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Technical Paper

Refinement of a 0D Turbulence Model to Predict Tumble and Turbulent Intensity in SI Engines. Part II: Model Concept, Validation and Discussion

2018-04-03
2018-01-0856
As known, reliable information about underlying turbulence intensity is a mandatory pre-requisite to predict the burning rate in quasi-dimensional combustion models. Based on 3D results reported in the companion part I paper, a quasi-dimensional turbulence model, embedded under the form of “user routine” in the GT-Power™ software, is here presented in detail. A deep discussion on the model concept is reported, compared to the alternative approaches available in the current literature. The model has the potential to estimate the impact of some geometrical parameters, such as the intake runner orientation, the compression ratio, or the bore-to-stroke ratio, thus opening the possibility to relate the burning rate to the engine architecture. Preliminarily, a well-assessed approach, embedded in GT-Power commercial software v.2016, is utilized to reproduce turbulence characteristics of a VVA engine.
Technical Paper

Multiphase CFD-CHT Analysis and Optimization of the Cooling Jacket in a V6 Diesel Engine

2010-10-25
2010-01-2096
The paper presents a numerical activity directed at the analysis and optimization of internal combustion engine water cooling jackets, with particular emphasis on the fatigue-strength assessment and improvement. In the paper, full 3D-CFD and FEM analyses of conjugate heat transfer and load cycle under actual engine operation of a single bank of a current production V6 turbocharged diesel engine are reported. A highly detailed model of the engine, made up of both the coolant galleries and the surrounding metal components, i.e., the engine head, the engine block, the gasket, the valve guides and valve seats, is used on both sides of the simulation process to accurately capture the influence of the cooling system layout under thermal and load conditions as close as possible to actual engine operations.
Technical Paper

Numerical Analysis of GDI Engine Cold-Start at Low Ambient Temperatures

2010-10-25
2010-01-2123
The paper investigates the low-temperature cranking operation of a current production automotive Gasoline Direct Injected (GDI) by means of 3D-CFD simulations. Particular care is devoted to the analysis of the hollow cone spray evolution within the combustion chamber and to the formation of fuel film deposits on the combustion chamber walls. Due to the high injected fuel amount and the strongly reduced fuel vaporization, wall wetting is a critical issue and plays a fundamental role on both the early combustion stages and the amount of unburnt hydrocarbons formation. In fact, it is commonly recognized that most of the unburnt hydrocarbon emissions from 4-stroke gasoline engines occur during cold start operations, when fuel film in the cylinder vaporize slowly and fuel can persist until the exhaust stroke.
Technical Paper

Combined In-cylinder / CHT Analyses for the Accurate Estimation of the Thermal Flow Field of a High Performance Engine for Sport Car Applications

2013-04-08
2013-01-1088
The paper describes an integrated methodology for the accurate characterization of the thermal behavior of internal combustion engines, with particular reference to a high performance direct injected SI engine for sport car applications. The engine is operated at full load and maximum power revving speed, which is known to be critical from the point of view of thermal stresses on the engine components. In particular, two different sets of 3D-CFD calculations are adopted: on one side, full-cycle in-cylinder analyses are carried out to estimate the point wise thermal heat flux due to combustion on the engine components facing the combustion chamber. On the other side, full-engine multi-region CHT calculations covering the engine coolant jacket and the surrounding metal components are used to compute the point wise temperature distribution within the engine head, liner and block.
Technical Paper

