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Technical Paper

An attempt at Lean Burn of a4 Stroke Gasoline Engine by the Aid of Low Pressure Air Assisted In-Cylinder Injection

Lean burn engines now being developed employ in-cylinder injection which requires high pressures and so necessitates expensive injection equipment. The experiments reported here used air assisted in-cylinder injection, and injected a mixture of air and fuel during the intake stroke, so allowing atomization at lower injection pressures than those necessary in compressing fuel with solid injection. The experiments confirmed that operation in this manner resulted in similar output and fuel consumption as with a carburetor. Next, a divided combustion chamber was installed and connected to the main combustion chamber and air assisted in-cylinder injection from a reed type injection nozzle was attempted. With this arrangement, stable idling operation was possible to air-fuel ratios (A/F) of 70. Lean burn at A/F = 22 to 35 was also achieved at maximum rated outputs (3.7 kW at 4200 min-l) of 6 - 18 %.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Oxygenated Fuel Additive on the Reduction of Diesel Exhaust Particulates

The blending of dimethyl carbonate (DMC), which contains 53% of oxygen, in diesel fuel is very effective to suppress the formation of exhaust particulates, however, the mechanism of the suppression has not been made clear. In this study, the comparison on the performance of gas oil and DMC mixture was achieved. The effect of the oxygen in DMC molecule has to suppress the formation of particulates was monitored by way of using thermal cracking analyzer under various conditions.
Technical Paper

Formation of Soot Particulates in the Combustion Chamber of a Precombustion Chamber Type Diesel Engine

To clarify the formation processes of soot particulates in the combustion chamber, we sampled the gas during combustion in a precombustion chamber and a main chamber using an electromagnetic sampling valve, and made a gas analysis by gas chromatography, examined the soot concentration, and size distribution and dispersion of soot particulates with a transmission electron microscope. The following results were obtained: (1) In the prechamber soot particulates form at the period of rapid combustion in the initial stage rather than the end of the diffusion combustion. (2) Soot particulates which were formed in the prechamber were introduced to the main chamber, and a part of the soot particulates were burned. (3) Soot particulates formed at the initial stage of the combustion process exhibited a tendency to become smaller by oxidation. (4) If the oxygen concentration in the combustion chamber is above 5%, the combustion of soot particulates take place.
Technical Paper

Low Carbon Flower Buildup, Low Smoke, and Efficient Diesel Operation with Vegetable Oils by Conversion to Mono-Esters and Blending with Diesel Oil or Alcohols

The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate the feasibility of rapeseed oil and palm oil for diesel fuel substitution in a naturally aspirated D.I. diesel engine, and also to find means to reduce the carbon deposit buildup in vegetable oil combustion. In the experiments, the engine performance, exhaust gas emissions, and carbon deposits were measured for a number of fuels: rapeseed oil, palm oil, methylester of rapeseed oil, and these fuels blended with ethanol or diesel fuel with different fuel temperatures. It was found that both of the vegetable oil fuels generated an acceptable engine performance and exhaust gas emission levels for short term operation, but they caused carbon deposit buildups and sticking of piston rings after extended operation.
Technical Paper

An Investigation on the Simultaneous Reduction of Particulate and NOx by Controlling Both the Turbulence and the Mixture Formation in DI Diesel Engines

This paper presents experimental results of the reduction of both particulate and NOx emitted from direct injection diesel engines by a two stage combustion process. The primary combustion is made very rich to reduce NOx and then the particulate is oxidized by strong turbulence generated during the secondary combustion. The rich mixture is formed by low pressure fuel injection and a small cavity combustion chamber configuration. The strong turbulence is generated by a jet of burned gas from an auxiliary chamber installed at the cylinder head. The results showed that NOx was reduced significantly while maintaining fuel consumption and particulate emissions. An investigation was also carried out on the particulate reduction process in the combustion chamber with the turbulence by gas sampling and in-cylinder observation with an optical fiber scope and a high speed camera.
Technical Paper

