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Technical Paper

Improving the Fuel Economy of Supercharged Engine

The paper reviews the experimental development of fuel economy of engine powering the 2012 Formula SAE single seat race car of the University of Sophia. The balance of high power and low fuel consumption is biggest challenge of racing engine. It was found that improving the efficiency of engine by supercharging as a way to achieve that. In order to adapt the supercharger for the engine, the important design points are below: It was found that intake air blow-by gas at combustion chamber is increased in low engine speed. To improve that, the valve overlap angle was changed to adopt supercharged engine and improve effective compression ratio. Typically the racing engine demands maximum torque for performance but that does not imply that the air fuel ratio should be rich than theoretical. The point is the maximum torque of the engine is proportional to the amount of air intake. Therefore, supercharged engine is possible to increase the supercharging pressure for bigger torque.
Technical Paper

An Improvement of a Small Displacement Engine's Efficiency with a Super Charging System

1 Many environmental problems, such as global warming, drain of fuel and so on, are apprehended in all over the world today, and down-sizing is one of the wise ways to deal with these problems. It is significant that a decrease of the engine power must not be produced by using a small displacement engine, so more efficient engine system should be designed to increase the torque with a little fuel. This study achieves an improvement of efficiency for mounting the super charging system on the small displacement engine. As a result, comparing a super charged engine and a naturally aspirated one to drive the same course and laps, fuel consumptions are 2547 [cc] and 3880 [cc], respectively, and an improvement of fuel consumption is 52%. Designing points to mount super charging system is introduced below. 1 It can be forecasted that intake air blow-by gas at the combustion chamber is increased in low engine speed because engine for motor cycle is used.
Technical Paper

Research of the DI Diesel Spray Characteristics at High Temperature and High Pressure Ambient

In order to clarify the diesel fuel spray characteristics inside the cylinder, we developed two novel techniques, which are preparation of same level of temperature and pressure ambient as inside cylinder and quantitative measurement of vapor concentration. The first one utilizes combustion-type constant-volume chamber (inner volume 110cc), which allows 5 MPa and 873K by igniting the pre-mixture (n-pentane and air) with two spark plugs. In the second technique, TMPD vapor concentration is measured by using Laser Induced Exciplex Fluorescence method (LIEF). The concentration is compensated by investigation of the influence of ambient pressure (from 3 to 5 MPa) and temperature (from 550 to 900 K) on TMPD fluorescence intensity. By using two techniques, we investigated the influence of nozzle hole diameter, injection pressure and ambient condition on spray characteristics.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Unsteady Heat Transfer on Periodical Flow in Intake Port Model

The experiments were done in order to obtain the fundamental information that would be needed to build a physical model which expresses the heat transfer phenomena in the intake port model and manifold. In the experiments, the heating conditions and the period of the cyclic change of the gas velocity were changed as experimental parameters. In addition to those parameters, the Strouhal number was applied to express oscillating flow. As a result, the heat transfer in the experiments became clear, and the equations were obtained to show the Nusselt number using the Reynolds number, the Graetz number and the Strouhal number.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Temperature Distribution Nearby Flame Quenching Zone by Real-Time Holographic Interferometry

Temperature distribution as the flame propagated and contacted to the wall of the combustion chamber was measured by real-time holographic interference method, which mainly consisted of an argon-ion laser and a high-speed video camera. The experiment was done with a constant volume chamber and propane-air mixture with several kinds of equivalence ratios. From the experimental results, it can be found that the temperature distribution outside the zone from the surface of the combustion chamber to 0.1mm distance could be measured by counting the number of the interference fringes, but couldn't within this zone because of lacking in the resolution of the used optical system. The experimental results show that the temperature distribution when the heat flux on the wall increases rapidly and when the heat flux shows the maximum value are quite different by the equivalence ratio.
Technical Paper

Precise Measurement of Heat Transfer to the Inlet Air using Intake Port Model

Temperature measurement experiments with intake port model were done to achieve the fundamental information on constructing physical model that expresses the heat transfer phenomena in the intake manifold and intake port. The experiments were done with steady airflow, and the size, shape, heating condition of the port model and mass flow rate were changed as experimental parameters. As the results, it was clear that the developing condition of velocity and thermal boundary layer had greater influence than the shape factor, and the coefficient and the exponent of the equation derived from the relationship between Nusselt number and Reynolds number had great difference from those of generally used Colburn's equation in undeveloped entrance region, but they got closer as developing boundary layer.
Technical Paper