LES Multi-cycle Analysis of a High Performance GDI Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-1080
The paper reports the application of LES multi-cycle analysis for the characterization of cycle to cycle variability (hereafter CCV) of a highly downsized DISI engine for sport car applications. The analysis covers several subsequent engine cycles operating the engine at full load, peak power engine speed. Despite the chosen engine operation is usually considered relatively stable, relevant fluctuations were experimentally measured in terms of in-cylinder pressure evolution and combustion phasing. On one hand, despite the complex architecture of the V-8 engine, the origin of such CCV is considered to be poorly related to cyclic fluctuations of the gas-dynamics within the intake and exhaust pipes, since acquisitions of the instantaneous pressure traces at both the intake port entrance and exhaust port junction by fast-response pressure measurements over 250 subsequent engine cycles showed almost negligible differences in both amplitude and phasing compared to those within the cylinder.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Turbulence Model Effect on the Characterization of the In-Cylinder Flow Field in a HSDI Diesel Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-1107
In-cylinder large scale and small scale structures are widely recognized to strongly influence the mixing process in HSDI Diesel engines, and therefore combustion and pollutant emissions. In particular, swirl motion intensity and temporal evolution during the intake and compression strokes must be correctly estimated to properly target the spray jets. The experimental characterization of the attitude of a valve/port assembly to promote swirl is traditionally limited to the steady flow bench, in which the analysis is carried out for fixed valve positions / fixed pressure drops and with no piston. Since flow bench analyses cannot reproduce the highly complex instantaneous flow conditions typical of actual engine operations, the use of fully-transient in-cylinder numerical simulations can become extremely useful to correctly address the engine ability to promote adequate flow structures and patterns.
Technical Paper

Validation of a CFD Methodology for the Analysis of Conjugate Heat Transfer in a High Performance SI Engine

2011-09-11
2011-24-0132
The paper presents a combined experimental and numerical activity carried out to improve the accuracy of conjugate heat transfer CFD simulations of a high-performance S.I. engine water cooling jacket. Due to the complexity of the computational domain, which covers both the coolant jacket and the surrounding metal cast (both head and block), particular care is required in order to find a tradeoff between the accuracy and the cost-effectiveness of the numerical procedure. In view of the presence of many complex physical phenomena, the contribution of some relevant CFD parameters and sub-models is separately evaluated and discussed. Among the formers, the extent of the computational domain, the choice of a proper set of boundary conditions and the detailed representation of the physical properties of the involved materials are separately considered.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Investigation of the Idle Operating Engine Condition for a GDI Engine

2011-09-11
2011-24-0031
The paper investigates the idle operating condition of a current production turbocharged Gasoline Direct Injected (GDI) high performance engine both from an experimental and a numerical perspective. Due to the low engine speed, to the low injection pressure and to the null contribution of the turbocharger, the engine condition is far from the standard points of investigation. According to the low heat flux due to combustion, temperature levels are low and reduced fuel evaporation is expected. Consequently, fuel spray evolution within the combustion chamber and spray/wall interaction are key points for the understanding of the combustion process. In order to properly investigate and understand the many complex phenomena, a wide set of engine speeds was experimentally investigated and, as far as the understanding of the physics of spray/wall interaction is concerned, many different injection strategies are tested.
Technical Paper

Integrated In-Cylinder/CHT Analysis for the Prediction of Abnormal Combustion Occurrence in Gasoline Engines

2014-04-01
2014-01-1151
In order to improve fuel conversion efficiency, currently made spark-ignited engines are characterized by the adoption of gasoline direct injection, supercharging and/or turbocharging, complex variable valve actuation strategies. The resulting increase in power/size ratios is responsible for substantially higher average thermal loads on the engine components, which in turn result in increased risks of both thermo-mechanical failures and abnormal combustion events such as surface ignition or knock. The paper presents a comprehensive numerical methodology for the accurate estimation of knock tendency of SI engines, based on the integration of different modeling frameworks and tools. Full-cycle in-cylinder analyses are used to estimate the point-wise heat flux acting on the engine components facing the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

LES Analysis of Cyclic Variability in a GDI Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1148
The paper critically discusses Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) potential to investigate cycle-to-cycle variability (CCV) in internal combustion engines. Particularly, the full load/peak power engine speed operation of a high-performance turbocharged GDI unit, for which ample cycle-to-cycle fluctuations were observed during experimental investigations at the engine test bed, is analyzed through a multi-cycle approach covering 25 subsequent engine cycles. In order to assess the applicability of LES within the research and development industrial practice, a modeling framework with a limited impact on the computational cost of the simulations is set up, with particular reference to the extent of the computational domain, the computational grid size, the choice of boundary conditions and numerical sub-models [1, 2, 3].
Technical Paper

A Numerical Investigation on the Potentials of Water Injection as a Fuel Efficiency Enhancer in Highly Downsized GDI Engines

