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Technical Paper

The Effects of Fuel Temperature on a Direct Injection Gasoline Spray in a Constant Volume Chamber

2003-05-19
2003-01-1810
Fuel temperature in the injector of small direct injection gasoline engine is high. On some conditions it is higher than saturated temperature. Over saturated temperature spray characteristics greatly change. In order to predict in-cylinder phenomena accurately, it is important to understand spray behavior and mixture process above saturated temperature. Therefore spray shape, mixture formation process and Sauter mean radius were (SMR) measured in a constant volume chamber. And based on the measurement result initial spray boundary conditions were arranged so that spray characteristics over saturated temperature could be represented by using CFD code KIVA-3[1]. Moreover KIVA-3 code was combined with detailed chemical kinetics code Chemkin II to predict combustion products. [2] Calculated combustion process was validated with visualization of chemiluminescence. As a result, spray shape and penetration length have good agreement with measured ones for each fuel temperature.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Intake, Injection Parameters and Fuel Properties on Diesel Combustion and Emissions

2003-05-19
2003-01-1793
To improve urban air pollution, stringent emissions regulations for heavy-duty diesel engines have been proposed and will become effective in Japan, the EU, and the United States in a few years. To comply with such future regulations, it is critical to investigate the effects of intake and injection parameters and fuel properties on engine performance, efficiency and emissions characteristics, associated with the use of aftertreatment systems. An experimental study was carried out to identify such effects. In addition, the KIVA-3 code was used to gain insight into cylinder events. The results showed improvements in NOx-Smoke and BSFC trade-offs at high-pressure injection in conjunction with EGR and supercharging.
Technical Paper

Mixture formation and combustion characteristics of directly injected LPG spray

2003-05-19
2003-01-1917
It has been recognized that alternative fuels such as liquid petroleum gas (LPG) has less polluting combustion characteristics than diesel fuel. Direct-injection stratified-charge combustion LPG engines with spark-ignition can potentially replace conventional diesel engines by achieving a more efficient combustion with less pollution. However, there are many unknowns regarding LPG spray mixture formation and combustion in the engine cylinder thus making the development of high-efficiency LPG engines difficult. In this study, LPG was injected into a high pressure and temperature atmosphere inside a constant volume chamber to reproduce the stratification processes in the engine cylinder. The spray was made to hit an impingement wall with a similar profile as a piston bowl. Spray images were taken using the Schlieren and laser induced fluorescence (LIF) method to analyze spray penetration and evaporation characteristics.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study on Iso-Octane Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition

2003-05-19
2003-01-1820
A numerical study was carried out to investigate auto-ignition characteristics during HCCI predicted by using zero and multi-dimensional models combined with detailed kinetics including 116 chemical species and 689 elementary reactions involving iso-octane. In the simulation, homogeneous charge compression ignition of the fuel was analyzed under the same conditions as encountered in internal combustion engines. The results elucidated the combustible region and oxidation process of iso-octane with the formation and destruction of various chemical species in the cylinder.
Technical Paper

Predicting Exhaust Emissions in a Glow-Assisted DI Methanol Engine Using a Combustion Model Combined with Full Kinetics

1996-10-01
961935
A numerical model has been developed to predict the formation of NOx and formaldehyde in the combustion and post-combustion zones of a methanol DI engine. For this purpose, a methanol-air mixture model combined with a full kinetics model has been introduced, taking into account 39 species with their 157 related elementary reactions. Through these kinetic simulations, a concept is proposed for optimizing methanol combustion and reducing exhaust emissions.
Technical Paper

Simulating Exhaust Emissions Characteristics and Their Improvements in a Glow-Assisted DI Methanol Engine Using Combustion Models Combined with Detailed Kinetics