Adaptation of Turbocharger to Small Displacement Single Cylinder SI Engine

This paper represents the adaptation of turbo charger to single cylinder 450cc SI engine which is used for the student formula competition. The experiment and 1D engine simulation called as GT-Power were performed to confirm the effect of valve profile, compression ratio and air fuel ratio on the engine performance under the naturally aspirated condition. The maximum valve lift of the intake valves increased 27% and that of the exhaust valves increased 15% as compared with the low profile cam. The compression ratio was increased from 12.3 to 13.5 by changing the piston top land length in order to improve the thermal efficiency. It was confirmed that the torque peak was moved from 6000 rpm to 8000 rpm by changing the valve profile. Furthermore, turbo charger was adapted to the engine as changing the capacity of the turbocharger, the maximum boost pressure and the air fuel ratio.
Technical Paper

Study on Electronic control of Air -Fuel Ratio and Ignition Timing for Small Gasoline Engine

The electronic controlled carburetor and ignition system has been developed. In accordance with various working conditions of the engine, the system adjusted corresponding control parameters; air fuel ratio and ignition timing, therefore it could keep the engine working on the optimal conditions. Through analyzing overall performance of the engine based on the experimental data, we had concluded that the specific fuel consumption was improved about 8-10%, and the exhaust emission performance was improved correspondingly after electronic control, the improved ratio was about 10% for HC emission and 97% for CO emission.
Technical Paper

Research on Adaptation of Pressure Wave Supercharger (PWS) to Gasoline Engine

The purpose of this study is to find the suitable working conditions of a Pressure Wave Supercharger (PWS) that is coupled to a gasoline engine experimentally. The working condition is validated by stationary measurements on an engine dynamometer. To achieve an easier system structure, it was examined to use the engine output for driving of PWS. As a result, it was confirmed that the engine coupled with PWS could be driven by making the ratio of the PWS rotor speed and the engine speed constant.
Technical Paper

Development of a Higher Boost Turbocharged Diesel Engine for Better Fuel Economy in Heavy Vehicles

This paper presents technical solutions and a development process to accomplish not only superior fuel economy but also excellent driveability with a turbocharged diesel engine for heavy duty trucks. For better fuel economy, one of the basic considerations is how to decrease the friction losses of the engine itself while keeping the required horsepower and torque characteristics. A high boost turbocharged small engine offers this possibility, but it has serious disadvantages such as inferior low speed torque, poorer accelerating response, insufficient engine braking performance, and finally not always so good fuel consumption in the engine operating range away from the matching point between engine and turbocharger. These are not acceptable in complicated traffic conditions like those in Japan - a mixture of mountainous and hilly roads, city road with numerous traffic signals, and freeways.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Error in Piezoelectric Pressure Transducer

Measuring precise cylinder pressure traces of internal combustion engines is an important factor for estimating their performances. It is known that the actual pressure readings measured with piezoelectric pressure transducers nave various forms of error. This paper is devoted to a study of compensation methods for reducing the errors caused by time constant values and thermal shock. Numerical analysis were carried out for the both errors to derive the equations of error compensation using the actual pressure data. The results indicate that the errors are corrected quite well with the obtained equations.
Technical Paper

Heat Transfer in the Internal Combustion Engines

This investigation was concerned with the rate of heat transfer from the working gases to the combustion chamber walls of the internal combustion engines. The numerical formula for estimating the heat transfer to the combustion chamber wall was derived from the theoretical analysis and the experiment, which were used the constant volume combustion chamber and the actual gasoline engine. As a result, mean heat transfer in the internal combustion engine becomes possible to estimate with measuring the cylinder pressure. In addition, the derived numerical formula forms with quite simple variables. Therefore it is very useful for engine design.
Technical Paper

A Study on Electrostatic Induction Current for Noise Suppression

Radio noise generated by the ignition system of internal combustion engines is primarily caused by the capacitive discharge current flowing in the ignition circuit when the spark occurs at spark gap. It is known that suppression of the capacitive discharge current usually effective in reducing the radiated ignition noise level. [1]* However, with exposed engines such as outboard marine, motorcycles, and particularly, in devices with long metal bodies, the radiated level peaks at a frequency which is determined by the length of the metal body. The authors found that the phenomenon described above could be explained by assuming electrostatic induction current. This was based on the noise voltage from the ignition system to the device. This paper intends to report the findings of this research.
Technical Paper

The Method of Measuring Air-Fuel Ratio by Radical Luminescence in High Combustion Pressure

The relations of luminous intensity of the radicals, CH, C2, and OH radical, and the equivalence ratio, ϕ under high combustion pressure region (7.0MPa maximum) were investigated. Luminous intensity of each radical and combustion pressure were experimentally obtained using a constant volume combustion chamber. It was found that luminous intensity of each radical can be expressed as a function of ϕ and the combustion pressure. The estimation of ϕ was done within the region, 0.8<ϕ<1.2 and 2.0MPa
Technical Paper

