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Technical Paper

Driver Head Movements in Left Outside Mirror Viewing

Two field studies were conducted on public roads to measure driver head movements while using the left outside passenger car mirror. The first study measured the effects of mirror width in the presence or absence of overtaking traffic. Driver head movements during left lane-changing maneuvers were recorded from a lead vehicle equipped with a motion picture camera and a telephoto-zoom lens. Results showed that, in addition to the head turning motions, the drivers made on the average about 2.0 inches of lateral head movements while using one of the four left outside mirror sizes which ranged in width from 2.3 to 10.6 inches. The drivers were also found to make larger lateral head movements when no other vehicles were present in the mirror as compared to when an overtaking vehicle was present. The second study was conducted in no overtaking traffic with one mirror width and used an improved photographic technique.
Technical Paper

Modeling Vision with Headlights in a Systems Context

A Headlight Evaluation Model has been developed which provides a broader and more comprehensive method for characterizing the performance of headlamps than is possible in traditional headlight seeing distance field tests. The Headlamp Evaluation Model accepts as input the candlepower patterns of the headlamp system being evaluated and provides a measure of driver visual performance based on a large number of simulated seeing distance tests and glare discomfort checks on a standardized test route. The output of the Model, termed the Figure of Merit, is the percentage of the distance traveled by the simulated driver on the standardized test route in which the seeing distance to pedestrians and pavement lines, and the discomfort glare levels experienced by opposing drivers, simultaneously meet certain acceptance criteria.
Technical Paper

Touch Feel and Appearance Characteristics of Automotive Door Armrest Materials

This paper presents results of a five phase study conducted to evaluate touch feel and appearance of door armrest materials. Seven different production door armrests with different material characteristics such as softness, smoothness, compressibility, texture, etc. were evaluated. In the first phase, the subjects seated in a vehicle buck in their preferred seating position with the armrests adjusted at their preferred heights, provided ratings on a number of touch feel and appearance of the door armrest materials using 5-point semantic differential scales. In the second phase, the armrests were presented to each subject in all possible pairs and they were asked to select preferred armrest material in each pair.
Technical Paper

A Value Analysis Tool for Automotive Interior Door Trim Panel Materials and Process Selection

This paper describes a computerized value analysis tool (VAT) developed to aid automotive interior designers, engineers and planners to achieve the high levels of perceived quality of materials used in automotive door trim panels. The model requires a number of inputs related to types of materials, their manufacturing processes and customer perceived quality ratings, costs and importance of materials, features located in different areas of the door trim panel, etc. It allows the user to conduct iterative evaluation of total cost, total weighted customer perceived quality ratings, and estimates of perceived value (perceived quality divided by cost) for different door trim areas as well as the entire door trim panel. The VAT, thus, allows value and cost management related to materials and processing choices for automotive interiors.
Technical Paper

An Evaluation of the IVIS-DEMAnD Driver Attention Demand Model

This paper presents results of a study conducted to apply and evaluate the In-Vehicle Information System (IVIS) DEMAnD Model developed recently by the Virginia Polytechnic University's Center for Transportation Research for the Federal Highway Administration. This software-based model allows vehicle design engineers to predict the effects an in-vehicle information system might have on driver performance. The model was exercised under nine different driver attention task levels ranging from simple, such as glancing into a side view mirror, to complex, such as operating an in-vehicle navigation system. The nine driver tasks were evaluated using three different vehicle configurations and two levels of driver-roadway complexity. In addition, real-world information on driver visual performance was also collected during four different tasks for comparison with model predictions of these same functions.
Journal Article

Predicting Effects of Veiling Glare Caused by Instrument Panel Reflections in the Windshields

This paper presents quantitative effects of windshield veiling glare on the visibility of targets based on a two part research project. The first part involved measurement and modeling of luminance of veiling glare caused by the reflection of different instrument panel materials under range of conditions defined by combination of windshield angle, instrument panel angle, and sun angle. In the second part, the veiling glare model was incorporated in a visibility prediction model based on visual contrast threshold data. A critical visibility condition of a driver approaching a tunnel with the sunlight falling on his windshield and attempting to detect a target inside the tunnel was studied by conducting sensitivity analyses. The sensitivity analysis showed that a 2 ft diameter 10% reflectance target illuminated by 5000 lux of lighting inside a tunnel visibility distances can be seen from 0 to 3,000 feet depending upon driver's age, vehicle design parameters and sun illumination levels.
Technical Paper

Headlight Beam Pattern Evaluation Customer to Engineer to Customer

A method for communication linking the vehicle user and the lighting engineer has been developed to improve the headlight beam pattern development process. A technique called the semantic differential has been used to quantify the user's perception on a large number of attributes of the beam pattern. The basis of the technique utilizes descriptive words used by both drivers and engineers to characterize headlight beam patterns. Beam pattern evaluations conducted in a series of dynamic drive situations formed the initial data base. Subsequent evaluations using this technique have facilitated close and quick interaction between the customer and the engineer during the development of headlight beam patterns.
Technical Paper

Headlight Beam Pattern Evaluation Customer to Engineer to Customer - A Continuation

The method of communication between the customer and the engineer has been refined to further improve the headlight beam pattern development process. The refinements included: a) reduction of word pairs used for semantic differential scaling and b) use of shortened questionnaire on night-roadway viewing zones. The added benefit of the new questionnaire method allows the engineer to evaluate the customer responses of the beam pattern within specific areas on the road scene. A statistical technique called factor analysis has been used to evaluate and to reduce the large number of semantic differential word pairs used in the previous work by Jack, O'Day and Bhise (1). A comparison of the two questionnaire forms used in the evaluation surveys was completed based on an evaluation of beam patterns in a dynamic drive situation.
Technical Paper

Headlighting - Toward a Model of Customer Pleasing Beam Patterns

The headlamp beam pattern development process contains both subjective and objective evaluations. The subjective evaluation, communication between the customer and the engineer, was developed in previous work [1][2]. This paper presents exploratory models used in the identification of objective photometric variables of a beam pattern that relate to the subjective impression of the beam pattern. Additional research will allow use of the photometric variables and their selected ranges for designing and evaluating beam patterns to achieve improved customer pleasing beam pattern driving experiences.