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Journal Article

A Dual Grid Curved Beam Finite Element Model of Piston Rings for Improved Contact Capabilities

2014-04-01
2014-01-1085
Piston rings are large contributors to friction losses in internal combustion engines. To achieve higher engine efficiency, low friction ring packs that can maintain good sealing performance must be designed. To support this effort, simulation tools have been developed to model the performance of piston rings during engine operation. However, the challenge of predicting oil consumption, blow by, and ring pack friction with sufficient accuracy remains. This is mostly due to the complexity of this system. Ring dynamics, deformation, interaction with liner and piston, gas and lubricant flow must all be studied together to make relevant predictions. In this paper, a new curved beam finite element model of piston rings is proposed. Ring structural deformation and contact with the liner are treated on two separate grids. A comparison with ring models in the literature and analytical solutions shows that it can provide accurate results efficiently.
Technical Paper

The Study of Friction between Piston Ring and Different Cylinder Liners using Floating Liner Engine - Part 1

2012-04-16
2012-01-1334
The objective of this work was to develop an experimental system to support development and validation of a model for the lubrication of two-piece Twin-Land-Oil-Control-Rings (hereafter mentioned as TLOCR). To do so, a floating liner engine was modified by opening the head and crankcase. Additionally, only TLOCR was installed together with a piston that has 100 micron cold clearance to minimize the contribution of the skirt to total friction. Friction traces, FMEP trend, and repeatability have been examined to guarantee the reliability of the experiment results. Then, engine speed, liner temperature, ring tension, and land widths were changed in a wide range to ensure all three lubrication regimes were covered in the experiments.
Technical Paper

A Numerical and Experimental Study of Twin-land Oil Control Ring Friction in Internal Combustion Engines Part 2

2012-04-16
2012-01-1321
A twin-land oil control ring (TLOCR) model is used to evaluate TLOCR friction and the results are compared to the experiment measurement in a single cylinder floating liner engine under motoring condition. The model is based on a correlation between the hydrodynamic pressure and film thickness, which is generated using a deterministic model. The well-known three-regime lubrication is predicted with the model for ring with different ring tensions under various engine running conditions. A good match is found for the model and experiment results.
Journal Article

Oil Transport Cycle Model for Rotary Engine Oil Seals

2014-04-01
2014-01-1664
The rotary engine provides high power density compared to piston engine, but one of its downside is higher oil consumption. A model of the oil seals is developed to calculate internal oil consumption (oil leakage from the crankcase through the oil seals) as a function of engine geometry and operating conditions. The deformation of the oil seals trying to conform to housing distortion is calculated to balance spring force, O-ring and groove friction, and asperity contact and hydrodynamic pressure at the interface. A control volume approach is used to track the oil over a cycle on the seals, the rotor and the housing as the seals are moving following the eccentric rotation of the rotor. The dominant cause of internal oil consumption is the non-conformability of the oil seals to the housing distortion generating net outward scraping, particularly next to the intake and exhaust port where the housing distortion valleys are deep and narrow.
Journal Article

Visualization of the Rotary Engine Oil Transport Mechanisms

2014-04-01
2014-01-1665
The rotary engine provides high power density compared to piston engine, but one of its downside is higher oil consumption. In order to better understand oil transport, a laser induced fluorescence technique is used to visualize oil motion on the side of the rotor during engine operation. Oil transport from both metered oil and internal oil is observed. Starting from inside, oil accumulates in the rotor land during inward motion of the rotor created by its eccentric motion. Oil seals are then scraping the oil outward due to seal-housing clearance asymmetry between inward and outward motion. Cut-off seal does not provide an additional barrier to internal oil consumption. Internal oil then mixes with metered oil brought to the side of the rotor by gas leakage. Oil is finally pushed outward by centrifugal force, passes the side seals, and is thrown off in the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Optimizing Honing Texture for Reduced Friction in Internal Combustion Engines

