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Technical Paper

DELPHRAD: Lightweight & High Performance Deployable Radiator Development Program

Alcatel Space Cannes has successfully designed, manufactured and ground tested a two-LHP lightweight and high performance deployable radiator (“DELPHRAD”) in the frame of a development program co-funded by ESA. DELPHRAD is a follow-up of the STENTOR deployable radiator flight experiment sponsored by CNES (“Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales”; French National Space Agency). The STENTOR and DELPHRAD LHPs were designed, manufactured and delivered by EHP Nivelles (formerly SABCA Brussels). DELPHRAD features significantly lower mass budget than that of STENTOR with slightly better thermal performance. The considerable mass improvement is achieved essentially by the direct condensation thermal concept and the use of corrugated flexible lines. Some technological innovations contribute to facilitate the deployable radiator thermal sub-system manufacturing and its integration in a satellite system.
Technical Paper

Development of Deployable Radiators at Alcatel Space

Deployable radiators (DRs) have been in development at Alcatel Space Cannes (formerly Aerospatiale Cannes) since the 1980s to respond to the increasing need of additional heat rejection area. In 1980-1985, Alcatel Space Cannes, sponsored by Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES), defined, manufactured and ground-tested a 250 W thermal rotating joint DR. Since 1995, Alcatel Space Cannes, sponsored by CNES, have developed a STENTOR («Satellite de Télécommunication pour l'Expérimentation de Nouvelles Technologies en Orbite») 600 W Loop Heat Pipe (LHP)-based DR. The ground qualification will be completed mid 2000 and the flight qualification is planned late 2000 (launch of STENTOR satellite). Late 1998, Alcatel Space, co-funded by the European Space Agency (ESA), started the development of a Deployable Lightweight High Performance Radiator (DELPHRAD). The 1200 W DR will be ground-tested by mid 2001.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of Loop Heat Pipes

Future telecommunication and constellation satellites share a common objective to improve their thermal control performances when compared to the current state of the art. They are increasingly demanding in heat transport and thermal dissipation. Thus the use of classical thermal devices such as heat pipes or typical radiators are not sufficient anymore for the overall spacecraft thermal control. Therefore, the expected thermal control needs in the near future have motivated and directed, since about 5 years, new developments as e.g. Loop Heat Pipes. This technology is now almost mature and the industrialisation phase is being started. Indeed, as they give valuable possibilities and advantages to the thermal design of the platform, the LHPs constitute the most promising system to ensure particularly: □ The North / South radiator thermal coupling.
Technical Paper

Thermo-hydraulic Modelling with ESATAN and FHTS for the Analysis of the Deployable Radiator

This paper describes two possible modelling approaches (ESATAN and ESATAN/FHTS) for the thermo-hydraulic simulation of capillary driven fluid loops. The respective advantages and disadvantages of the approaches are discussed and are illustrated by an Industrial application, the development of a Deployable Radiator by the European consortium Astrium.
Technical Paper

Development Status of Two-Phase Heat Transport Technology in ESA/ESTEC

ESA/ESTEC funded two-phase heat transport activities for spacecraft thermal control started in the mid 1980's. A number of different two-phase loops, using either a mechanical pump or driven by a capillary pumped evaporator, were designed, assembled and tested successfully in the past years. The transported power levels were from a few hundred watts up to 10 kW over distances of some meters up to several tens of meters. The working fluid was either Freon or Ammonia. Within ESA's Technology Demonstration Programme (TDP1), a first two-phase experiment (TPX) for flight as a GAS-payload on the US Shuttle was designed and has been successfully flown on STS-60 in February 1994.