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Technical Paper

Study of Ausferrite Transformation Kinetics for Austempered Ductile Irons with and without Ni

This research studies the transformation kinetics of austempered ductile iron (ADI) with and without nickel as the main alloying element. ADI has improved mechanical properties compared to ductile iron due to its ausferrite microstructure. Not only can austempered ductile iron be produced with high strength, high toughness and high wear resistance, the ductility of ADI can also be increased due to high carbon content austenite. Many factors influence the transformation of phases in ADI. In the present work, the addition of nickel was investigated based on transformation kinetics and metallography observation. The transformation fractions were determined by Rockwell hardness variations of ADI specimens. The calculation of transformation kinetics and activation energy using the “Avrami Equation” and “Arrhenius Equation” is done to describe effects of nickel alloy for phase reactions.
Technical Paper

Effect of Material Microstructure on Scuffing Behavior of Ferrous Alloys

Scuffing is one of the major problems that influence the life cycle and reliability of several auto components, including engine cylinder kits, flywheels, camshafts, crankshafts, and gears. Ferrous casting materials, such as gray cast iron, ductile cast iron and austempered ductile cast iron (ADI) are widely applied in these components due to their self-lubricating characteristics. The purpose of this research is to determine the scuffing behavior of these three types of cast iron materials and compare them with 1050 steel. Rotational ball-on-disc tests were conducted with white mineral oil as the lubricant under variable sliding speeds and loads. The results indicate that the scuffing initiation is due to either crack propagation or plastic deformation. It is found that ADI exhibits the highest scuffing resistance among these materials.
Technical Paper

Austempering Process for Carburized Low Alloy Steels

There is a continual need to apply heat treatment processes in innovative ways to optimize material performance. One such application studied in this research is carburizing followed by austempering of low carbon alloy steels, AISI 8620, AISI 8822 and AISI 4320, to produce components with high strength and toughness. This heat treatment process was applied in two steps; first, carburization of the surface of the parts, second, the samples were quenched from austenitic temperature at a rate fast enough to avoid the formation of ferrite or pearlite and then held at a temperature just above the martensite starting temperature to partially or fully form bainite. Any austenite which was not transformed during austempering, upon further cooling formed martensite or was present as retained austenite.
Journal Article

Effect of Surface Roughness and Lubrication on Scuffing for Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI)

This paper describes the scuffing tests performed to understand the effect of surface roughness and lubrication on scuffing behavior for austempered ductile iron (ADI) material. As the scuffing tendency is increased, metal-to-metal interaction between contacting surfaces is increased. Lubrication between sliding surfaces becomes the boundary or mixed lubrication condition. Oil film breakdown leads to scuffing failure with the critical load. Hence, the role of surface roughness and lubrication becomes prominent in scuffing study. There are some studies in which the influence of the surface roughness and lubrication on scuffing was evaluated. However, no comprehensive scuffing study has been found in the literature regarding the effect of surface roughness and lubrication on scuffing behavior of ADI material. The current research took into account the inferences of surface roughness and lubrication on scuffing for ADI.
Journal Article

Distortion and Residual Stresses in Nitrocarburized and Carbonitrided SAE 1010 Plain Carbon Steel

The focus of this study was to determine the residual stress and retained austenite profiles for carbonitrided and nitrocarburized SAE 1010 plain carbon steel and to relate these profiles to one another and to the distortion resulting from heat treatment. Navy C-ring specimens were used for the purpose of this study and X-ray diffraction techniques were used to measure both residual stress and retained austenite. The findings from this research are then applied to a manufacturing application involving the surface hardening of a thin shelled, plain carbon steel automotive component.
Journal Article

Microstructural Effects on Residual Stress, Retained Austenite, and Case Depth of Carburized Automotive Steels

SAE 8620 and other steels are typically used in the carburized condition for powertrain applications in the automotive industry, i.e., differential ring gears, camshafts, and transmission gears. Although current recommended carburizing practice involves normalizing the steel prior to carburizing, elimination of this normalizing treatment could lead to significant cost reductions. This research examines whether the normalizing process prior to carburizing could be eliminated without negatively affecting part performance. This study focused on the effects of the initial microstructure on the residual stress, retained austenite, and effective case depths of carburized SAE 8620 and PS-18 steels.
Journal Article

Residual Stresses and Dimensional Changes in Ferritic Nitrocarburized Navy C-rings and Prototype Stamped Parts Made from SAE 1010 Steel

Nitrocarburizing is an economical surface hardening process and is proposed as an alternative heat treatment method to carbonitriding. The focus of this study is to compare the size and shape distortion and residual stresses resulting from the ferritic nitrocarburizing and gas carbonitriding processes for SAE 1010 plain carbon steel. Gas, ion and vacuum nitrocarburizing processes utilizing different heat treatment temperatures and times were performed to compare the different ferritic nitrocarburizing processes. Navy C-Ring specimens and prototype stamped parts were used to evaluate size and shape distortion. X-ray diffraction techniques were used to determine the residual stresses in the specimens. Overall, the test results indicate that the nitrocarburizing process gives rise to smaller dimensional changes than carbonitriding, and that the size and shape distortion can be considerably reduced by applying appropriate ferritic nitrocarburizing procedures.