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Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel and Diluents on Stratified Charge Turbulent Combustion in Simplified Conditions

2003-05-19
2003-01-1807
Stratified charge combustion system is widely used for production engines due to the significant potentials, such as low fuel consumption rate and low exhaust gas emissions. The combustion phenomena in simplified stratified charge conditions have been examined with changing the initial turbulence intensity, degree of mixture charge stratification, and kinds of fuels in order to clarify the features. Moreover, it should be noted that the stratified charge combustion may cause raising NOx formation. EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) system is widely used for this solution. In this study, EGR was simulated by using dilution gases, such as CO2 and N2. Combustion characteristics in homogeneous and stratified charge fields with dilution gas were examined. As a result, some interesting combustion characteristics between CO2 and N2 depending on the specific heat, initial turbulence intensity, and degree of charge stratification were found.
Technical Paper

Proposition of a Stratified Charge System by Using In-Cylinder Gas Motion

1995-10-01
952455
A new idea for controlling the in-cylinder mixture formation in SI engines is proposed. This concept was developed by applying the results of numerical calculations. Fuel that is directly injected into the cylinder is transferred toward the cylinder head to form a mixture stratification by using the in-cylinder gas motion that is generated by the interaction between the swirl and squish flows inside a combustion chamber. At first, the flow characteristics were measured in the whole in-cylinder space using an LDV system. Also, numerical calculations of the in-cylinder flow were made using measured data as the initial conditions. Secondly, the local equivalence ratio at several points inside the combustion chamber was measured by using a fast gas sampling device.
Technical Paper

Combustion Enhancement of Very Lean Premixture Part in Stratified Charge Conditions

1996-10-01
962087
Local inhomogeneity of mixture concentration affects combustion characteristics in the lean burn system and also in the stratified charge combustion system. To investigate such combustion systems, the effects of inhomogeneous mixtures were examined using a carefully controlled experimental system. In this study, a constant-volume chamber, which can simulate an idealized stratified charge by using a removable partition inside the chamber, was developed. Flow and combustion characteristics were examined by indicated pressure analysis, Schlieren photography, ion probe measurements and local equivalence ratios measurements while varying the combination of initial equivalence ratios on each side of the partition. As a result, combustion characteristics of charge stratified, very lean propane-air mixture were clarified.
Technical Paper

Analysis of DISC Combustion Using a Pilot Flame Ignition System

1994-10-01
941927
A new DISC combustion system with a pilot flame for ignition was analyzed by using a model combustion chamber of a Wankel type rotary engine. A two-stroke diesel engine's cylinder head was replaced with this combustion chamber to simulate temporal changes of air flow and pressure fields inside the chamber as in actual engines. Two types of fuel injection systems were tested to obtain combustion characteristics such as the heat release rate. Direct photographs of spray and combustion were analyzed to understand the mixture-formation process of the main spray and to see the flame temperature distribution and flame moving velocity vectors. In order to understand the mixture-formation process, numerical calculations were made using a gaseous fuel. Finally, the effect of the fuel characteristics on combustion was examined using diesel fuel and n- hexane.
Technical Paper

A Study on Combustion Characteristics of DISC Rotary Engine Using a Model Combustion Chamber

1994-03-01
941028
A model combustion chamber of Wankel type rotary engine was employed to study the DISC RE system. A two-stroke Diesel engine's cylinder head was replaced with this combustion chamber to simulate temporal change of air flow and pressure fields inside the chamber as an actual engine. The base engine was motorized to operate as a continuous rapid compression and expansion machine. Pilot fuel spray was injected onto a glow plug to form a pilot flame and it ignites the main fuel spray. The ignitability of pilot fuel, mixture formation process, ignition process of main fuel by pilot flame and the effect of pilot and main injection timings on combustion characteristics were examined.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of a Concept for DI Gasoline Combustion Using Enhanced Gas Motion

1998-02-23
980152
A direct injection gasoline engine system which employs a unique combustion system with enhanced gas motion is evaluated. Enhanced gas motion is produced by employing both a moderately strong swirl flow and a cavity in the piston. Advantages of this system are that the injection timing or spark timing need not be controlled severely and that since the injection timing can be set at near the intake BDC, time for evaporation can be gained to reduce soot emissions. Problems to be improved are that the Nox emissions level is worse than other lean burn systems and full load operation is not evaluated. According to the numerical calculations, the problems may be solved by enhancing the in-cylinder gas motion with axial stratification of swirl intensity at intake BDC; strong swirl near the cylinder head and weak swirl near the piston surface.
Technical Paper

Analysis of DISC Rotary Engine Combustion Using Improved Pilot Flame Ignition System