2015-04-14
2015-01-0393
Engine downsizing is gaining popularity in the high performance engine market sector, where a new generation of highly downsized engines with specific power outputs around or above 150 HP/litre is emerging. High-boost and downsizing, adopted to increase power density and reduce fuel consumption, have to face the increased risks of pre-ignition, knock or mega-knock. To counterbalance autoignition of fuel/air mixture, such engines usually operate with high fuel enrichments and delayed (sometimes negative) spark advances. The former is responsible for high fuel consumption levels, while the latter reduces performance and induces an even lower A/F ratio (below 11), to limit the turbine inlet temperature, with huge negative effects on BSFC.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation on the Effects of Water/Methanol Injection as Knock Suppressor to Increase the Fuel Efficiency of a Highly Downsized GDI Engine

2015-09-06
2015-24-2499
A new generation of highly downsized SI engines with specific power output around or above 150 HP/liter is emerging in the sport car market sector. Technologies such as high-boosting, direct injection and downsizing are adopted to increase power density and reduce fuel consumption. To counterbalance the increased risks of pre-ignition, knock or mega-knock, currently made turbocharged SI engines usually operate with high fuel enrichments and delayed (sometimes negative) spark advances. The former is responsible for high fuel consumption levels, while the latter induce an even lower A/F ratio (below 11), to limit the turbine inlet temperature, with huge negative effects on BSFC. A possible solution to increase knock resistance is investigated in the paper by means of 3D-CFD analyses: water/methanol emulsion is port-fuel injected to replace mixture enrichment while preserving, if not improving, indicated mean effective pressure and knock safety margins.
Technical Paper

CFD Analysis of the Effects of Fuel Composition and Injection Strategy on Mixture Preparation and Fuel Deposit Formation in a GDI Engine

2015-09-06
2015-24-2408
In spark-ignited direct-injected engines, the formation of fuel pools on the piston is one of the major promoters of unburnt hydrocarbons and soot: in order to comply with the increasingly stringent emission regulations (EU6 and forthcoming), it is therefore necessary to limit fuel deposit formation. The combined use of advanced experimental techniques and detailed 3D-CFD simulations can help to understand the mechanisms driving fuel pool formation. In the paper, a combined experimental and numerical characterization of pool formation in a GDI engine is carried out to investigate and understand the complex interplay of all the mentioned factors. In particular, a low-load low-rpm engine operation is investigated for different ignition phasing, and the impact of both fuel formulation and instantaneous piston temperature variations in the CFD analyses are evaluated.
Technical Paper

Combustion Optimization of a Marine DI Diesel Engine

2013-09-08
2013-24-0020
Enhanced calibration strategies and innovative engine combustion technologies are required to meet the new limits on exhaust gas emissions enforced in the field of marine propulsion and on-board energy production. The goal of the paper is to optimize the control parameters of a 4.2 dm3 unit displacement marine DI Diesel engine, in order to enhance the efficiency of the combustion system and reduce engine out emissions. The investigation is carried out by means of experimental tests and CFD simulations. For a better control of the testing conditions, the experimental activity is performed on a single cylinder prototype, while the engine test bench is specifically designed to simulate different levels of boosting. The numerical investigations are carried out using a set of different CFD tools: GT-Power for the engine cycle analysis, STAR-CD for the study of the in-cylinder flow, and a customized version of the KIVA-3V code for combustion.
Technical Paper

Assessment of the Potential of Proper Orthogonal Decomposition for the Analysis of Combustion CCV and Knock Tendency in a High Performance Engine

2013-09-08
2013-24-0031
The paper reports the application of Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) to LES calculations for the analysis of combustion and knock tendency in a highly downsized turbocharged GDI engine that is currently under production. In order to qualitatively match the cyclic variability of the combustion process, Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) of the closed-valve portion of the cycle is used with cycle-dependent initial conditions from a previous multi-cycle analysis [1, 2, 3]. Detailed chemical modelling of fuel's auto-ignition quality is considered through an ad-hoc implemented look-up table approach, as a trade-off between the need for a reasonable representation of the chemistry and that of limiting the computational cost of the LES simulations. Experimental tests were conducted operating the engine at knock-limited spark advance (KLSA) and the proposed knock model was previously validated for such engine setup [3].
Technical Paper

