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Technical Paper

Residual Stress Distribution in a Hydroformed Advanced High Strength Steel Component: Neutron Diffraction Measurements and Finite Element Simulations

Today’s automotive industry is witnessing increasing applications of advanced high strength steels (AHSS) combined with innovative manufacturing techniques to satisfy fuel economy requirements of stringent environmental regulations. The integration of AHSS in novel automotive structure design has introduced huge advantages in mass reduction while maintaining their structural performances, yet several concerns have been raised for this relatively new family of steels. One of those concerns is their potentially high springback after forming, which can lead to geometrical deviation of the final product from its designed geometry and cause difficulties during assembly. From the perspective of accurate prediction, control and compensation of springback, further understanding on the effect of residual stress in AHSS parts is urged. In this work, the residual stress distribution in a 980GEN3 steel part after hydroforming is investigated via experimental and numerical approaches.
Technical Paper

MMLV: Chassis Design and Component Testing

The Multi Material Lightweight Vehicle (MMLV) developed by Magna International and Ford Motor Company is a result of a US Department of Energy project DE-EE0005574. The project demonstrates the lightweighting potential of a five passenger sedan, while maintaining vehicle performance and occupant safety. Prototype vehicles were manufactured and limited full vehicle testing was conducted. The Mach-I vehicle design, comprised of commercially available materials and production processes, achieved a 364kg (23.5%) full vehicle mass reduction, enabling the application of a 1.0-liter three-cylinder engine resulting in a significant environmental benefits and fuel consumption reduction. As part of this project, several automotive chassis components were selected for development and evaluation on the MMLV C/D segment passenger sedan.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Strain Distribution for Hole Expansion with Digital Image Correlation (DIC) System

Advanced high strength steels (AHSS) are increasingly used in automotive industry. A major issue for AHSS stamping is edge cracking. This failure mode is difficult to predict by conventional forming limit curve (FLC). The material edge stretchability is mainly evaluated using the hole expansion test. In this study, digital Image Correlation (DIC) is applied for strain measurement. DIC is a non-contact, full field, high accuracy and direct measurement technique that provides more detailed information for the evolution of strains on the sheet surface. Tests were conducted for five AHSS and nine cases. This paper will explain in detail the DIC technique and its results.
Technical Paper

A Practical Failure Limit for Sheared Edge Stretching of Automotive Body Panels

Edge cracking is one of the major formability concerns in advanced high strength steel (AHSS) stamping. Although finite element analysis (FEA) together with the Forming Limit Diagram has been widely used, it has not effectively predicted edge cracking. Primary problems in developing a methodology to insure that parts are safe from edge cracking are the lack of an effective failure criterion and a simple and accurate measurement method that is not only usable in both die tryout and production but also can be verified by finite element analysis. The intent of this study is to develop a methodology to ensure that parts with internal cutouts, such as a body side panel can be produced without edge cracking. During tryout and production, edge cracking has traditionally been detected by visual examination, but this approach is not adequate for ensuring freedom from edge cracking.
Technical Paper

Springback Prediction Improvement Using New Simulation Technologies

Springback is a major concern in stamping of advanced high strength steels (AHSS). The existing computer simulation technology has difficulty predicting this phenomenon accurately even though it is well developed for formability simulations. Great efforts made in recent years to improve springback predictions have achieved noticeable progress in the computational capability and accuracy. In this work, springback simulation studies are conducted using FEA software LS-DYNA®. Various parametric sensitivity studies are carried out and key variables affecting the springback prediction accuracy are identified. Recently developed simulation technologies in LS-DYNA® are implemented including dynamic effect minimization, smooth tool contact and newly developed nonlinear isotropic/kinematic hardening material models. Case studies on lab-scale and full-scale industrial parts are provided and the predicted springback results are compared to the experimental data.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Metal Gainers for Advanced High Strength Steel Flanging

Forming a metal gainer is a common technique used to gather material in a high stretch region along an edge in preparation for a subsequent flanging operation. This technique has proven to be successful for mild steels, but needs to be evaluated for the applicability to advanced high strength steels (AHSS). The Auto/Steel Partnership High Strength Stamping Team launched a project for this study. Experimental trials were conducted on gainer forming, trimming and flanging. Twelve (12) AHSS have been tested with tensile strengths ranging from 460 to 1240 MPa. Edge stretch limits for flanging have been evaluated and compared to flanging without gainers. Different trimming and flanging approaches have also been tried. The results show that metal gainers are not advantageous for flanging of higher strength AHSS.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Stretch Flangeability Limits of Advanced High Strength Steels using the Hole Expansion Test

More and more advanced high strength steels (AHSS) such as dual phase steels and TRIP steels are implemented in automotive components due to their superior crash performance and vehicle weight reduction capabilities. Recent trends show increased applications of higher strength grades such as 780/800 MPa and 980/1000 MPa tensile strength for crash sensitive components to meet more stringent safety regulations in front crash, side impact and roll-over situations. Several issues related to AHSS stamping have been raised during implementation such as springback, stretch bending fracture with a small radius to thickness ratio, edge cracking, etc. It has been shown that the failure strains in the stretch bending fracture and edge cracking can be significantly lower than the predicted forming limits, and no failure criteria are currently available to predict these failures.
Technical Paper

Aluminum Vehicle Side Impact Design, Test and CAE

Ford designed and built a midsize family sedan for the PNGV (Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicle). The side impact performance of the aluminum vehicle and the current CAE capability was studied. The vehicle was tested according to the specifications of FMVSS 214. The results show the vehicle meet the federal safety requirements. The impact performances of the front and rear dummies were comparable to those of the steel counterpart. CAE analysis was conducted to develop the body component design and to predict the structural and dummy responses. The results show that without modeling of the joint (rivet and weld) separation, the accuracy of the CAE crash analysis for this aluminum vehicle was inadequate. When empirical separation criteria were incorporated to model the joint, analysis results correlated with the test. Further development of robust modeling methods for joint separation is needed to improve the prediction of aluminum structure crash responses.
Journal Article

Validation of GISSMO Model for Fracture Prediction of a Third-Generation Advanced High-Strength Steel

Advanced high-strength steels (AHSS), due to their significantly higher strength than the conventional high-strength steels, are increasingly used in the automotive industry to meet future safety and fuel economy requirements. Unlike conventional steels, the properties of AHSS can vary significantly due to the different steelmaking processes and their fracture behaviors should be characterized. In crash analysis, a fracture model is often integrated in the simulations to predict fracture during crash events. In this article, crash simulations including a fracture criterion are conducted for a third-generation AHSS, that is, 980GEN3. A generalized incremental stress state dependent damage model (GISSMO) in LS-DYNA is employed to evaluate the fracture predictability in the crash simulations.
Journal Article

AHSS Shear Fracture Predictions Based on a Recently Developed Fracture Criterion

One of the issues in stamping of advanced high strength steels (AHSS) is the stretch bending fracture on a sharp radius (commonly referred to as shear fracture). Shear fracture typically occurs at a strain level below the conventional forming limit curve (FLC). Therefore it is difficult to predict in computer simulations using the FLC as the failure criterion. A modified Mohr-Coulomb (M-C) fracture criterion has been developed to predict shear fracture. The model parameters for several AHSS have been calibrated using various tests including the butter-fly shaped shear test. In this paper, validation simulations are conducted using the modified (M-C) fracture criterion for a dual phase (DP) 780 steel to predict fracture in the stretch forming simulator (SFS) test and the bending under tension (BUT) test. Various deformation fracture modes are analyzed, and the range of usability of the criterion is identified.