1996-10-01
962021
In order to enhance the reliability of a pilot flame ignition system, three kinds of subchambers in which a pilot injector and a glow plug were set up were tested with a model combustion chamber of DISC rotary engine. A two-stroke Diesel engine's cylinder head was replaced with this model combustion chamber to simulate temporal changes of air flow and pressure fields inside the chamber as an actual engine. The behavior of the pilot flame generated in the subchamber, ignition process of main fuel spray by the pilot flame, the most suitable mixture distribution between the main chamber and the subchamber, and the effect of nozzle diameter of main injector on combustion characteristics were studied by using a high-speed video camera and ion probes.
Technical Paper

Stratification of Swirl Intensity in the Axial Direction for Control of Turbulence Generation During the Compression Stroke

1991-02-01
910261
Control of turbulence during the compression stroke is suggested by both theoretical calculations and experimental results obtained with an LDV measurement in a motored engine. The authors have found experimentally that when an axial distribution of swirl intensity exists, a large-scale annular vortex is formed inside the cylinder during the compression stroke and this vortex generates and transports turbulence energy. A numerical calculation is adopted to elucidate this phenomenon. Then, an axial stratification of swirl intensity is found to generate a large-scale annular vortex during the compression stroke by an interaction between the piston motion and the axial pressure gradient. The initial swirl profile is parametrically varied to assess its effect on the turbulence parameters. Among calculated results, turbulence energy is enhanced strongest when the swirl intensity is highest at the piston top surface and lowest at the bottom surface of the cylinder head.
Technical Paper

A Study of High Compression Ratio SI Engine Equipped with a Variable Piston Crank Mechanism for Knocking Mitigation

2011-08-30
2011-01-1874
To avoid knocking phenomena, a special crank mechanism for gasoline engine that allowed the piston to move rapidly near TDC (Top Dead Center) was developed and experimentally demonstrated in the previous study. As a result, knocking was successfully mitigated and indicated thermal efficiency was improved [1],[2],[3],[4]. However, performance of the proposed system was evaluated at only limited operating conditions. In the present study, to investigate the effect of piston movement near TDC on combustion characteristics and indicated thermal efficiency and to clarify the knock mitigation mechanism of the proposed method, experimental studies were carried out using a single cylinder engine with a compression ratio of 13.7 at various engine speeds and loads. The special crank mechanism, which allows piston to move rapidly near TDC developed in the previous study, was applied to the test engine with some modification of tooling accuracy.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study of a Gasoline HCCI Engine Using the Blow-Down Super Charge System

2009-04-20
2009-01-0496
The objective of this study is to extend the high load operation limit of a gasoline HCCI engine. A new system extending the high load HCCI operation limit was proposed, and the performance of the system was experimentally demonstrated. The proposed system consists of two new techniques. The first one is the “Blow-down super charging (BDSC) system”, in which, EGR gas can be super charged into a cylinder during the early stage of compression stroke by using the exhaust blow-down pressure wave from another cylinder phased 360 degrees later/earlier in the firing order. The other one is “EGR guide” for generating a large thermal stratification inside the cylinder to reduce the rate of in-cylinder pressure rise (dP/dθ) at high load HCCI operation. The EGR guides consist of a half-circular part attached on the edge of the exhaust ports and the piston head which has a protuberant surface to control the mixing between hot EGR gas and intake air-fuel mixture.
Technical Paper

Extension of Lean and Diluted Combustion Stability Limits by Using Repetitive Pulse Discharges

2010-04-12
2010-01-0173
A newly developed small-sized IES (inductive energy storage) circuit with a semiconductor switch at turn-off action was successfully applied to an ignition system. This IES circuit can generate repetitive nanosecond pulse discharges. An ignition system using repetitive nanosecond pulse discharges was investigated as an alternative to conventional spark ignition systems in the previous papers. Experiments were conducted using constant volume chamber for CH₄ and C₃H₈-air mixtures. The ignition system using repetitive nanosecond pulse discharges was found to improve the inflammability of lean combustible mixtures, such as extended flammability limits, shorted ignition delay time, with increasing the number of pulses for CH₄ and C₃H₈-air mixtures under various conditions. The mechanisms for improving the inflammability were discussed and the effectiveness of IES circuit under EGR condition was also verified.
Technical Paper

Numerical and Experimental Analyses of Mixture Formation Process Using a Fan-shaped DI Gasoline Spray: Examinations on Effects of Crosswind and Wall Impingement

2009-04-20
2009-01-1502
The analysis of spray characteristics is important to examine the combustion characteristics of DI (Direct Injection) gasoline engines because the fuel-air mixture formation is controlled by spray characteristics and in-cylinder gas motion. However, the mixture formation process has not been well clarified yet. In this study, the characteristics of a fan-shaped spray caused from a slit-type injector, such as the droplet size, its velocity and the droplet distribution were simultaneously measured on a 2D plane by using improved ILIDS (Interferometric Laser Imaging for Droplet Sizing) method. ILIDS method is an optical measurement technique using interference fringes by illuminating a transparent spherical particles with a coherent laser light. In the measurement of the wall-impinging spray, effects of the distance to the wall and the wall temperature on the spray characteristics were investigated.
Technical Paper

