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Technical Paper

The Effect of Oil Ring Geometry on Oil Film Thickness in the Circumferential Direction of the Cylinder

This paper describes measurements of oil film thickness of piston ring packages which have different oil control rings. The oil film thickness measurements were taken at three points, namely, the piston thrust side, front side and rear side, by the Laser Induced Fluorescence Method(LIF). One of the main findings is that the oil film thickness on the thrust side varies greatly from cycle to cycle, while cyclic variations are smaller on the front and rear sides. This difference is due to the smaller inclination of the oil control rings on the front and rear sides, compared with that on the thrust side. It is also found that oil consumption has a good correlation with oil film thickness on the thrust side and that the thrust side oil film thickness becomes thinner as the oil ring becomes narrower.
Technical Paper

Effect of Piston Motion on Piston Skirt Friction of a Gasoline Engine

This study has been aimed at the reduction of the intense piston skirt friction force that appears in the expansion stroke out of all piston friction forces generated in gasoline engines. The friction characteristics at the piston skirt have been analyzed according to the measured results at piston friction forces and the shapes of wears at the piston skirt in actual engine operations. It is found from the above that the majority of the side force working on each piston is supported by the oil film on the skirt, while only some of the side force is supported by the portion in metallic contact with the cylinder. It is also found through experiments that the metallic contact portion has a great effect on the friction force at the skirt. The effect of piston posture in expansion stroke on the friction force has been also analyzed based on the measured results of piston slap motions.
Technical Paper

Friction and Lubrication Characteristics of Piston Pin Boss Bearings of an Automotive Engine

The aim of this research was to analyze the lubrication conditions of piston pin boss bearings used in the press-fit piston pins of automobile gasoline engines. An original pin boss friction measuring device was developed and used to successfully obtain measurements. It was revealed that the friction force peaks twice every cycle at high engine loads, and non-fluid lubrication characteristics are displayed. The friction forces for various differing piston pins and pin boss bearings were analyzed, and it was shown that reducing piston pin length or thickness to reduce piston weight, or reducing the pin boss bearing clearance to reduce noise worsen the friction characteristics and increase the possibility of abnormal bearing friction as well as seizure.
Technical Paper

Oil Film Thickness Measurement and Analysis of a Three Ring Pack in an Operating Diesel Engine

Oil film thicknesses of the piston top ring and the second ring of a truck diesel engine have been measured simultaneously by embedding capacitance type clearance sensors in the ring sliding surfaces. Owing to the above, several phenomena such as the variation in oil film thickness of each ring in one cycle, correlation between the rings, difference in oil film thickness between the thrust and counter thrust-sides, effects of engine operating conditions on oil film thickness, etc. have been determined. Efforts have been also made to analyze the causes of such phenomena according to the measured results of piston slap motion and ring motions, and the calculated results of oil film thickness.
Technical Paper

Piston Slap Motion and Engine Noise under Low Temperature Idling Operation of Diesel Engines

Diesel engines make a shrill noise called “idle knock” under low temperature idling operation. This causes a serious noise pollution problem in automobile diesel engines. It was clarified by this study that one important source of this noise was piston slap impulse. Piston slap motion was measured under usual operating conditions and a condition with additional oil supplied into the piston clearance. The piston slap motion was calculated taking into account the frictional resistances of the crank mechanism and squeeze action of oil film. It was concluded that only a negligible amount of oil existed in the piston clearance for the squeeze action.
Technical Paper

New Device for the Measurement of Piston Frictional Forces in Small Engines

Measurement of piston frictional forces during engine operation is valuable for improved fuel economy engine design. The measurement, however, is not easy work because the frictional forces are small compared with the gas and inertia forces. Several years ago, at the Musashi Institute of Technology, frictional forces were measured with a movable bore with pressure balancing. Recently, the pressure balancing devices have been improved and adapted for small engines. The piston frictional forces in a small diesel engine and a gasoline engine have been measured with the new device. The characteristics of the friction forces and the comparison between engine sizes, gasoline and diesel engines have been clarified and the effect of multi-grade oil and friction modifiers have been tested.
Technical Paper

