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Technical Paper

Time-Resolved, Speciated Emissions from an SI Engine During Starting and Warm-Up

A sampling system was developed to measure the evolution of the speciated hydrocarbon emissions from a single-cylinder SI engine in a simulated starting and warm-up procedure. A sequence of exhaust samples was drawn and stored for gas chromatograph analysis. The individual sampling aperture was set at 0.13 s which corresponds to ∼ 1 cycle at 900 rpm. The positions of the apertures (in time) were controlled by a computer and were spaced appropriately to capture the warm-up process. The time resolution was of the order of 1 to 2 cycles (at 900 rpm). Results for four different fuels are reported: n-pentane/iso-octane mixture at volume ratio of 20/80 to study the effect of a light fuel component in the mixture; n-decane/iso-octane mixture at 10/90 to study the effect of a heavy fuel component in the mixture; m-xylene and iso-octane at 25/75 to study the effect of an aromatics in the mixture; and a calibration gasoline.
Technical Paper

A Flame Sheet Model for NO Production in Diesel Combustion Simulation

A flame sheet model for NO production in multi-dimensional diesel simulation has been developed. It explicitly addresses that because of the finite computational cell resolution, the local temperature within the diffusion flame is substantially higher than the cell averaged temperatures. Thus using the latter values will under-predict NO production. The methodology uses a flame sheet library for the NO production. Computations using this model are compared to experimental data for a Cummins N14 engine. The results show that the NO production is predominantly from within the flame sheets; the bulk production accounts for less than 5% of the total production.
Technical Paper

Fuel Effects and Enrichment Effects on Engine Starting and Warm-Up Behavior

The effects of fuel volatility and degree of enrichment on the starting and warm-up behavior of a modern four-valve spark ignition engine with port-fuel-injection were studied. Quantities of interest are the number of cycles to reach first significant firing, the time scale (τr) for the IMEP development, the decay rate of the IMEP fluctuation, and the RMS fluctuation after 3τr. A selected matrix of fuels that included various volume ratios of indolene/MTBE and iso-octane/n-pentane was used. The amount of fuel injected per cycle was varied from stoichiometric to a fuel equivalence ratio of 1.5. The engine behavior (as quantified by the quantities described in the above) is found to correlate well to a single parameter - the fuel equivalence ratio based on the fuel vapor mass calculated from an isothermal equilibrium flash vaporization of the fuel in the vapor boundary layer of the intake flow at intake manifold temperature.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Crevices on the Engine-Out Hydrocarbon Emissions in SI Engines

To understand the effects of crevices on the engine-out hydrocarbon emissions, a series of engine experiments was carried out with different piston crevice volumes and with simulated head gasket crevices. The engine-out HC level was found to be modestly sensitive to the piston crevice size in both the warmed-up and the cold engines, but more sensitive to the crevice volume in the head gasket region. A substantial decrease in HC in the cold-to-warm-up engine transition was observed and is attributed mostly to the change in port oxidation.
Technical Paper

Liquid Gasoline Behavior in the Engine Cylinder of a SI Engine

The liquid fuel entry into the cylinder and its subsequent behavior through the combustion cycle were observed by a high speed CCD camera in a transparent engine. The videos were taken with the engine firing under cold conditions in a simulated start-up process, at 1,000 RPM and intake manifold pressure of 0.5 bar. The variables examined were the injector geometry, injector type (normal and air-assisted), injection timing (open- and closed-valve injection), and injected air-to-fuel ratios. The visualization results show several important and unexpected features of the in-cylinder fuel behavior: 1) strip-atomization of the fuel film by the intake flow; 2) squeezing of fuel film between the intake valve and valve seat at valve closing to form large droplets; 3)deposition of liquid fuel as films distributed on the intake valve and head region. Some of the liquid fuel survives combustion into the next cycle.
Technical Paper

Effect of Engine Operating Parameters on Hydrocarbon Oxidation in the Exhaust Port and Runner of a Spark-Ignited Engine

The effect of engine operating parameters (speed, spark timing, and fuel-air equivalence ratio [Φ]) on hydrocarbon (HC) oxidation within the cylinder and exhaust system is examined using propane or isooctane fuel. Quench gas (CO2) is introduced at two locations in the exhaust system (exhaust valve or port exit) to stop the oxidation process. Increasing the speed from 1500 to 2500 RPM at MBT spark timing decreases the total, cylinder-exit HC emissions by ∼50% while oxidation in the exhaust system remains at 40% for both fuels. For propane fuel at 1500 rpm, increasing Φ from 0.9 (fuel lean) to 1.1 (fuel rich) reduces oxidation in the exhaust system from 42% to 26%; at 2500 RPM, exhaust system oxidation decreases from 40% to approximately 0% for Φ = 0.9 and 1.1, respectively. Retarded spark increases oxidation in the cylinder and exhaust system for both fuels. Decreases in total HC emissions are accompanied by increased olefinic content and atmospheric reactivity.
Technical Paper

