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Technical Paper

Modeling and Experiments on Ignition of Fuel Sprays Considering the Interaction Between Fuel-Air Mixing and Chemical Reactions

This study aimed to elucidate the ignition processes in transient fuel-sprays over a wide range of ambient conditions corresponding to PCCI combustion, as well as diesel combustion. Ignition of n-heptane sprays was experimentally investigated by using a constant-volume vessel. The well-known temperature dependencies of ignition delays were observed at a high ambient pressure. On the other hand, a negative temperature coefficient (NTC) accompanying a two-stage pressure rise was detected for lower ambient pressures. High-speed shadowgraph images indicated that the temperature rise begins in the highly homogenous mixture along the combustion chamber wall. Enhancement of fuel-air mixing with elevated injection pressure and a reduced nozzle orifice delays the appearance of hot flame in the NTC condition. To better understand these phenomena, ignition processes were predicted using an ignition model including a stochastic turbulent mixing model and a reduced chemical reaction scheme.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Droplets and Ambient Gas Interaction in a Diesel Spray Using a Nano-Spark Photography Method

A single nano-spark back light photography method has been developed to record the image of non-evaporating diesel sprays injected into high pressure nitrogen gas. Relatively clear image of fine droplets and spray was obtained. An image analysis method has been developed to quantify the droplet characteristics which are in focus, such as droplet size and shape. Spatial and temporal distribution of droplets has been clarified. It was observed that the number of droplets around the nozzle tip region decreases by time, however a large number of droplets were observed at X=13∼25 mm from nozzle tip at t=300∼700 μs from injection start. Double-nano spark photography of diesel sprays was carried out and relatively clear double exposure images of droplets were obtained on the same film. Two dimensional size and velocity measurement of droplets were simultaneously carried out based on these photographs.
Technical Paper

Selection of Injection Parameters for Various Engine Speeds in PCCI-Based Diesel Combustion with Multiple Injection

The objective of this study is to obtain a strategy for adapting injection and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) conditions to various engine speeds. An experimental study was conducted using a single-cylinder test engine and varying the injection timings of two-stage injection, the injection-quantity ratio, the EGR rate, and the swirl ratio at low (1300 rpm) and high (2300 rpm) engine speeds. When using base injection conditions, the results indicated that problems occurred for the high maximum pressure rise rate at low engine speed and the low thermal efficiency at high engine speed. At low engine speed, retarding the injection timings and increasing the first-injection quantity ratio reduced the maximum pressure rise rate without sacrificing engine performance. At high engine speed, advancing the injection timings improved the thermal efficiency but increased smoke emission.
Technical Paper

Relations among NOx, Pressure Rise Rate, HC and CO in LTC Operation of a Diesel Engine

This study aims to determine strategies for improving the relations between the pressure rise rate and emissions of nitrogen oxide (NOx), hydrocarbons (HC), and carbon monoxide (CO) in low temperature combustion (LTC) operation of a diesel engine. For this purpose, an analysis was conducted on data from experiments carried out using a single-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine with variation in the injection quantity, injection timing, exhaust-gas recirculation (EGR) rate, injection pressure, injection nozzle specification and combustion chamber geometry. The results reveal that the pressure rise rate and NOx exhibit similar tendencies when varying injection timing and EGR rate, which is opposite to CO and total HC (THC) emissions, regardless of injection quantity. When the injection quantity is increased, smoke emission becomes problematic in the selection of the injection timing.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Mixture Formation Process in a Diesel Engine with Post Injection

A series of experiments was conducted using a single-cylinder small-bore (85 mm) diesel engine to investigate the smoke-reduction effect of post injection by varying the number of injection nozzle orifices and the injection pressure. The experiments were performed under a constant injection quantity condition and under a fixed NOx emission condition. The results indicated that the smoke emission of six-hole, seven-hole, and eight-hole nozzles decreased for advanced post injection, except that the smoke emission of the 10-hole nozzle increased as the post injection was advanced from a moderately late timing around 17° ATDC. However, the smoke emission of the 10-hole nozzle with a higher injection pressure decreased for advanced post injection. These trends were explained considering the influence of the main-spray flames on post sprays based on CFD simulation results.
Technical Paper