Some Studies on Two-Ring-Pistons in Automobile Turbocharged Gasoline Engine

To reduce the friction loss, the size of compression height and the weight of piston in the automobile gasoline engines, two-ring-pistons instead of usually used three-ring-pistons have been developed at many manufacturers. In many designs of piston ring arrengement, up to now, the second ring has been used for oil control not for gas sealing. And the second ring loses the sealing effect at a high speed by the ring movement in the groove. Therefore, it is expected that the trouble caused by an increase of blow-by is not large. However, an increase in thermal load caused by a decrease of the piston cooling passage and also an increase of the lubricating oil consumption are considered to be crucial problems, especially in case of high output engines. With respect to these problems, some improvement are indicated on the basis of the experiments.
Technical Paper

Influence of Clearance Between Piston and Cylinder on Piston Friction

It is desired to minimize clearance between the piston and the cylinder to reduce noise and suppress vibration. Although significant effort has been made for this purpose, increased piston friction force and the occurrence of seizure still prevent the ideal clearance from being realized. In order to determine the lower limit of the piston clearance, it is crucial to clarify the following unknowns; which part of piston contributes to friction increase as the piston clearance is decreased, during which phase of the piston motion the friction increase occurs, and how the piston clearance affects lubrication phenomena. Measurements of piston friction force under operating conditions were made by applying the Floating Liner Method(1),(2)* to a single-cylinder test gasoline engine. The measurement revealed how the piston friction varied as the piston clearance decreased. Lateral motion of the piston was also measured.
Technical Paper

Characteristics Of Piston With Pressure Ring And One Narrow Single-Rail Oil Ring

Proposed at Musashi I.T. Engine research Laboratory in order to realize a smaller size and lower friction piston was a new piston ring parkage, which consisted of one pressure ring and one narrow single-rail oil ring. The new package has tested for two different types of gasoline engines to examine its influences on blow-by, piston temperature, piston friction and oil consumption. Efforts have been also made to improve these characteristics of the package and have resulted in its promising prospects.
Technical Paper

A Study of Decrease Oil Consumption for NSOR-Two-Ring Package Piston

Furuhama(1)* proposed the new two ring package consist of a pressure ring and a narrow single-rail oil ring (NSOR) in 1985. Number of studies(2) have been done for the purpose of reducing the oil consumption (OC) in this ring package. However, OC reduction problem has been still remaining to solve as only one serious problem of this ring package. The reasons of a larger OC in the new ring package than the conventional three ring has been hardly understood, considering the OC control ability on second ring in three ring package will not so large since the fact that the oil film thickness is thicker than that of the oil ring. In this study, the mechanism of OC increase in new ring package was found out at last, as a result, OC of new ring package piston was improved up to the same level of conventional three ring package piston.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Piston-Skirt Deformation in Engine Operation by Means of Rotating Cylinder with Gap-Sensors

An unique measurement method was developed for measurement of the piston outer surface during the engine operation. The method was realized by embedding a gap sensor into a cylinder bore and by rotating the cylinder in the circumferential direction. By means of this method, interesting data of skirt deformation of a gasoline engine caused by temperature, pressure and the slap force were obtained.
Technical Paper

Effect of Hydrogen Jet on Mixture Formation in a High-Pressure Injection Hydrogen Fueled Engine with Spark Ignition

In order to establish hydrogen engines for practical use, it is important to overcome difficulties caused by unique characteristics of hydrogen fuel. A hydrogen engine with direct injection right before top dead center(TDC) and spark ignition has advantages such as prevention of abnormal combustion and realization of high power output near the stoichiometric air-fuel ratio, in comparison with an engine with external mixture. On the other hand, it has been pointed out that ignition and combustion for this type of hydrogen engines should be improved and that further studies on mixture formation of air and injected hydrogen are necessary for the improvement. For the direct injection hydrogen engine, mixture is formed both by air flow inside the combustion chamber and by injected hydrogen jet.
Technical Paper

Development of a Hydrogen Powered Medium Duty Truck

Considerable amount of research work on hydrogen fueled engines has been conducted for 17 years in Musashi Institute of Technology. The primary purpose of the research has been to develop a hydrogen powered autmobile, and in order to realized it, various innovations have been applied and tested. The newest outcome of this 17 years research was Musashi-7 Track, which demonstrated its performance in Innovation vehicle Design Competition held in Vancouver in July 1986. Musashi-7 Track was a modified medium duty truck, which was originally made by Hino Motors, and had a hydrogen powered engine. The track was equipped with 150 ℓ liquid hydrogen (LH2) tank and 8 MPa high pressure LH2 pump. The pump delivered 8 MPa high pressure hydrogen gas to the engine and the fuel was injected to a hot surface igniter in DI combustion chamber. This type of hydrogen enigne has following advantages. Firstly, fuel corrier weight and volume can be much smaller than those of metal-hydrides (MH).
Technical Paper