1997-05-01
971598
An experimental and numerical study has been conducted on the emission and reduction of HCHO (formaldehyde) and other pollutants formed in the cylinder of a direct-injection diesel engine fueled by methanol. Engine tests were performed under a variety of intake conditions including throttling, heating, and EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) for the purpose of improving these emissions by changing gas compositions and combustion temperatures in the cylinder. Moreover, a detailed kinetics model was developed and applied to methanol combustion to investigate HCHO formation and the reduction mechanism influenced by associated elementary reactions and in-cylinder mixing.
Technical Paper

Combustion and Exhaust Emissions in a Direct-injection Diesel Engine Dual-Fueled with Natural Gas

1995-02-01
950465
Dual-fuel operation of a direct-injection diesel engine with natural gas fuel can yield a high thermal efficiency almost comparable to the diesel operation at higher loads. The dual-fuel operation, however, at lower loads inevitably suffers from lower thermal efficiency and higher unburned fuel. To improve this problem, engine tests were carried out on a variety of engine parameters including diesel fuel injection timing advance, intake throttling and hot and cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). It was found that diesel injection timing advance gave little improvement in thermal efficiency and increased NOx. Intake throttling promoted better combustion and shortened its duration with a consequent improvement in efficiency at higher natural gas fractions. Hot EGR raised thermal efficiency, reduced smoke levels, and maintained low NOx levels. Cooled EGR reduced NOx emissions but lowered thermal efficiency.
Technical Paper

Controlling Combustion Characteristics Using a Slit Nozzle in a Direct-Injection Methanol Engine

1994-10-01
941909
A new type of fuel injection nozzle, called a “slit nozzle,” has been developed to improve poor ignitability and to stabilize combustion under low load conditions in direct-injection methanol diesel engines manufactured for medium-duty trucks. This nozzle has a single oblong vent like a slit. Engine test results indicate that the slit nozzle can improve combustion and thermal efficiency, especially at low loads and no load. This can be explained by the fact that the slit nozzle forms a more highly concentrated methanol spray around the glow-plug than do multi-hole nozzles. As a result, this nozzle improves flame propagation.
Technical Paper

The Control of Diesel Emissions by Supercharging and Varying Fuel-injection Parameters

1992-02-01
920117
A study has been made of an automotive direct injection diesel engine designed to reduce exhaust emissions, particularly NOx and particulates, without performance deterioration. Special emphasis has been placed on air-fuel mixing conditions controlled by the fuel injection rate, the intake swirl ratio, and the intake boost pressure. By means of increasing the injection rate, ignition delay can be shortened enough to improve particulate emissions at retarded injection timings. Enhancing the intake swirl velocity contributes to the reduction of soot emission in spite of the deterioration of NOx emission. Supercharging can favorably enhance diffusion combustion resulting in improved fuel economy for retarded injection timings and reduced emissions. As a result, a good compromise can be achieved between fuel economy and exhaust emissions by increasing the injection rate along with retarding the injection timing. Supercharging was found to be more favorable than swirl enhancement.
Technical Paper

Combined Effects of EGR and Supercharging on Diesel Combustion and Emissions

1993-03-01
930601
An experimental study has been made of a single cylinder, direct-injection diesel engine having a re-entrant combustion chamber designed to enhance combustion so as to reduce exhaust emissions. Special emphasis has been placed on controlling the inert gas concentration in the localized fuel-air mixture to lower combustion gas temperatures, thereby reduce exhaust NOx emission. For this specific purpose, an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system, which has been widely used in gasoline engines, was applied to the DI diesel engine to control the intake inert gas concentration. In addition, supercharging and increasing fuel injection pressure prevent the deterioration of smoke and unburned hydrocarbons and improve fuel economy, as well.
Technical Paper

A Study on Process of Direct Injection Stratified Charge Combustion in a Constant-Volume Vessel

1989-11-01
891223
A numerical simulation model has been developed to predict the direct injection stratified charge combustion in a constant- volume vessel. Important factors such as local fuel concentration, their fluctuation and turbulent flow characteristics were measured throughout the vessel as function of time. These data were utilized to estimate the buring rate composed of the turbulent fuel-air mixing rate and chemical reaction rate. The model can predict the combustion pressures and heat release rates measured for different ignition timings and spark location.
Technical Paper

