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Technical Paper

Investigation of Diesel Spray Structure and Spray/Wall Interactions in a Constant Volume Pressure Vessel

1994-10-01
941918
High-speed movie films, and laser-diffraction drop sizing were used to evaluate the structure, penetration rate, cone angle, and drop size distribution of diesel sprays in a constant volume pressure vessel. As further means of evaluating the data, comparisons are made between the film measurements, and calculations from a dense gas jet model. In addition to the high-speed film data that describes the overall structure of the spray as a function of time, a laser diffraction instrument was used to measure drop size distribution through a cross-section of the spray. In terms of the growth of the total spray volume (a rough measure of the amount of air entrained in the spray), spray impingement causes an initial delay, but generally the same overall growth rate as an equivalent unimpeded spray. Agreement between measurements and calculations is excellent for a diesel spray with a 0.15 mm D orifice and relatively high injection pressures.
Technical Paper

Injection Pressure and Intake Air Density Effects on Ignition and Combustion in a 4-Valve Diesel Engine

1994-10-01
941919
Diesel engine optimization for low emissions and high efficiency involves the use of very high injection pressures. It was generally thought that increased injection pressures lead to improved fuel air mixing due to increased atomization in the fuel jet. Injection experiments in a high-pressure, high-temperature flow reactor indicated, however, that high injection pressures, in excess of 150 MPa, leads to greatly increased penetration rates and significant wall impingement. An endoscope system was used to obtain movies of combustion in a modern, 4-valve, heavy-duty diesel engine. Movies were obtained at different speeds, loads, injection pressures, and intake air pressures. The movies indicated that high injection pressure, coupled with high intake air density leads to very short ignition delay times, ignition close to the nozzle, and burning of the plumes as they traverse the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Properties on Diesel Spray Characteristics

1987-02-01
870533
Several diesel injection systems were selected for evaluating the effects of fuel properties on diesel spray characteristics. Fuel properties that were examined were viscosity and specific gravity. The selected injection systems were operated on nine test fuels covering a broad range of viscosity and specific gravity. High-speed movies were taken of the fuels being injected into a high-pressure environment. Penetration and cone angle data were reduced from the movies and used as a basis for fuel-to-fuel comparisons. In addition, drop size distribution data were obtained for one injection system operating on four fuels with different viscosities. Fuel viscosity was found to have an effect on spray tip penetration. For a pintle-type nozzle as fuel viscosity increased, the tip penetration rate decreased. Tip penetration rate from a pressure time injection system was proportional to the fuel viscosity, in that as viscosity increased, tip penetration increased.
Technical Paper

Engine and Constant Volume Bomb Studies of Diesel ignition and Combustion

1988-10-01
881626
Changing fuel quality, increasingly stringent exhaust emission standards, demands for higher efficiency, and the trend towards higher specific output, all contribute to the need for a better understanding of the ignition process in diesel engines. In addition to the impact on the combustion process and the resulting performance and emissions, the ignition process controls the startability of the engine, which, in turn, governs the required compressions ratio and several of the other engine design parameters. The importance of the ignition process is reflected in the fact that the only combustion property that is specified for diesel fuel is the ignition delay time as indicated by the cetane number. The objective of the work described in this paper was to determine the relationship between the ignition process as it occurs in an actual engine, to ignition in a constant volume combustion bomb.
Technical Paper

Effects of Different Injector Hole Shapes on Diesel Sprays

1992-02-01
920623
Twelve different hole shapes for diesel injector tips were characterized with DF-2 diesel fuel for spray cone angle over a range of injection pressures from 21 MPa (3 kpsi) to 69 MPa (10 kpsi). A baseline and two of the most radical designs were also tested for drop-size distribution and liquid volume fraction (liquid fuel-air ratio) over a range of pressures from 41 MPa (6 kpsi) to 103 MPa (15 kpsi). All hole shapes were circular in cross-section with minimum diameters of 0.4 mm (0.016 in.), and included converging and diverging hole shapes. Overall hole lengths were constant at 2.5 mm (0.098 in.), for an L/d of 6.2. However, the effective L/d may have been less for some of the convergent and divergent shapes.
Technical Paper

Emissions Measurements in a Steady Combusting Spray Simulating the Diesel Combustion Chamber

1992-02-01
920185
In-cylinder control of particulate emissions in a diesel engine depends on careful control and understanding of the fuel injection and air/fuel mixing process. It is extremely difficult to measure physical parameters of the injection and mixing process in an operating engine, but it is possible to simulate some diesel combustion chamber conditions in a steady flow configuration whose characteristics can be more easily probed. This program created a steady flow environment in which air-flow and injection sprays were characterized under non-combusting conditions, and emissions measurements were made under combusting conditions. A limited test matrix was completed in which the following observations were made. Grid-generated air turbulence decreased particulates, CO, and unburned hydrocarbons, while CO2 and NOx levels were increased. The turbulence accelerated combustion, resulting in more complete combustion and higher temperatures at the measurement location.
Technical Paper

The Laminar Burning Velocity of Isooctane, N-Heptane, Methanol, Methane, and Propane at Elevated Temperature and Pressures in the Presence of a Diluent

1980-02-01
800103
A constant volume bomb was used to determine basic combustion characteristics of isooctane, n-heptane, methanol, propane and methane. Results show that the laminar flame velocity of a quiescent homogeneous air/fuel mixture can be derived from pressure-time data in the bomb. The effects of pressure, temperature, and charge dilution on flame velocity and ignition are presented. A thermo-chemical kinetic model accurately predicted concentrations of nitric oxide during combustion and in the burned gas.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Injection and Combustion of Slurries of Coal, Charcoal, and Coke in Diesel Fuel

1984-02-01
840119
Slurry fuels of various forms of solids in diesel fuel were developed and evaluated for their relative potential as fuel for diesel engines. Thirteen test fuels with different solids concentrations were formulated using eight different materials. The injection and atomization characteristics (transient diesel sprays) of the test fuels were examined in a spray bomb in which a nitrogen atmosphere was maintained at high pressure and temperature, 4.2 MPa and 480°C, respectively. The diagnostics of the sprays included high-speed movies and high-resolution still photographs. The slurries were also tested in a single-cylinder CLR engine in both direct-injection and prechamber configurations. The data included the normal performance parameters as well as heat release rates and emissions. In most cases, the slurries performed very much like the baseline fuel. The combustion data indicated that a large fraction (90 percent or more) of the solids were burning in the engine.
Technical Paper

The Heavy Duty Gasoline Engine - A Multi-Cylinder Study of a High Efficiency, Low Emission Technology

2005-04-11
2005-01-1135
SwRI has developed a new technology concept involving the use of high EGR rates coupled with a high-energy ignition system in a gasoline engine to improve fuel economy and emissions. Based on a single-cylinder study [1], this study extends the concept of a high compression ratio gasoline engine with EGR rates > 30% and a high-energy ignition system to a multi-cylinder engine. A 2000 MY Isuzu Duramax 6.6 L 8-cylinder engine was converted to run on gasoline with a diesel pilot ignition system. The engine was run at two compression ratios, 17.5:1 and 12.5:1 and with two different EGR systems - a low-pressure loop and a high pressure loop. A high cetane number (CN) diesel fuel (CN=76) was used as the ignition source and two different octane number (ON) gasolines were investigated - a pump grade 91 ON ((R+M)/2) and a 103 ON ((R+M)/2) racing fuel.
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