Formation Process of SOF in the Combustion Chamber of IDI Diesel Engines

Exhaust Particulate emitted from diesel engines is a serious problem form the point of view of the environment and energy saving. Exhaust particulate is consist of dry soot and SOF (soluble organic fraction). To clarify the formation process of SOF in the combustion chamber of diesel engines, first lower temperature column condensed method was investigated. The gas from combustion chamber was collected to the sampling column using this method, and the cracked as well as the condensation polymerized components were analyzed with gas chromatography. The sampling condition of the low temperature column condensation method are length of condensation column 600mm, cooling temperature 198K, and dilution ratio 5. The diesel fuel injected into the combustion chamber, first cracks into lower boiling point hydrocarbons, this is followed by dehydrogenation and formation of benzene ring compounds through condensation polymerization. This is followed by the formation of PAH.
Technical Paper

Effects of Super Heating of Heavy Fuels on Combustion and Performance in DI Diesel Engines

This paper is concerned with the effects of temperature of heavy fuels on combustion and engine performance in a naturally aspirated DI diesel engine. Engine performance and exhaust gas emissions were measured for rapeseed oil, B-heavy oil, and diesel fuel at fuel temperatures from 40°C to 400°C. With increased fuel temperature, mainly from improved efficiency of combustion there were significant reductions in the specific energy consumption and smoke emissions. It was found that the improvements were mainly a function of the fuel viscosity, and it was independent of the kind of fuel. The optimum temperature of the fuels with regard to specific energy consumption and smoke emission is about 90°C for diesel fuel, 240°C for B-heavy oil, and 300°C for rapeseed oil. At these temperatures, the viscosities of the fuels show nearly identical value, 0.9 - 3 cst. The optimum viscosity tends to increase slightly with increases in the swirl ratio in the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Diesel Soot Suppression with Soluble Fuel Additives

Experiments on a large number of soluble fuel additives were systematically conducted for diesel soot reduction. It was found that Ca and Ba were the most effective soot suppressors. The main determinants of soot reduction were: the metal mol-content of the fuel, the excess air factor, and the gas turbulence in the combustion chamber. The soot reduction ratio was expressed by an exponential function of the metal mol-content in the fuel, depending on the metal but independent of the metal compound. A rise in excess air factor or gas turbulence increased the value of a coefficient in the function, resulting in larger reductions in soot with the fuel additives. High-speed soot sampling from the cylinder showed that with the metal additive, the soot concentration in the combustion chamber was substantially reduced during the whole period of combustion. It is thought that the additive acts as a catalyst not only to improve soot oxidation but also to suppress soot formation.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Fuel Properties on Diesel Engine Exhaust Particulate Formation

Exhaust particulate in diesel engines are affected by fuel properties, especially the aromatic hydrocarbon content and distillation properties, but the reasons for this are not clear. The process of particulate formation has been reported to start with a thermal cracking of the fuel to lower boiling point hydrocarbons followed by condensation polymerization and production of benzene ring compounds; the formation of particulate takes place via polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The fuel properties affect diesel engine particulate because the thermal cracking and condensation polymerization of various fuels are different.
Technical Paper

Effects of Combustion and Injection Systems on Unburnt HC and Particulate Emissions from a DI Diesel Engine

This paper is a systematic investigation of the effects of combustion and injection systems on hydrocarbon(HC) and particulate emissions from a DI diesel engine. Piston cavity diameter, swirl ratio, number of injection nozzle openings, and injection direction are varied as the experimental parameters, and the constituents in the soluble organic fraction (SOF) of the particulate were analyzed. The results show that the emission characteristics of deep dish chambers greatly differ from those of shallow dish chambers varying with the number of nozzle openings, the injection direction, and swirl intensity. The HC analysis shows mainly low carbon number gaseous HC constituents, and there is a tendency towards increasing polynucleation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon(PAH) in SOF with increasing soot formation.
Technical Paper

