumetric density of soot particles can be obtained by light transmittance measurement on a single wavelength, and this is affected only by the estimated value for the Sauter mean diameter. The error due to the estimation is under 5%. On the other hand, it was found that the light transmittance measurement is insufficient to obtain size distribution or the Sauter mean diameter of soot particles.
Technical Paper

Improvement of the Dynamic Characteristics in the Connecting Passages for Measuring High Frequency Pressure Diagrams

1986-09-01
861277
Remarkable progress has been made in recent years on pressure measuring techniques and apparatuses, yet they seem not necessarily successful in achieving accurate pressure diagrams at the high frequency range. The primary cause of difficulty lies in the occurrence of undesirable vibrations in the connecting passages which diminishes the accuracy of pressure diagrams. In order to prevent such vibration, the authors have attempted to increase the natural frequency in the connecting passages by enclosing heat resisting silicon oil, to analyse the frequency characteristics of the passages, and to ensure the propriety of the analysis through comparison with experiments. As a result, it is proved that the natural frequency of the silicon oil enclosed passage increases twice as high as that of the passage filled with working gas.
Technical Paper

A Dual Fuel Injector for Diesel Engines

1985-09-01
851584
The authors designed and produced a new dual fuel injector that allows two different kinds of fuel to be injected. This injector contains both a throttle type nozzle and a hole type which are located coaxially. The injection timing as well as the fuel quantity can be controlled individually. The running test using two lines of gas oil brought a good reduction of NOx and exhaust smoke. The experiment using gas oil and alcohol also brought a satisfactory reduction of exhaust emission.
Technical Paper

Study on Improvement of Combustion and Effect of Fuel Property in Advanced Diesel Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-1117
The tasks to improve diesel emissions and fuel consumption must be accomplished with urgency. However, due to the trade-off relationship between NOx emissions, soot emissions and fuel consumption, clean diesel combustion should be achieved by both innovative combustion and fuel technologies. The objective of this study is to extend the clean diesel combustion operating range (Engine-out emission: NOx ≺ 0.2 g/kWh, Soot ≺ 0.02 g/kWh). In this study, performance of a single-cylinder test engine equipped with a hydraulic valve actuation system and an ultra-high pressure fuel injection system was investigated. Also evaluated, were the effects of fuel properties such as auto-ignitability, volatility and aromatic hydrocarbon components, on combustion performance. The results show that applying a high EGR (Exhaust gas recirculation) rate can significantly reduce NOx emission with an increase in soot emission.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Medium Duty DME Truck Performance -Field Test Results and PM Characteristics-

2007-01-23
2007-01-0032
The performance of a medium duty DME truck was evaluated by field tests and engine bench tests. The DME vehicle was given a public license plate on October 2004, after which running tests were continued on public roads and a test course. The DME vehicle could run the whole distance, about 500 km, without refueling. The average diesel equivalent fuel consumption of the fully loaded DME truck was 5.75 km/l, running at 80 km/h on public highways. Remedying several malfunctions that occurred in the power-train subsystems enhanced the vehicle performance and operation. The DME vehicle accumulated 13,000 km as of August, 2006 with no observed durability trouble of the fuel injection pump. Disassembly and inspection of the fuel injectors after 7,700 km operation revealed a few differences in the nozzle tip and the needle compared to diesel fuel operation. However, the injectors were used again after cleanup.
Technical Paper

A Study of PM Emission Characteristics of Diesel Vehicle Fueled with GTL

2007-01-23
2007-01-0028
In this study, diesel exhaust emission characteristics were investigated as GTL (Gas To Liquid) fuel was applied to a heavy-duty diesel truck which had been developed to match a Japanese new long-term exhaust emission regulation (NOx < 2.0 g/kWh, PM < 0.027 g/kWh). The results in this study show that although the test vehicle has advanced technologies (e.g. high pressure fuel injection, oxidation catalyst, and urea-SCR aftertreatment system, etc.) which are applied to reduce diesel emissions, the neat GTL fuel has a great advantage to reduce particulate matter emissions and poly aromatic hydrocarbons. And regarding nano-size PM emissions, nuclei mode particles emitted during idling are significantly decreased by using the GTL fuel.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Aldehydes and VOCs Emission from Off-road Engines

2006-11-13
2006-32-0023
In this study, measurement methods of aldehydes and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from off-road engine have been investigated. Also, their emission characteristics have been evaluated. By using high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC), aldehydes could be measured with small variation. Major aldehydes from off-road engine are formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Total aldehydes emission is not necessarily low compared to THC emission. The emission characteristics of aldehydes are similar to that of CO, THC and PM. For VOCs sampling, sampling tube with absorbent was better than sampling bag because some kinds of VOCs tend to become absorbed on the sampling bag. Except for 1,3-butadiene, VOCs could be measured with small variation by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Benzene, toluene and xylene were major species found in VOCs. The emission characteristics of VOCs were also similar to ones of CO, THC and PM.
Technical Paper

Spectroscopic Investigation of the Combustion Process in an LPG Lean-burn SI Engine

1999-10-25
1999-01-3510
Band spectrum images for CH, OH and CHO were taken in a heavy duty type LPG lean-burn SI engine, to investigate the combustion process as it pertains to the pollutant formation process in the post flame region. Full spectra and band spectrum flame images were observed with a bottom view single cylinder research engine and two high speed cameras. NOx emissions were also measured for excess air ratios ranging from 1.0 to 1.6. A thermodynamic model, including the detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for LPG and NOx formation reactions, was developed to predict the major reaction species in the post flame region, and NOx emissions during the combustion process. The model qualitatively described the flame images for each band spectrum and could predict the measured NOx emissions very well.
Technical Paper