Hydrogen Combustion Study in Direct Infection Hot Surface Ignition Engine

The hydrogen combustion characteristics have been studied in a late-injection (near TDC) hot surface ignition engine. As a supplemental experiment, the mode of combustion was observed in a constant volume combustion chamber by the schlieren method. Consequently the combustion process, that was the flame propagation initiated by a hot surface through heterogeneous hydrogen jets, was not the same as that of a diesel engine. The experimental results in test engine showed the optimum number of injection holes and the effect of intake air swirl for better mixture formation. It was observed that the combustion was frequently accompanied by non-negligible combustion pressure vibrations at all engine operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Heat Transfer into Ceramic Combustion Wall of Internal Combustion Engines

A thin film thermocouple with a high accuracy was developed by means of computer analysis, which allowed measurements of instantaneous temperatures and heat fluxes on combustion chamber walls. Conventional Al-alloy and ceramic plates were compared in terms of the heat loss at the upper surface of each piston during combustion, using a gasoline engine and a diesel engine in the series of experiments. It was found by the comparison that the ceramic plates subjected to higher temperatures had greater heat losses in both the gasoline and diesel engines contrary to the anticipation.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Cylinder Bore Deformation During Actual Operating Engines

One of the phenomena accompanying the lightweight/compact/high power output feature of engines is the cylinder bore deformation, which may readily cause increased oil consumption, gas leakage, unusual wear, scuffing, etc.. The authors have had experiences that piston rings had generated contact failure during engine operation (1)*. Such deformation is generated as a combination of the static deformation due to head bolt tightening, crankshaft installation, etc., and the deformation by the operating factors; thermal load and combustion pressure. Countermeasure of design have been made for the former (2)*, and prediction of the deformation during actual operating have been tried using FEM analysis, etc. for the latter (3)*. Therefore, the accurate measurement result have been required strongly, for a long time. But it could not be realized in the past.
Technical Paper

Effect of Piston and Piston Ring Designs on the Piston Friction Forces in Diesel Engines

How much reduction in piston friction loss can be achieved by the piston design? Piston friction force measurements have been carried out using the measuring method developed by the authors to obtain the effects of piston clearance, surface roughness, lubricant and ring size and contact pressure on the piston friction forces. A particular emphasis is placed on the study of effects of the piston rings by the experimental and theoretical analyses, since friction forces of piston rings accounted for 3/4 or more of the total piston friction force.
Technical Paper

An Increase of Engine Oil Consumption at High Temperature of Piston and Cylinder

Under high thermal load operation, engine oil consumption was monitored using the hydrogen fuel method. Burning was detected in the piston top-land clearance, and this may be a key to understanding the carbon adhesion mechanism on the piston top-land. The following results were obtained in this study: 1. Oil consumption is greatly affected by the evaporation of oil at temperatures higher than 160°C. 2. Burning is found in top-land clearances of hydrogen, gasoline, and large clearance diesel engines. However, only weak burning could be detected in diesel engines with tight-fitting crowns.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Piston Frictional Force in Actual Operating Diesel Engine

Frictional force as a function of crank angle of a piston assembly and piston rings alone were measured after the following devices were developed. (1) A gas sealing device that did not affect the measuring values. (2) A device to minimize the effect of gas pressure on the cylinder head and block deformations. (3) A device to minimize the effect of piston slap force. From the measurement of the frictional force diagrams the following characteristics have been found. (1) Lubricating oil temperature has the greatest effect upon the frictional loss of the piston. (2) Piston friction does not increase to the point of becoming proportional to the engine speed. (3) Friction in the expansion stroke increases at high load by the piston slap phenomenon. But the increase of total losses are small because the duration is short. (4) Piston rings account for the majority of the entire frictional force of the piston.
Technical Paper

L-Ring Effect on Air-Cooled Two-Stroke Gasoline Engines

An L-ring (a piston ring with an L-shaped cross section) has been used on some air-cooled two-stroke gasoline engines. Good performance has been obtained; the reason is unknown. The maximum power of these small engines (used mainly for small cars, motorcycles, outboard motors, snowmobiles, etc.) is limited by its thermal load endurance. So piston and cylinder become the most important factors to the engine's performance. L-ring effects are examined in the light of these temperature measurements.