The Microcrystal Structure of Soot Particulates in the Combustion Chamber of Prechamber Type Diesel Engines

To clarify the microcrystal structure of soot particulate in the combustion chamber, we examined sampling methods which freeze the reaction of sample specimens from the combustion chamber and collected the soot particulates on microgrids. We investigated the microcrystal structure with a high resolution transmission electron microscope. The results were: the particle size distribution and the microcrystal structure of the soot particulates is little different for the cooled freezing method and room temperature sampling. The typical layer plane structure which characterizes graphite carbon is not observed in the exhaust of diesel engines, but some particulates display a somewhat similar layer plane structure. The structure of soot particulate is a turbostratic structure as the electron diffraction patterns show polycrystals. The soot particulates in the combustion chamber is similar to exhaust soot particulates.
Technical Paper

Measurement off Particulate and Unburnt Hydrocarbon Emissions from Diesel Engines

This paper provides information on measurements and measurement techniques for particulate and unburnt hydrocarbon emissions from diesel engines. A dilution mini-tunnel was used to characterize the effects of the dilution ratio and sample temperature on the total particulate mass and soluble organic fraction(SOF) constituents. Increasing the sample temperature resulted in changes in the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon(PAH) constituents in SOF. The SOF was isolated by column chromatography, and the PAH fraction was determined by high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC). Column chromatography with silicagel, an octadecylsilan-bonded column, and keeping at high temperatures improved the analytical efficiency of HPLC. The gaseous hydrocarbon in raw exhaust was analysed by GC with FID. The temperature of the sample glass syringe affected measurements of high boiling point hydrocarbon constituents.
Technical Paper

Mechanism of NOx Reduction by Ethanol on a Silver-Base Catalyst

Since there is a trade-off relationship between NOx and particulates in exhaust gas emitted from a diesel engine, simultaneous reduction of the amounts of NOx and particulates in a combustion chamber is difficult. However, the amount of particulates produced in the combustion process could be reduced in a state of almost complete combustion, and the amount of NOx produced during the combustion process could be reduced by the use of a catalyst and reducing agent in the exhaust process. It has been demonstrated that the use of ethanol as a reducing agent on a silver-base catalyst in the presence of oxygen is an effective means for reducing NOx, although the mechanism of the reduction has not been elucidated. Therefore, in the present study, an NOx-reduction apparatus was conducted, and model experiments on NOx reduction were carried out in an atmosphere simulating exhaust gas emitted from a diesel engine and at the same catalyst temperature as that in a combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

A Simulation of Diesel Engine Combustion Noise

In the present work, an attempt was made to predict engine noise from the shape of the burning rate curve. Thus, the influence of the shape of the burning rate curve on engine noise, especially on combustion noise was studied in detail and clarification of the relationship was successfully made. At first, an approximation of burning rate curve using a function was attempted. And in second, the transfer rate from cylinder pressure to combustion noise was obtained. Then, the relation between the deciding parameters of burning rate curve and noise and performance of engine were studied.
Technical Paper

Combustion Behaviors Under Accelerating Operation of an IDI Diesel Engine

In a four-cycle, naturally aspirated, pre-chamber diesel engine, the combustion characteristics such as the rates of fuel injection, the ignition lag, the rates of heat release, the combustion peak pressure, the maximum rates of pressure rise, and the smoke density, were investigated for over 70 consecutive cycles under acceleration, with the aid of an on-line data handling system developed for this experiment. The effects of operating conditions such as the fuel injection timing, the fuel spray angle, the wall temperature of the combustion chamber, and the coolant temperature, on the combustion characteristics were also investigated.
Technical Paper