Performance and Emissions of an LPG Lean-Burn Engine for Heavy Duty Vehicles

1999-05-03
1999-01-1513
Performance and emissions of an LPG lean burn engine for heavy duty vehicles were measured. The piston cavity, swirl ratio, propane - butane fuel ratio, and EGR were varied to investigate their effects on combustion, and thus engine performance. Three piston cavities were tested: a circular flat-bottomed cavity with sloped walls (called the “bathtub” cavity), a round bottomed cavity (called the “dog dish” cavity), and a special high-turbulence cavity (called the “nebula” cavity). Compared to the bathtub and dog dish cavities, the nebula type cavity showed the best performance in terms of cyclic variation and combustion duration. It was capable of maintaining leaner combustion, thus resulting in the lowest NOx emissions. High swirl improved combustion by achieving a high thermal efficiency and low NOx emissions. In general, as the propane composition increased, cyclic variation fell, NOx emissions increased, and thermal efficiency was improved.
Technical Paper

Development of an LPG DI Diesel Engine Using Cetane Number Enhancing Additives

1999-10-25
1999-01-3602
A feasibility study of an LPG DI diesel engine has been carried out to study the effectiveness of two selected cetane enhancing additives: Di-tertiary-butyl peroxide (DTBP) and 2-Ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN). When more than either 5 wt% DTBP or 3.5 wt% 2EHN was added to the base fuel (100 % butane), stable engine operation over a wide range of engine loads was possible (BMEPs of 0.03 to 0.60 MPa). The thermal efficiency of LPG fueled operation was found to be comparable to diesel fuel operation at DTBP levels over 5 wt%. Exhaust emissions measurements showed that NOx and smoke levels can be significantly reduced using the LPG+DTBP fuel blend compared to a light diesel fuel at the same experimental conditions. Correlations were derived for the measured ignition delay, BMEP, and either DTBP concentration or cetane number. When propane was added to a butane base fuel, the ignition delay became longer.
Technical Paper

Conversion of Nitric Oxide to Nitrogen Dioxide Using Hydrogen Peroxide

2000-06-19
2000-01-1931
Detailed chemical kinetic model of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) into diesel exhaust gas has been executed to investigate its effect on the removal of nitric oxide(NO) by changing exhaust gas temperature and H2O2 addition amount. Flux analysis has also been done to clarify which reaction mainly affects NO-to-NO2 conversion. From the results of this study, it is shown that the optimal temperature condition to maximize the removal of NO exists near at 500K for OH addition condition, while that for H2O2 addition exists near at 800K. It is also shown that temperature window for the removal of NO becomes widened as the initial temperature of the exhaust gas increases, and NO-to-NO2 conversion rate decreases in proportion to the concentration of hydrocarbon(HC), although that of the total NOx remains the same level regardless of HC concentration. Finally, it is shown that HO2 + NO → NO2 + OH is mainly responsible for NO-to-NO2 conversion.
Technical Paper

Effects of Initial In-Cylinder Flow Field on Mixture Formation in a Premixed Compression Ignition Engine

2000-03-06
2000-01-0331
To find more effective lean mixture preparation methods for smokeless and low NOx combustion, a numerical study of the effects of in-cylinder flow field before injection on mixture formation in a premixed compression ignition engine was conducted. Premixed compression ignition combustion is a very attractive method to reduce both NOx and soot emissions, but it still has some problems, such as high HC and CO emissions. In case of early direct injection, it is important to avoid wall wetting by spray impingement, which can cause higher HC and CO emissions. Since it is not easy to examine the effects of initial flow and injection parameters on mixture formation over the wide range by practical engine tests, a computer program named “GTT (Generalized Tank and Tube)” code was used to simulate the in-cylinder phenomena before autoignition.
Technical Paper

Chemical Kinetic Study of a Cetane Number Enhancing Additive for an LPG DI Diesel Engine

2000-03-06
2000-01-0193
The oxidation mechanism of DTBP (Di-tertiary-butyl peroxide) and its role in butane oxidation have been investigated, as it pertains to the development of an LPG DI diesel engine. Ignition delay contours were analyzed to investigate the role of DTBP (ϕ≈0.2 to the total oxygen) in butane oxidation. At higher pressure and lower temperature regions, it was apparent that the addition of DTBP significantly enhances the ignition delay of butane, whereas at lower pressures and higher temperatures, this effect diminishes. Results of this study showed that the role of DTBP to enhance the ignition delay of the base fuel is through rapid heat release, rather than by radicals produced by decomposition during the base fuel ignition delay. Formaldehyde is a principal species involved in reactions for heat release in the higher pressure lower temperature region, comparable to diesel engine operating conditions.
Technical Paper

A Study of Fuel Auto-ignitability on Premixed Compression Ignition Characteristics

2008-04-14
2008-01-0062
It has been clarified that diesel fuel properties have a great effect on the exhaust emissions and fuel consumption of a conventional diesel combustion regime. And as other diesel combustion regimes are applied in order to improve exhaust emissions and fuel consumption, it can be supposed that the fuel properties also have significant effects. The purpose of this study is to propose the optimum diesel fuel properties for a premixed compression ignition (PCI) combustion regime. In this paper, the effect of the auto-ignitability of diesel fuels on exhaust emissions and fuel consumption was evaluated using a heavy-duty single-cylinder test engine. In all experiments, fuels were injected using an electronically controlled, common-rail diesel fuel injector, and most experiments were conducted under high EGR conditions in order to reduce NOx emissions.
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