Design and Demonstration of a Spark Ignition Engine Operating in a Stratified-EGR Mode

This paper describes the development of a spark ignition engine operating in a stratified-EGR mode at part load. The concept is to reduce the pumping loss with high levels of EGR while maintaining stable combustion via charge stratification. Since the engine operates stoichiometrically, the ability to control NOx emissions by the three-way catalyst is retained. The configuration of introducing the stoichiometric fresh mixture to the center portion of the combustion chamber with the EGR gas on the two sides is visualized in a transparent engine using planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) and Mie scattering. Visualization results showed that the stratification between air/fuel mixture and EGR gas was relatively well established during the intake stroke. There was, however, significant mixing in the late part of the compression stroke.
Technical Paper

Contribution of Oil Layer Mechanism to the Hydrocarbon Emissions from Spark-Ignition Engines

A research program designed to measure the contribution from fuel absorption in the thin layer of oil, lubricating the cylinder liner, to the total and speciated HC emissions from a spark ignition engine has been performed. The logic of the experiment design was to test the oil layer mechanism via variations in the oil layer thickness (through the lubricant formulations), solubility of the fuel components in the lubricants, and variations in the crankcase gas phase HC concentration (through crankcase purging). A set of preliminary experiments were carried out to determine the solubility and diffusivity of the fuel components in the individual lubricants. Engine tests showed similar HC emissions among the tested lubricants. No consistent increase was observed with oil viscosity (oil film thickness), contrary to what would be expected if fuel-oil absorption was contributing significantly to engine-out HC. Similarly, no effect of crankcase purging could be observed.
Technical Paper

Flame Shape Determination Using an Optical-Fiber Spark Plug and a Head-Gasket Ionization Probe

A method for determining the flame contour based on the flame arrival time at the fiber optic (FO) spark plug and at the head gasket ionization probe (IP) locations has been developed. The experimental data were generated in a single-cylinder Ricardo Hydra spark-ignition engine. The head gasket IP, constructed from a double-sided copper-clad circuit board, detects the flame arrival time at eight equally spaced locations at the top of the cylinder liner. Three other IP's were also installed in the cylinder head to provide additional intermediate data on flame location and arrival time. The FO spark plug consists of a standard spark plug with eight symmetrically spaced optical fibers located in the ground casing of the plug. The cylinder pressure was recorded simultaneously with the eleven IP signals and the eight optical signals using a high-speed PC-based data acquisition system.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Piston Ring Friction and Oil Film Thickness Measurements in a Reciprocating Test Rig

A reciprocating test apparatus was constructed in which the friction of a single piston ring against a liner segment was measured. The lubrication oil film thickness was also measured simultaneously at the mid stroke of the ring travel using a laser fluorescence technique. The apparatus development and operation are described. Results are presented from a test matrix consisting of five different lubrication oils of viscosity (at 30°C) ranging from 49 to 357 cP; at three mean piston speeds of 0.45, 0.89 and 1.34 m/s; and at three ring normal loading of 1.4, 2.9 and 5.7 MPa. At mid stroke, the oil film thickness under the ring was ∼0.5 to 4 μm; the frictional coefficient was ∼0.02 to 0.1. The frictional coefficient for all the lubricants tested increased with normal load, and decreased with piston velocity. Both mixed and hydrodynamic lubrication regimes were observed. The friction behaviors were consistent with the Stribeck diagram.
Technical Paper

Visualization of Mixture Preparation in a Port-Fuel Injection Engine During Engine Warm-up

The fuel injection process in the port of a firing 4-valve SI engine at part load and 25°C head temperature was observed by a high speed video camera. Fuel was injected when the valve was closed. The reverse blow-down flow when the intake valve opens has been identified as an important factor in the mixture preparation process because it not only alters the thermal environment of the intake port, but also strip-atomizes the liquid film at the vicinity of the intake valve and carries the droplets away from the engine. In a series of “fuel-on” experiments, the fuel injected in the current cycle was observed to influence the fuel delivery to the engine in the subsequent cycles.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Initial Flame Kernel Conditions on Flame Development in SI Engine

The initial flame kernel behavior in a SI engine was measured by a spark-plug-fiber-optics probe. From these measurements, the flame kernel may be characterized by an expansion speed and a convection velocity. These quantities were correlated with the bum rate on a cycle-to-cycle basis in an engine configurated with quiescent, swirl, and tumble in-cylinder motion. The expansion speed correlates well with the 0-2 percent mass burn duration for all the configurations. The flame convection velocity depends on the in-cylinder motion in the expected manner. There was, however, only a weak correlation between the 10-90 percent burn duration and the initial flame kernel behavior.
Technical Paper