Unique Measuring Method of Indicator Diagrams Using Strain History of Head Bolts

To get accurate indicator diagrams without the use of pressure transducers, the strain and the displacement of the various parts of engine structures that would have some relationship with the pressure variation in the cylinder were measured and analyzed mathematically. By measuring the strain of the cylinder head bolts, the horizontal displacement of the crank shaft end, and the vertical displacement of the intake valve stem, we realized that the indicator diagrams could be obtained easily without a passage from the interior to the outside of the combustion chamber. Accurate indicator diagrams were estimated by applying the pressure-strain diagram obtained from the static pressure test in the cylinder to the strain variation in the cylinder head bolts. On this occasion, the accuracy of the estimated indicator diagrams could be improved by providing the cylinder head system with a one degree freedom vibration system.
Technical Paper

Catalytic Reduction of NOx in Actual Diesel Engine Exhaust

Copper ion-exchanged ZSM-5 zeolite catalyst, which reduces nitrogen oxides (NOx) in the presence of oxygen and hydrocarbons, was applied to actual diesel engine exhaust. Copper ion-exchanged ZSM-5 zeolite effectively reduced NOx by 25% in normal engine operation, and by 80% when hydrocarbons in the exhaust were increased. Water in the exhaust gas decreased the NOx reduction efficiency, but oxygen and sulfur appeared to have only a small effect. Maximum NOx reduction was observed at 400°C irrespective of hydrocarbon species, and did not decrease with space velocity up to values of 20,000 1/h. THE PURPOSE of this paper is to evaluate the possibilities and problems in catalytic reduction of NOx in actual diesel engine exhaust. Here, a copper ion-exchanged ZSM-5 zeolite (Cu-Z) catalyst was applied to diesel engine exhaust to examine the dependency of the NOx reduction efficiency on temperature and space velocity. The effects of oxygen, water and hydrocarbons were also examined.
Technical Paper

Combustion Similarity for Different Size Diesel Engines: Theoretical Prediction and Experimental Results

This paper presents a theoretical and experimental study on the possibility of combustion similarity in differently sized diesel engines. Combustion similarity means that the flow pattern and flame distribution develop similarly in differently sized engines. The study contributes to an understanding and correlating of data which are presently limited to specific engine designs. The theoretical consideration shows the possibility of combustion similarity, and the similarity conditions were identified. To verify the theory, a comparison of experimental data from real engines was performed; and a comparison of results of a three dimensional computer simulation for different engine sizes was also attempted. The results showed good agreement with the theoretical predictions. THE PURPOSE of this research is to determine the possibility of the existence of combustion similarity in differently sized diesel engines, and to propose conditions for realizing model experiments.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Smoke and NOx by Strong Turbulence Generated During the Combustion Process in D.I. Diesel Engines

This paper presents results of experiments to reduce smoke emitted from direct Injection diesel engines by strong turbulence generated during the combustion process. The turbulence was created by jets of burned gas from an auxiliary chamber installed in the cylinder head. Strong turbulence, which was induced late in the combustion period, enhanced the mixing of air with unburned fuel and soot, resulting in a remarkable reduction of smoke and particulate; NOx did not show any increase with this system, and thermal efficiency was improved at high loads. The paper also shows that the combination of EGR and water injection with this system effectively reduces the both smoke and NOx.
Technical Paper

Theory and Experiments on Air-Entrainment in Fuel Sprays and Their Application to Interpret Diesel Combustion Processes

This paper presents a theory and its experimental validation for air entrainment changes into fuel sprays in DI diesel engines. The theory predicts air entrainment changes for a variety of swirl speeds, number of nozzle holes, nozzle diameters, engine speeds, injection speeds and fuel densities. The formulae of the theory are simple non-dimensional equations, which apply for different sized engines. Experiments were performed to compare theoretical predictions and experimental results in six different engines varying from 85 to 800mm bore. All results showed good agreement with the theoretical predictions for shallow-dish piston engines. However the agreement became poor in the case of deep cavity piston engines. With the theory, it is possible to interpret a variety of combustion phenomena in diesel engines, providing additional understanding of diesel combustion processes.