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Technical Paper

Applications of Computer Simulations for Part and Process Design for Automotive Stampings

Recent studies in sheet metal forming, conducted at universities world wide, emphasize the development of computer aided techniques for process simulation. To be practical and acceptable in a production environment, these codes must be easy to use and allow relatively quick solutions. Often, it is not necessary to make exact predictions but rather to establish the influence of process variables upon part quality, tool stresses, material flow, and material thickness variation. In cooperation with its industrial partners, the ERC for Net Shape Manufacturing of the Ohio State University has applied a number of computer codes for analysis and design of sheet metal forming operations. This paper gives a few selected examples taken from automotive applications and illustrates practical uses of computer simulations to improve productivity and reduce tool development and manufacturing costs.
Technical Paper

Deep Drawing of Rectangular Pans from Aluminum Alloy 2008-T4

Deep drawing experiments using rectangular pans, made of aluminum alloys, have been conducted at the Engineering Research Center for Net Shape Manufacturing (ERC/NSM) at the Ohio State University. A 160 ton Minster hydraulic press was used for the experiments. A 3-D finite element code called PAM-STAMP was used in the simulations. The current study investigates the effect of blank holder force control and blank shape on the final product quality. In the hydraulic press, it was possible to control the blank holding force (BHF) as a function of time. By conducting experiments and simulations using three blank shapes and various BHF profiles, it has been shown that blank shape and the BHF have significant effect on the formability of aluminum alloy pans, and they must be optimized to eliminate wrinkling and fracture. A decreasing BHF profile was shown to be effective in improving part quality and practical for use in industrial applications.
Technical Paper

Estimation and Control of Drawbead Forces in Sheet Metal Forming

In sheet metal forming, drawbeads are often used to control uneven material flow which may cause defects such as wrinkles, fractures, surface distortion and springback. Appropriate setting and adjusting the drawbead force is one of the most important parameters in sheet forming process control. However, drawbead design and drawbead force adjustment still rely on trial-and-error procedures. This paper summarizes the guidelines in drawbead design, evaluates a number of mathematical models in estimating drawbead forces, and investigates the effects of sheet thickness, material properties, drawbead geometry and penetration on the drawbead force.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Shrink Flanging - Prediction of Wrinkling and Experimental Verification

Shrink flanging is a major sheet forming operation to produce convex flanges in structural sheet metal components. Flanges are used for appearance, rigidity, hidden joints, and strengthening of the edge of sheet parts such as automobile front fender and complex panels formed by stretch/draw forming. Wrinkling around the flange edge is the major defect in shrink flanging operation. There has been a lack of reliable mathematical modeling to predict the strains and wrinkles in shrink flanging operations. A trial-and-error approach has been usually practiced in tooling and process designs. In this paper, a wrinkling criterion in shrink flange is proposed based on a simplification from a general criterion for a doubly curved anisotropic shell. The mathematical model for strain analysis in shrink flanging is established based on Wang and Wenner's strain model for stretch flange. Shrink flanging experiments were conducted to validate the theories.
Technical Paper

Process Simulation to Improve Quality and Increase Productivity in Rolling, Ring Rolling and Forging

The practical and proven use of computers in forming technology include: CAD/CAM for die making; transfer of geometric data from the customer's CAD/CAM system to that of the supplier and vice versa; application of artificial intelligence and expert systems for part and process design; simulation of metal flow to eliminate forging defects; prediction and optimization of process variables; and analysis of stresses in dies as well as prevention of premature die failure. Intelligent use of this information can lead to significant gains in product quality and productivity. This paper presents three examples of application of process simulation to forming : rolling, ring rolling and forging.
Technical Paper

Improving Drawability by Using Variable Blank Holder Force and Pressure in Deep Drawing of Round and Non-Symmetric Parts

Predominant failure modes in the forming of sheet metal parts are wrinkling and tearing. Wrinkling may occur at the flange as well as in other areas of the drawn part and is generated by excessive compressive stresses that cause the sheet to buckle locally. Fracture occurs in a drawn material which is under excessive tensile stresses. For a given part and blank geometries, the major factors affecting the occurrence of defects in sheet metal parts are the blank holder force (BHF) and the blank holder pressure (BHP). These variables can be controlled to delay or completely eliminate wrinkling and fracture. Modern mechanical presses are equipped with hydraulic cushions and various advanced multi-point pressure control systems. Thus, the BHP can be adjusted over the periphery of the blank holder as a function of location and time (or press stroke).
Technical Paper