A Modification of Combustion Systems for Low Exhaust Emission and Its Effects on Durability of Prechamber Diesel Engine

Described here is the tuning of the combustion systems of a precombustion chamber diesel engine for lower level of exhaust gas emission. The key points of the tuning are the decrease of the prechamber volume, the selection of the combustion chamber configuration, the injection nozzle characteristics and the optimum injection timing. It was made clear, in the results of investigation, that the degradation of lubricating oil and the cavitation pitting on the outer wall of cylinder liner were directly concerned with the combustion characteristics of low emission systems. And both problems have been solved. The result of combustion tuning of the engine shows less than 5 g/hp-h of NOx + HC with CARB 13 mode test cycle without deterioration of performance nor durability.
Technical Paper

A New Combustion System for the Diesel Engine and Its Analysis via High Speed Photography

Described herein is the tuning of the combustion system of a direct injection type diesel engine to obtain low emission level and better fuel economy. Though the most important method of emission control for a direct injection system is considered to be timing retardation, it brings a higher level of smoke density and fuel consumption. In order to remove these faults, the authors developed a new combustion system based on a newly designed intake port which provides a favorable local mixing of fuel droplets and air in the combustion chamber for ignition by means of air turbulence. This new combustion system was analyzed with high speed photographs which were taken from the underside of the piston to enable observing the whole combustion chamber. Favorable characteristics of ignition and burning pattern of the new system were recognized by this analysis.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Quasi-Steady State Heat Transfer Phenomena with the Consideration of Backflow Gas Effect at Intake Manifold of IC Engines and Its Numerical Analyses on 1-D Engine Simulation

An empirical equation was developed for modeling the heat transfer phenomena taking place in an intake manifold which included the backflow gas effect. In literature, heat transfer phenomenon at intake system is modeled based on steady flow assumptions by Colburn analogy. Previously, authors developed an equation with the introduction of Graetz and Strouhal numbers, using a port model experimental setup. In this study, to further improve the empirical equation, real engine experiments were conducted where pressure ratio between the intake manifold and engine cylinder were added along with Reynolds number to characterize the backflow gas effect on intake air temperature. Compared to the experimental data, maximum and average errors of intake air temperature estimated from the new empirical equation were found to be 2.9% and 0.9%, respectively.
Technical Paper

Implementation of Air-Fuel Ratio Feed-Forward Controller Considering Heat Transfer at Intake System to SI Engine

For further development of the thermal efficiency of SI engines, the robust control of the air-fuel ratio (A/F) fluctuation is one of the most important technologies, because the A/F is maintained at the theoretical constant value, which causes the increase of the catalytic conversion efficiency and the reduction of pollutant emission. We developed the robust controller of the A/F, which is the method to change the fuel injection rate by using the feed-forward (FF) controller considering the heat transfer at the intake system. The FF controller was verified under transient driving conditions for a single cylinder, and the A/F fluctuations were reduced at approximately 84%.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Unsteady Heat Transfer Phenomena at the Intake Manifold of a Diesel Engine and Its Application to 1-D Engine Simulation

In the past two decades, internal combustion engines have been required to improve their thermal efficiency in order to limit hazardous gas emissions. For further improvement of the thermal efficiency, it is required to predict the mass of intake air into cylinders in order to control the auto-ignition timing for CI engines. For an accurate prediction of intake air mass, it is necessary to model the heat transfer phenomena at the intake manifold. From this intention, an empirical equation was developed based on Colburn equation. Two new arguments were presented in the derived formula. The first argument was the addition of Graetz number, where it characterized the entrance region thermal boundary layer development and its effect on the heat transfer inside the intake manifold. As the second argument, Strouhal number was included in order to represent intake valve effect on heat transfer.
Technical Paper

Study on Ring Conformability under Bore Deformation

This study proposes a method to calculate the limit of piston ring conformability to deformed bore based on measured gas leakage flow rate through ring-bore gap and calculated gap area using a test device that allows the creation of arbitrary bore deformation. As a result, it was clarified that predicted conformability can be matched with measured value by modifying a constant value in the conformability equation for a single order bore deformation proposed by Dunaevsky and Tomanik et al. Furthermore, it has been confirmed experimentally that the conformability limit index ∑U for the complex bore deformation proposed by Tomanik is valid. Using ∑U, area of gap between piston ring and deformed bore under engine operating condition was calculated to derive the relationship between blow-by gas flow rate.