Intake Port Phenomena in a Spark-Ignition Engine at Part Load

The flow and heat transfer phenomena in the intake port of a spark ignition engine with port fuel injection play a significant role in the mixture preparation process, especially at part load. The backflow of the hot burned gas from the cylinder into the intake port when the intake valve is opened breaks up any liquid film around the inlet valve, influences gas and wall temperatures, and has a major effect on the fuel vaporization process. The backflow of in-cylinder mixture with its residual component during the compression stroke prior to inlet valve closing fills part of the port with gas at higher than fresh mixture temperature. To quantify these phenomena, time-resolved measurements of the hydrocarbon concentration profile along the center-line of the intake port were made with a fast-response flame ionization detector, and of the gas temperature with a fine wire resistance thermometer, in a single-cylinder engine running with premixed propane/air mixture.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Measurements of Residual Gas Concentration in a Spark Ignition Engine

The residual gas fraction prior to ignition at the vicinity of the spark plug in a single cylinder, two-valve spark ignition engine was measured with a fast-response flame ionization hydrocarbon detector. The technique in using such an instrument is reported. The measurements were made as a function of the intake manifold pressure, engine speed and intake/exhaust valve-overlap duration. Both the mean level of the residual fraction and the statistics of the cycle-to-cycle variations were obtained.
Technical Paper

Heat Transfer Characteristics of Impinging Diesel Sprays

The heat transfer characteristics of impinging diesel sprays were studied in a Rapid Compression Machine. The temporal and spatial distributions of the heat transfer around the impingement point -were measured by an array of high frequency response surface thermocouples. Simultaneously, the flow field of the combusting spray was photographed with high speed movie through the transparent head of the apparatus. The results for the auto-ignited fuel sprays were compared to those of non-combusting sprays which were carried out in nitrogen. The values of the heat flux from the combusting sprays were found to be substantially different from those of the non-combusting sprays. The difference was attribute to the radiative heat transfer and the combustion generated bulk, motion and small scale turbulence.
Technical Paper

On the Time Delay in Continuous In-Cylinder Sampling From IC Engines

When gas sample is continuously drawn from the cylinder of an internal combustion engine, the sample that appears at the end of the sampling system corresponds to the in-cylinder content sometime ago because of the finite transit time which is a function of the cylinder pressure history. This variable delay causes a dispersion of the sample signal and makes the interpretation of the signal difficult An unsteady flow analysis of a typical sampling system was carried out for selected engine loads and speeds. For typical engine operation, a window in which the delay is approximately constant may be found. This window gets smaller with increase in engine speed, with decrease in load, and with the increase in exit pressure of the sampling system.
Technical Paper

Heat Transfer Measurement Comparisons in Insulated and Non-Insulated Diesel Engines

The performance and heat transfer characteristics of a single cylinder diesel engine in the metal and in the ceramic-coat-insulated configurations were compared at the same speeds, loads and air flow rates. Compared to the metal engine, the insulated engine had a higher brake specific fuel consumption which was attributed to a slower combustion process; the exhaust as well as the time averaged surface temperatures of the insulated engine were higher. The unsteady heat flux amplitudes in the insulated engine were lower which suggested a lower overall heat flux. This lower heat flux was attributed to the lower flame temperatures because of the poor combustion quality in the non-optimized insulated engine.
Technical Paper

Flame Kernel Development in a Methanol Fueled Engine

The combustion behavior in a modem 4-valve engine using a broad range of methanol/gasoline fuel mixtures was studied. The initial flame development was examined by using a spark plug fiber optics probe. Approximately, the kernel expansion speed, Sg, is relatively unchanged from M0 to M40; jumps by ∼30% from M40 to M60; and then remains roughly constant from M60 to M100. Statistics of the IMEP indicate that at a lean idle condition the combustion rate and robustness correlate with Sg: a higher value of Sg gives better combustion. Thus M60-M100 fuels give better idle combustion behavior than the M0-M40 fuels.
Technical Paper

A Model for Predicting Residual Gas Fraction in Spark-Ignition Engines

A model for calculating the residual gas fraction in spark ignition engines has been formulated. The model accounts explicitly for the contribution due to the back flow of exhaust gas to the cylinder during the valve overlap period. The model has been calibrated with in-cylinder hydrocarbon measurements at different values of intake pressure, engine speed, and valve overlap timings.
Technical Paper

Numerical Modelling of SI Engine Combustion with a Flame Sheet Model

A combustion model for Spark Ignition engine based on the concept of accounting for the flame area per unit volume is formulated. This concept is applicable when the local laminar flame thickness is small compared to the size of the turbulent eddies, i.e., in the wrinkled laminar flame regime. Applying the model to the three dimensional computer simulation of SI engine combustion has demonstrated that the model is inherently computationally efficient and useful insight of the combustion process could be gained from such a simulation.