2006-04-03
2006-01-0647
Frictional losses in the piston ring-pack of an engine account for approximately half of the total frictional losses within the power cylinder of an engine. Three-dimensional honing groove texture was modeled, and its effect on piston ring-pack friction and engine brake thermal efficiency was investigated. Adverse effects on engine oil consumption and durability were also considered. Although many non-conventional cylinder liner finishes are now being developed to reduce friction and oil consumption, the effects of surface finish on ring-pack performance is not well understood. A rough surface flow simulation program was developed to calculate flow and stress factors that adjust the solution of the Reynolds equation for the effects of surface roughness as has been done in the literature. Rough surface contact between the ring and liner was modeled using a previously published methodology for asperity contact pressure estimation between rough surfaces.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study of Oil Transport between the Piston Ring Pack and Cylinder Liner

2005-10-24
2005-01-3823
The paper presents a detailed study of a unique lubricating oil transport and exchange path that is important for friction, wear, and oil consumption in a 4 stroke spark ignition engine, namely the oil flow from the piston to the cylinder liner. The study consisted of experiments with a test engine utilizing 2D LIF (Two Dimensional Laser Induced Fluorescence) techniques to view real time oil transport and exchange, along with computer modeling. The effects of engine speed, load, and oil ring design were included as part of the research. The test conditions ranged from 800 RPM to 4500 RPM, while the load was varied from closed throttle to wide open throttle. Several different oil control ring designs were utilized, including U-Flex, Twin-Land, and 3-Piece. Oil transport and exchange from the piston to the liner was observed under several different engine conditions, typically moderate to high engine speeds and low loads.
Technical Paper

Oil Transport Inside the Power Cylinder During Transient Load Changes

2007-04-16
2007-01-1054
This paper presents a study of lubricating oil transport and exchange in a four-stroke spark ignition engine while undergoing transient load changes. The study consisted of experiments with a single cylinder test engine utilizing 2D LIF (Two Dimensional Laser Induced Fluorescence) techniques to view real time oil transport and exchange, along with computer modeling to describe certain phenomenon observed during the experiments. The computer modeling results included ring dynamics and corresponding gas flows through different regions of the power cylinder. Under steady-state conditions and constant speed during the experiments, more oil was observed on the piston at low load than at high load. Therefore, a transition from low load to high load resulted in oil leaving the piston, and a transition from high load to low load resulted in oil being added to the piston.
Technical Paper

The Influences of Cylinder Liner Honing Patterns and Oil Control Ring Design Parameters on the Interaction between the Twinland Oil Control Ring and the Cylinder Liner in Internal Combustion Engines

2008-06-23
2008-01-1614
This paper discusses the influences of several cylinder liner honing surface geometrical features on the interaction between the piston twin land oil control ring (TLOCR) and the cylinder liner by using the deterministic hydrodynamic model [1] and the twin land oil control ring model [2]. Additionally, the key design parameters of the TLOCR, including ring tension and land axial width are studied. The results show significant effects of three liner honing surface features beyond height distribution, including plateau wavelength, groove density and honing angle in hydrodynamic pressure generation. The study in oil control ring design parameters reveals that both ring tension and land axial width have important influences on friction and oil consumption, and their competing effects are discussed subsequently.
Technical Paper

A Simplified Piston Secondary Motion Model Considering the Dynamic and Static Deformation of Piston Skirt and Cylinder Bore in Internal Combustion Engines

2008-06-23
2008-01-1612
A dry piston secondary dynamics model has been developed. This model includes the detailed piston and cylinder bore hot shape geometries, and piston deformations due to combustion pressure, axial inertia and interaction with the cylinder bore, but neglects the effects of the hydrodynamic lubrication at the piston - cylinder bore interface in order to achieve faster calculation times. The piston - cylinder bore friction is calculated using a user supplied friction coefficient. This model provides a very useful, fast tool for power cylinder system analysis, provided its limitations are understood.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of the Cylinder Wall Oil Film Development During Warm-Up of An SI Engine Using Laser-Induced Fluorescence