Effects of Combustion Chamber Geometry on Diesel Combustion

1986-09-01
861186
A study has been made of an automotive direct-injection diesel engine in order to identify the effects of the combustion chamber geometry on combustion, with special emphasis focused on a re-entrant combustion chamber. Conventional combustion chambers and a re-entrant one were compared in terms of the combustion process, engine performance and NOx and smoke emissions. Heat transfer calculations and heat release analyses show that the re-entrant chamber tends to reduce ignition lag due to the higher temperatures of the wall on which injected fuel impinges. Analyses of turbulent flow characteristics in each chamber indicate that the re-entrant chamber enhances combustion because of the higher in-cylinder velocity accompanied by increased turbulence. Further, analyses of in-cylinder gas samples show lower soot levels in the re-entrant chamber. As a result, a good compromise can be achieved between fuel economy and exhaust emissions by retarding the fuel injection timing.
Technical Paper

Intercooling Effects of Methanol on Turbocharged Diesel Engine Performance and Exhaust Emissions

1984-09-01
841160
From the viewpoint of utilizing methanol fuel in an automotive turbocharged direct-injection diesel engine, an intercooling system supplying liquid methanol has been devised and its effects on engine performance and exhaust gas emissions have been investigated. With an electronically controlled injector in this system, methanol as a supplementary fuel to diesel fuel can be injected into the intake pipe in order to intercool a hot air charge compressed by the turbocharger. It has been confirmed that especially at heavy load conditions, methanol-intercooling can yield a higher thermal efficiency, and lower NOx and smoke emissions simultaneously, compared with three other cases without using methanol: natural aspiration and the cases with and without an ordinary intercooler. However, methanol fueling must be avoided at lower loads since sacrifices in efficiency and hydrocarbon emissions are inevitably involved.
Technical Paper

Improvement of NOx Reduction Rate of Urea-SCR System by NH3 Adsorption Quantity Control

2008-10-06
2008-01-2498
A urea SCR system was combined with a DPF system to reduce NOx and PM in a four liters turbocharged with intercooler diesel engine. Significant reduction in NOx was observed at low exhaust gas temperatures by increasing NH3 adsorption quantity in the SCR catalyst. Control logic of the NH3 adsorption quantity for transient operation was developed based on the NH3 adsorption characteristics on the SCR catalyst. It has been shown that NOx can be reduced by 75% at the average SCR inlet gas temperature of 158 deg.C by adopting the NH3 adsorption quantity control in the JE05 Mode.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Jatropha-derived Biodiesel on Diesel Engine Combustion and Emission Characteristics

2012-09-10
2012-01-1637
The objective of the present research is to investigate the effects on diesel engine combustion and NOx and PM emission characteristics in case of blending the ordinary diesel fuel with biodiesel in passenger car diesel engines. Firstly, we conducted experiments to identify the combustion and emissions characteristics in a modern diesel engine complying with the EURO 4 emission standard. Then, we developed a numerical simulation model to explain and generalize biodiesel combustion phenomena in detail and generalize emission characteristics. The experimental and simulation results are useful to reduce biodiesel emissions by controlling engine operating and design parameters in the diesel engine. Engine tests were conducted and a mathematical model created to investigate the effects of 40% and 100% methyl oleate modeled fuel representing Jatropha-derived biodiesel on diesel combustion and emission characteristics, over a wide range of passenger car DI diesel engine operating conditions.
Technical Paper

A Study on N2O Formation Mechanism and Its Reduction in a Urea SCR System Employed in a DI Diesel Engine