Study of LES Quality Criteria in a Motored Internal Combustion Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0549
In recent years, Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) is spotlighted as an engineering tool and severe research efforts are carried out on its applicability to Internal Combustion Engines (ICEs). However, there is a general lack of definitive conclusions on LES quality criteria for ICE. This paper focuses on the application of LES quality criteria to ICE and to their correlation, in order to draw a solid background on future LES quality assessments for ICE. In this paper, TCC-III single-cylinder optical engine from University of Michigan is investigated and the analysis is conducted under motored condition. LES quality is mainly affected by grid size and type, sub-grid scale (SGS) model, numeric schemes. In this study, the same grid size and type are used in order to focus on the effect on LES quality of SGS models and blending factors of numeric scheme only.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Spray Evolution, Hydraulics and Atomization for a 60 MPa Injection Pressure GDI System

2018-04-03
2018-01-0271
In recent years, the GDI (Gasoline Direct Injection) technology has significantly spread over the automotive market under the continuous push toward the adoption of combustion systems featuring high thermodynamic conversion efficiency and moderate pollutant emissions. Following this path, the injection pressure level has been progressively increased from the initial 5-15 MPa level nowadays approaching 35 MPa. The main reason behind the progressive injection pressure increase in GDI engines is the improved spray atomization, ensuring a better combustion process control and lower soot emissions. On the other hand, increasing injection pressure implies more power absorbed by the pumping system and hence a penalty in terms of overall efficiency. Therefore, the right trade-off has to be found between soot formation tendency reduction thanks to improved atomization and the energetic cost of a high pressure fuel injection system.
Technical Paper

Impact of Grid Density on the LES Analysis of Flow CCV: Application to the TCC-III Engine under Motored Conditions

2018-04-03
2018-01-0203
Large-eddy simulation (LES) applications for internal combustion engine (ICE) flows are constantly growing due to the increase of computing resources and the availability of suitable CFD codes, methods and practices. The LES superior capability for modeling spatial and temporal evolution of turbulent flow structures with reference to RANS makes it a promising tool for describing, and possibly motivating, ICE cycle-to-cycle variability (CCV) and cycle-resolved events such as knock and misfire. Despite the growing interest towards LES in the academic community, applications to ICE flows are still limited. One of the reasons for such discrepancy is the uncertainty in the estimation of the LES computational cost. This in turn is mainly dependent on grid density, the CFD domain extent, the time step size and the overall number of cycles to be run. Grid density is directly linked to the possibility of reducing modeling assumptions for sub-grid scales.
Technical Paper

A Comprehensive CFD-CHT Methodology for the Characterization of a Diesel Engine: from the Heat Transfer Prediction to the Thermal Field Evaluation

2017-10-08
2017-01-2196
High power-density Diesel engines are characterized by remarkable thermo-mechanical loads. Therefore, compared to spark ignition engines, designers are forced to increase component strength in order to avoid failures. 3D-CFD simulations represent a powerful tool for the evaluation of the engine thermal field and may be used by designers, along with FE analyses, to ensure thermo-mechanical reliability. The present work aims at providing an integrated in-cylinder/CHT methodology for the estimation of a Diesel engine thermal field. On one hand, in-cylinder simulations are fundamental to evaluate not only the integral amount of heat transfer to the combustion chamber walls, but also its point-wise distribution. To this specific aim, an improved heat transfer model based on a modified thermal wall function is adopted to estimate correctly wall heat fluxes due to combustion.
Technical Paper

Chemistry-Based Laminar Flame Speed Correlations for a Wide Range of Engine Conditions for Iso-Octane, n-Heptane, Toluene and Gasoline Surrogate Fuels

2017-10-08
2017-01-2190
CFD simulations of reacting flows are fundamental investigation tools used to predict combustion behaviour and pollutants formation in modern internal combustion engines. Focusing on spark-ignited units, most of the flamelet-based combustion models adopted in current simulations use the fuel/air/residual laminar flame propagation speed as a background to predict the turbulent flame speed. This, in turn, is a fundamental requirement to model the effective burn rate. A consolidated approach in engine combustion simulations relies on the adoption of empirical correlations for laminar flame speed, which are derived from fitting of combustion experiments. However, these last are conducted at pressure and temperature ranges largely different from those encountered in engines: for this reason, correlation extrapolation at engine conditions is inevitably accepted. As a consequence, relevant differences between proposed correlations emerge even for the same fuel and conditions.
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