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Technical Paper

CFD Modeling of Compact Heat Exchangers for I.C. Engine Oil Cooling

2019-09-09
2019-24-0179
This work describes the development of a computational model for the CFD simulation of compact heat exchangers applied for the oil cooling in internal combustion engines. Among the different cooler types, the present modeling effort will be focused on liquid-cooled solutions based on offset strip fins turbulators. The design of this type of coolers represents an issue of extreme concern, which requires a compromise between different objectives: high compactness, low pressure drop, high heat-transfer efficiency. In this work, a computational framework for the CFD simulation of compact oil-to-liquid heat exchangers, including offset-strip fins as heat transfer enhancer, has been developed. The main problem is represented by the need of considering different scales in the simulation, ranging from the characteristic size of the turbulator geometry (tipically μm - mm) to the full scale of the overall device (typically cm - dm).
Technical Paper

Heat Transfer Analysis of Catalytic Converters during Cold Starts

2019-09-09
2019-24-0163
The transient heat transfer behavior of an automotive catalytic converter has been simulated with OpenFOAM in 1D. The model takes into consideration the gas-solid convective heat transfer, axial wall conduction and heat capacity effects in the solid phase, but also the chemical reactions of CO oxidation, based on simplified Arrhenius and Langmuir-Hinshelwood approaches. The associated parameters are the results of data in literature tuned by experiments. Simplified cases of constant flow rates and gas temperatures in the catalyst inflow have been chosen for a comprehensive analysis of the heat and mass transfer phenomena. The impact of inlet flow temperatures and inlet flow rates on the heat up characteristics as well as in the CO emissions have been quantified. A dimensional analysis is proposed and dimensionless temperature difference and space-time coordinates are introduced.
Technical Paper

Heat Transfer Effect on Performance Map of a Turbocharger Turbine for Automotive Application

2017-03-28
2017-01-1036
In the last few years, the effect of diabatic test conditions on compressor performance maps has been widely investigated leading some Authors to propose different correction models. The aim of the paper is to investigate the effect of heat transfer phenomena on the experimental definition of turbocharger maps, focusing on turbine performance. An experimental investigation on a small turbocharger for automotive application has been carried out and presented. The study focused onto the effects of internal heat transfer on turbine thermomechanical efficiency. The experimental campaign was developed considering the effect of different heat transfer state by varying turbine inlet temperature, oil and coolant temperature and compressor inlet pressure. An original model previously developed by the Authors is adopted for the correction of compressor steady flow maps.
Technical Paper

Heat Transfer Effects on Performance Map of a Turbocharger Compressor for Automotive Application

2015-04-14
2015-01-1287
In the last few years, the effect of diabatic test conditions on compressor performance maps has been widely investigated leading some authors to propose different correction models. The accuracy of performance maps constitutes the basis of the turbocharger matching with the engine, for which 1D procedures are more and more adopted. The classical quasi-steady approach generally used is based on the employment of compressor and turbine characteristic maps assuming adiabatic turbocharger conditions. The aim of the paper is to investigate the effect of heat transfer phenomena on the experimental definition of turbocharger maps, focusing on compressor performance. This work was developed within a collaboration between the Polytechnic School of the University of Genoa and CRITT M2A. The compressor steady flow behavior was analyzed through tests performed on different test rigs operating at the University of Genoa and at CRITT M2A, under various heat transfer conditions.
Technical Paper

CFD Investigation of the Impact of Electrical Heating on the Light-off of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst

2018-04-03
2018-01-0961
In the last years, as a response to the more and more restrictive emission legislation, new devices (SRC, DOC, NOx-trap, DPF) have been progressively introduced as standard components of modern after-treatment system for Diesel engines. In addition, the adoption of electrical heating is nowadays regarded with interest as an effective solution to promote the light-off of the catalyst at low temperature, especially at the start-up of the engine and during the low load operation of the engine typical of the urban drive. In this work, a state-of-the-art 48 V electrical heated catalyst is considered, in order to investigate its effect in increasing the abatement efficiency of a standard DOC. The electrical heating device considered is based on a metallic support, arranged in a spiral layout, and it is heated by the Joule effect due to the passage of the electrical current.
Technical Paper

Direct Evaluation of Turbine Isentropic Efficiency in Turbochargers: CFD Assisted Design of an Innovative Measuring Technique

2019-04-02
2019-01-0324
Turbocharging is playing today a fundamental role not only to improve automotive engine performance, but also to reduce fuel consumption and exhaust emissions for both Spark Ignition and Diesel engines. Dedicated experimental investigations on turbochargers are therefore necessary to assess a better understanding of its performance. The availability of experimental information on turbocharger steady flow performance is an essential requirement to optimize the engine-turbocharger matching, which is usually achieved by means of simulation models. This aspect is even more important when referred to the turbine efficiency, since its swallowing capacity can be accurately evaluated through the measurement of mass flow rate, inlet temperature and pressure ratio across the machine.
Technical Paper

Validation of a Theoretical Model for the Correction of Heat Transfer Effects in Turbocharger Testing through a Quasi-3D Model

2020-04-14
2020-01-1010
In the last few years, the effect of diabatic test conditions on compressor performance maps has been widely investigated, leading some Authors to propose different correction models. The accuracy of turbocharger performance map constitute the basis for the tuning and validation of a numerical method, usually adopted for the prediction of engine-turbocharger matching. Actually, it is common practice in automotive applications to use simulation codes, which can either require measured compression ratio and efficiency maps as input values or calculate them “on the fly” throughout specific sub-models integrated in the numerical procedures. Therefore, the ability to correct the measured performance maps taking into account internal heat transfer would allow the implementation of commercial simulation codes used for engine-turbocharger matching calculations.
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