1997-05-01
971699
The single-point LIF-measurement technique has been applied to a four-cylinder spark-ignition production engine for investigation of the oil film layer between the piston, piston rings and the cylinder wall. The lubrication process was studied during engine warm-up and it was found that a scaling law could be successfully used. This scaling law enables simple scaling of the oil film thickness of the compression ring, scraper ring and on the liner during warm-up, assuming the oil film thickness and cylinder liner temperature are known for the steady-state operating condition. Thereby the value of traditional measured steady-state lubrication data is enhanced.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Oil Transport Mechanisms in the Piston Ring Pack of a Single Cylinder Diesel Engine, Using Two Dimensional Laser Induced Fluorescence

1998-10-19
982658
A two-dimensional Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) system was developed to visualize the oil distribution and study the oil transport in the piston ring pack of a single-cylinder diesel engine through an optical window on the liner. The system gives high spatial and intensity resolutions so that detailed oil distribution on the piston as well as between the rings and the liner can be studied. This work primarily focused on investigating different oil transport mechanisms on piston crown land and second land under various engine operating conditions. Oil accumulation on the crown land was observed under certain operating conditions and top ring up-scraping was deemed to be the source for this oil accumulation. Two mechanisms for the oil flow on the second land were identified, namely, inertia driven oil flow in the axial direction and oil dragging by gas flow in the circumferential direction. Finally, the effects of ring rotation were investigated.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Dynamics and Lubrication of Three Piece Oil Control Rings in Internal Combustion Engines

1998-10-19
982657
The oil control ring is the most critical component for oil consumption and friction from the piston system in internal combustion engines. Three-piece oil control rings are widely used in Spark Ignition (SI) engines. However, the dynamics and lubrication of three piece oil control rings have not been thoroughly studied from the theoretical point of view. In this work, a model was developed to predict side sealing, bore sealing, friction, and asperity contact between rails and groove as well as between rails and the liner in a Three Piece Oil Control Ring (TPOCR). The model couples the axial and twist dynamics of the two rails of TPOCR and the lubrication between two rails and the cylinder bore. Detailed rail/groove and rail/liner interactions were considered. The pressure distribution from oil squeezing and asperity contact between the flanks of the rails and the groove were both considered for rail/groove interaction.
Technical Paper

Modeling Engine Oil Vaporization and Transport of the Oil Vapor in the Piston Ring Pack of Internal Combustion Engines

2004-10-25
2004-01-2912
A model was developed to study engine oil vaporization and oil vapor transport in the piston ring pack of internal combustion engines. With the assumption that the multi-grade oil can be modeled as a compound of a number of distinct paraffin hydrocarbons, a set of equations governing the oil vapor density variations were derived by applying mass conservation law to the amount of oil vaporized from the piston and the amount of oil vapor transported within the piston ring pack. The model was applied to a heavy-duty diesel engine. First, the case with the maximum oil supply to all the piston regions was studied. The results showed that, under this condition, the oil consumption from piston vaporization alone was far greater than the typical oil consumption value measured in the engine.
Technical Paper

Development and Applications of an Analytical Tool for Piston Ring Design

2003-10-27
2003-01-3112
A comprehensive and robust analytical tool was developed to study three-dimensional (3D) ring-bore and ring-groove interactions for piston rings with either symmetric or asymmetric cross-section. The structural response of the ring is modeled with 3D finite element beam method, and the interfaces between the ring and the bore as well as between the ring and the groove are modeled with a simple asperity contact model. Given the ring free shape and the geometry of the cross-section, this analytical tool can be used to evaluate the ring-bore and ring-groove conformability as well as ring twist angle distribution under different constraints. Conversely, this tool can be used to calculate the free shape to provide the desired ring-bore contact pressure distribution for specific applications.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study of Oil Transport on the Piston Third Land and the Effects of Piston and Ring Designs