Process Simulation and Springback Control in Plane Strain Sheet Bending

Plane strain bending (e.g. bending about a straight line) is a major sheet forming operation and it is practiced as brake bending (air bending, U-die, V-die and wiping-die bending). Precise prediction of springback is the key to the design of the bending dies and to the control of the process and press brake to obtain close tolerances in bent parts. In this paper, reliable mathematical models for press brake bending are presented. These models can predict springback, bendability, strain and stress distributions, and the maximum loads on the punch and die. The elasto-plastic bending model incorporates the true (nonlinear) strain distribution across the sheet thickness, Swift's strain hardening law, Hill's 1979 nonquadratic yield criterion for normal anisotropic materials, and plane strain deformation mode.
Technical Paper

Effect of E-Modulus Variation on Springbackand a Practical Solution

Springback affects the dimensional accuracy and final shape of stamped parts. Accurate prediction of springback is necessary to design dies that produce the desired part geometry and tolerances. Springback occurs after stamping and ejection of the part because the state of the stresses and strains in the deformed material has changed. To accurately predict springback through finite element analysis, the material model should be well defined for accurate simulation and prediction of stresses and strains after unloading. Despite the development of several advanced material models that comprehensively describe the Bauschinger effect, transient behavior, permanent softening of the blank material, and unloading elastic modulus degradation, the prediction of springback is still not satisfactory for production parts. Dies are often recut several times, after the first tryouts, to compensate for springback and achieve the required part geometry.
Technical Paper

Impact of Servo Press Motion on Hole Flanging of High Strength Steels

The capabilities of the servo press for varying the ram speed during stroke and for adjusting the stroke length are well known. Various companies installed servo presses for blanking. Some of the considerations may include increase in productivity and flexibility in adjusting the ram stroke, noise reduction and improvement of edge quality of blanked edge. The objectives of this study are to determine the effect of ram (blanking) speed upon the edge quality, and the effect of multiple step blanking using several punch motions, during one blanking stroke.
Technical Paper

Implementing Computer Simulation into the Concept to Product Process

Process simulation for product and process design is currently being practiced in industry. However, a number of input variables have a significant effect on the accuracy and reliability of computer predictions. A study was conducted to evaluate the capability of finite element method (FEM) simulations for predicting part characteristics and process conditions in forming complex-shaped, industrial parts. In industrial applications, there are two objectives for conducting FEM simulations of the stamping process: (1) to optimize the product design by analyzing formability at the product design stage and (2) to reduce the tryout time and cost in process design by predicting the deformation process in advance during the die design stage. For each of these objectives, two kinds of FEM simulations are applied.
Technical Paper

Tube Hydroforming - State-of-the-Art and Future Trends

With the availability of advanced machine designs and controls, tube hydroforming has become an economic alternative to various stamping processes. The technology is relatively new so that there is no large “knowledge base” to assist the product and process designers. This paper reviews the fundamentals of tube hydroforming technology and discusses how various parameters, such as tube material properties, pre-form geometry, lubrication and process control affect product design and quality. In addition, relations between process variables and achievable part geometry are discussed. Finally, using examples, the status of the current technology and critical issues for future development are reviewed.
Technical Paper

Estimation of Cutting Parameters in Two-Stage Piercing to Reduce Edge Strain Hardening

Edge fracture is a common problem when forming advanced high strength steels (AHSS). A particular case of edge fracture occurs during a collar forming/hole extrusion process, which is widely used in the sheet metal forming industry. This study attempts to relate the edge stretchability in collar forming to the strain hardening along the pierced edge; thus, Finite Element (FE) simulations can be used to reduce the number of experiments required to improve cutting settings for a given material and thickness. Using a complex-phase steel, CP-W 800 with thickness of 4.0 mm, a single-stage piercing operation is compared with a two-stage piercing operation, so called shaving, in terms of strains along the pierced edge, calculated by FE simulation. Results indicated that strains were reduced along the pierced edge by shaving.