2012-09-10
2012-01-1745
N₂O is known to have a significantly high global warming potential. We measured N₂O emissions in engine-bench tests by changing the NO/NH₃ ratio and exhaust gas temperature at the oxidation catalyst inlet in a heavy-duty diesel engine equipped with a urea SCR (selective catalytic reduction) system. The results showed that the peak N₂O production ratio occurred at an exhaust gas temperature of around 200°C and the maximum value was 84%. Moreover, the N₂O production ratio increased with increasing NO/NH₃. Thus, we concluded that N₂O is produced via the NO branching reaction. Based on our results, two methods were proposed to decrease N₂O formation. At low temperatures ~200°C, NO should be reduced by controlling diesel combustion to lower the contribution of NO to N₂O production. This is essential because the SCR system cannot reduce NOx at low temperatures.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Characteristics of Natural Gas Combustion at a High Compression Ratio by Using a Rapid Compression and Expansion Machine

2012-09-10
2012-01-1651
Natural gas is an attractive alternative fuel for internal combustion engines. Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion is considered to be one of the most promising measures for increasing thermal efficiency and reducing emissions, but it is difficult to control and stabilize its ignition and combustion processes. This paper describes an experimental study of natural gas combustion utilizing two types of ignition assistance. Spark assistance, which is used for conventional spark ignition (SI) engines, and pilot diesel injection, hereinafter called diesel pilot, which generates multiple ignition points by using a small injection of diesel that accounts for 2% of the total heat release for the cycle. The performance of these two approaches was compared with respect to various combustion characteristics when burning homogeneous natural gas mixtures at a high compression ratio.
Technical Paper

Utilizing FAME as a Cetane Number Improver for a Light-duty Diesel Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1392
As the petroleum depletion, some of this demand will probably have to be met by increasing the production of diesel fuels from heavy oil or unconventional oil in the near future. Such fuels may inevitably have a lower cetane number (CN) with a higher concentration of aromatic components. The objective of the present research is to identify the effects of a typical biodiesel fuel as a CN improver for a light-duty diesel engine for passenger cars. Our previous study indicates that methyl oleate (MO), which is an oxygenated fuel representative of major constituents of many biodiesel types, can reduce soot and NOx emissions simultaneously by optimizing performance under exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) when used as a diesel fuel additive. In addition, it was found that MO tends to reduce the ignition delay. We employed a 2.2 L passenger car DI diesel engine complying with the Euro 4 emissions regulation.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Study on Predicting Combustion Chamber Wall Surface Temperature Distributions in a Diesel Engine and their Effects on Combustion, Emission and Heat Loss Characteristics by Using a 3D-CFD Code Combined with a Detailed Heat Transfer Model

2015-09-01
2015-01-1847
A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (3D-CFD) code was combined with a detailed combustion chamber heat transfer model. The established model allowed not only prediction of instantaneous combustion chamber wall surface temperature distributions in practical calculation time but also investigation of the characteristics of combustion, emissions and heat losses affected by the wall temperature distributions. Although zero-dimensional combustion analysis can consider temporal changes in the heat transfer coefficient and in-cylinder gas temperature, it cannot take into account the effect of interactions between spatially distributed charge and wall temperatures. In contrast, 3D-CFD analysis can consider temporal and spatial changes in both parameters. However, in most zero-/multi- dimensional combustion analyses, wall temperatures are assumed to be temporally constant and spatially homogeneous.
Technical Paper

Numerical Optimization of Parameters to Improve Thermal Efficiency of a Spark-Ignited Natural Gas Engine

2015-09-01
2015-01-1884
Natural gas is a promising alternative fuel for internal combustion engines because of its clean combustion characteristics and abundant reserves. However, it has several disadvantages due to its low energy density and low thermal efficiency at low loads. Thus, to assist efforts to improve the thermal efficiency of spark-ignited (SI) engines operating on natural gas and to minimize test procedures, a numerical simulation model was developed to predict and optimize the performance of a turbocharged test engine, considering flame propagation, occurrence of knock and ignition timing. The numerical results correlate well with empirical data, and show that increasing compression ratios and retarding the intake valve closing (IVC) timing relative to selected baseline conditions could effectively improve thermal efficiency. In addition, employing moderate EGR ratios is also effective for avoiding knock.
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