2004-06-08
2004-01-1934
Faced with increasing concern for lubricating oil consumption and engine friction, it is critical to understand the oil transport mechanisms in the power cylinder system. Lubricating oil travels through distinct regions along the piston ring pack before being consumed in the combustion chamber, with the oil distribution and dominant driving forces varying substantially for each of these regions. In this work, the focus is on the lowest region in the piston ring pack, namely the third land, which is located between the second compression ring and the oil control ring. A detailed 2D LIF (Two Dimensional Laser Induced Fluorescence) study has been performed on the oil distribution and flow patterns of the third land throughout the entire cycle of a single cylinder spark ignition engine. The impact of speed and load were experimentally observed with the LIF generated real time high-resolution images, as were changes in piston and ring design.
Technical Paper

Modeling Piston Ring-Pack Lubrication With Consideration of Ring Structural Response

2005-04-11
2005-01-1641
The lubrication of the piston ring-pack is directly related to the engine friction and oil consumption. Non-axisymmetric characteristics of the power cylinder system, most noticeably cylinder bore distortion, piston secondary motion, and ring gaps, can introduce circumferential variations to ring/liner lubrication and overall performance of the ring-pack in friction and oil consumption. In order to be able to optimize the piston ring-pack in a more fundamental way, it is necessary to develop physical understanding of the effects of these non-axisymmetric properties and effective numerical tools. In this study, a comprehensive model has been developed for the lubrication of a piston ring-pack. By employing a finite element analysis, this model is capable of evaluating the in-plane structural response of a ring to external forces. A newly developed one-dimensional hydrodynamic lubrication sub-model is implemented to calculate the lubrication force at each cross-section.
Technical Paper

Effects of Piston-Ring Dynamics on Ring/Groove Wear and Oil Consumption in a Diesel Engine

1997-02-24
970835
The wear patterns of the rings and grooves of a diesel engine were analyzed by using a ring dynamics/gas flow model and a ring-pack oil film thickness model. The analysis focused primarily on the contact pressure distribution on the ring sides and grooves as well as on the contact location on the ring running surfaces. Analysis was performed for both new and worn ring/groove profiles. Calculated results are consistent with the measured wear patterns. The effects of groove tilt and static twist on the development of wear patterns on the ring sides, grooves, and ring running surfaces were studied. Ring flutter was observed from the calculation and its effect on oil transport was discussed. Up-scraping of the top ring was studied by considering ring dynamic twist and piston tilt. This work shows that the models used have potential for providing practical guidance to optimizing the ring pack and ring grooves to control wear and reduce oil consumption.
Technical Paper

Oil Transport in the Piston Ring Pack (Part II): Zone Analysis and Macro Oil Transport Model

2003-05-19
2003-01-1953
Engine oil consumption is one of the primary interests for the automotive industry in controlling emissions and reducing service cost. Due to a lack of understanding of the mechanisms and flow patterns of oil transport along the piston, reducing oil consumption from the ring pack of internal combustion engines has been extremely challenging for engine manufacturers and suppliers. In work prior to this study (see Part I [1]), individual oil transport processes such as oil flows on the piston lands in both axial and circumferential directions, oil flows through the ring grooves and gaps and oil flows between the piston and the liner have been identified and characterized. One of the major difficulties remaining for oil transport analysis was the lack of description of how the oil transport mechanisms previously investigated affect, through the multitude of flow paths, the oil balance in the various sub-regions and the net oil flow toward the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Oil Transport in the Piston Ring Pack (Part I): Identification and Characterization of the Main Oil Transport Routes and Mechanisms

2003-05-19
2003-01-1952
Engine oil consumption is one of the primary interests for the automotive industry in controlling emissions and reducing service cost. Due to a lack of understanding of the mechanisms of oil transport along the piston, reducing oil consumption from the ring pack of internal combustion engines has been extremely challenging for engine manufacturers and suppliers. Consequently, a thorough experimental characterization of oil transport processes is critical to 1) reduce lead-time and cost of new piston ring pack development, 2) provide the physically based oil transport models needed to develop analytical tools for oil consumption prediction. In this work, a two-dimensional multiple-dye Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF) visualization system was successfully implemented in a diesel and a spark-ignition engine.
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