Smoke Reduction Effects by Post Injection for Various Injection Parameters and Combustion Chamber Shapes in a Diesel Engine

A series of experiments using a single-cylinder direct injection diesel engine was conducted to investigate the smoke reduction effect of post injection while varying numerous parameters: the post-injection quantity, post-injection timing, injection pressure, main-injection timing, intake pressure, number of injection nozzle orifices, and combustion chamber shape. The experiments were performed under a fixed NOx emission condition by selecting the total injection quantities needed to obtain the predetermined smoke emission levels without post injection. The smoke reduction effects were compared when changing the post injection timing for different settings of the above parameters, and explanations were found for the measured smoke emission trends. The results indicate that close post injection provides lower smoke emission for a combination of a reentrant combustion chamber and seven-hole nozzle.
Technical Paper

Study on NOx Control in Direct-Injection PCCI Combustion - Fundamental Investigation Using a Constant-Volume Vessel

The effects of fuel injection conditions (injection pressure, nozzle orifice diameter and fuel injection quantity) on NOx formation in direct-injection Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (DI-PCCI) combustion were investigated using a constant-volume vessel and a total gas-sampling device. The results show that promotion of fuel-air mixing reduces final NOx mass accompanying a delayed hot flame. In particular, under low oxygen mole fraction conditions, in addition to the hot flame delay, the promotion of fuel-air mixing results in a lower heat release rate. In this case, the final NOx mass is further reduced. For a fixed nozzle orifice diameter, the final NOx mass is reduced with increasing injection pressure. This effect is remarkable for smaller nozzle orifice diameters. Regardless of the oxygen mole fraction, under the low injection fuel quantity condition, enhancement of fuel-air mixing reduces the final NOx mass per released heat.
Technical Paper

Fundamental Investigation of NOx Formation in Diesel Combustion Under Supercharged and EGR Conditions

Aim of this study is to clarify the NOx formation mechanism in diesel combustion under high-supercharged condition. Effects of ambient conditions and fuel injection parameters on diesel combustion were investigated using a constant volume chamber. NOx formation process was investigated using a total gas-sampling device. The results indicate that by using the above experimental setup it is possible to realize entirely diffusion combustion like what seen in the highly supercharged condition. Increasing ambient pressure up to 8MPa with high injection pressure shortens the ignition delay and offers a heat release rate proportional to the fuel injection rate with a short combustion duration. Increasing ambient pressure gives a higher NOx formation rate and final NOx concentration. This is due to enhancement in the fuel-air mixing which promotes the heat release.
Technical Paper

An Optimal Usage of Recent Combustion Control Technologies for DI Diesel Engine Operating on Ethanol Blended Fuels

The aim of this study is to find strategies for fully utilizing the advantage of diesel-ethanol blend fuel in recent diesel engines. For this purpose, experiments were performed using a single-cylinder direct injection diesel engine equipped with a high-pressure common rail injection and a cold EGR system. The results indicate that significant PM reduction at high engine loads can be achieved using 15% ethanol-diesel blend fuel. Increasing injection pressure promotes PM reduction. However, poor ignitability of ethanol blended fuel results in higher rate of pressure rise at high engine loads and unstable and incomplete combustion at lower engine loads. Using pilot injection with proper amount and timing solves above problems. NOx increase due to the high injection pressure can be controlled employing cold EGR. Weak sooting tendency of ethanol-blend fuel enables to use high EGR rates for significant NOx reduction.
Journal Article

Improvement of Performance and Reduction of Exhaust Emissions by Pilot-Fuel-Injection Control in a Lean-Burning Natural-Gas Dual-Fuel Engine

The purpose of this study is to determine a pilot injection control strategy for the improvement of dual-fuel combustion with a lean natural gas/air mixture. Experiments were performed using a single cylinder test engine equipped with a common-rail injection system. The injection pressure, timing and quantity were varied at a fixed overall equivalence ratio of 0.5. The results of single-stage-injection experiments show that middle injection timings (−20 to −10 degATDC) produce low emissions of unburned species, because the pilot-fuel vapor spreads into the natural-gas lean mixture and raises the effective equivalence ratio, which leads to fast flame propagation. Early injection (−35degATDC) is advantageous for low NOx emission; however, increased emissions of unburned species are barriers.