A Study of Control Strategy for Combution Mode Switching Between HCCI and SI With the Blowdown Supercharging System

2012-04-16
2012-01-1122
To find an ignition and combustion control strategy in a gasoline-fueled HCCI engine equipped with the BlowDown SuperCharging (BDSC) system which is previously proposed by the authors, a one-dimensional HCCI engine cycle simulator capable of predicting the ignition and heat release of HCCI combustion was developed. The ignition and the combustion models based on Livengood-Wu integral and Wiebe function were implemented in the simulator. The predictive accuracy of the developed simulator in the combustion timing, combustion duration and heat release rate was validated by comparing to experimental results. Using the developed simulator, the control strategy for the engine operating mode switching between HCCI and SI combustion was explored with focus attention on transient behaviors of air-fuel ratio, A/F, and gas-fuel ratio, G/F.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation to Understand the Cause and Sequence of LSPI Phenomena and Suggestion of CaO Mechanism in Highly Boosted SI Combustion in Low Speed Range

2015-04-14
2015-01-0755
The authors investigated the reasons of how a preignition occurs in a highly boosted gasoline engine. Based on the authors' experimental results, theoretical investigations on the processes of how a particle of oil or solid comes out into the cylinder and how a preignition occurs from the particle. As a result, many factors, such as the in-cylinder temperature, the pressure, the equivalence ratio and the component of additives in the lubricating oil were found to affect the processes. Especially, CaCO3 included in an oil as an additive may be changed to CaO by heating during the expansion and exhaust strokes. Thereafter, CaO will be converted into CaCO3 again by absorbing CO2 during the intake and compression strokes. As this change is an exothermic reaction, the temperature of CaCO3 particle increases over 1000K of the chemical equilibrium temperature determined by the CO2 partial pressure.
Technical Paper

Investigation and Improvement of LSPI Phenomena and Study of Combustion Strategy in Highly Boosted SI Combustion in Low Speed Range

2015-04-14
2015-01-0756
LSPI is an important issue to enable and enhance the effect of downsizing in SI engines. Experimental work was carried out by using 4 cylinder turbocharged gasoline engine, attaching the extra supercharger to get a higher boost pressure. Many parameters of driving condition, engine specification and lubricants were studied and some of them were extracted as the major items which affect the possibility of LSPI. Coolant temperature and Calcium (Ca) additive to lubricant had strong effect on the frequency of LSPI. Combustion strategy of strong miller cycle and LPEGR were also studied and compared in very high BMEP condition. Finally IMEPg of 3MPa at 1500rpm was achieved by using a single cylinder test engine equipped with 2-stage mechanically supercharged intake system.
Technical Paper

Effect of Low Octane Gasoline on Performance of a HCCI Engine with the Blowdown Supercharging

2015-09-01
2015-01-1814
In this study, the effect of the low octane number fuel on HCCI engine performance was experimentally investigated using a slightly modified commercial four-cylinder gasoline engine. To operate the engine in HCCI strategy with wide operational range, the blowdwon supercharging (BDSC) system proposed by the authors was applied in the test engine. Research octane number (RON) of test fuels was varied from 90 to 78.5 as an experimental parameter. Experimental results showed that in the range of the present study, HCCI operational range, brake thermal efficiency and exhaust emissions during HCCI operation were little affected by the RON of the test fuels. In contrast, during SI operation, thermal efficiency was deteriorated with lower RON fuel because of knocking.
Technical Paper

Driving Cycle Simulation of a Vehicle with Gasoline Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine Using a Low-RON Fuel

2016-10-17
2016-01-2297
An improvement of thermal efficiency of internal combustion engines is strongly required. Meanwhile, from the viewpoint of refinery, CO2 emissions and gasoline price decrease when lower octane gasoline can be used for vehicles. If lower octane gasoline is used for current vehicles, fuel consumption rate would increase due to abnormal combustion. However, if a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine were to be used, the effect of octane number on engine performance would be relatively small and it has been revealed that the thermal efficiency is almost unchanged. In this study, the engine performance estimation of HCCI combustion using lower octane gasoline as a vision of the future engine was achieved. To quantitatively investigate the fuel consumption performance of a gasoline HCCI engine using lower octane fuel, the estimation of fuel consumption under different driving test cycles with different transmissions is carried out using 1D engine simulation code.
Technical Paper

1-D Simulation Model Developed for a General Purpose Engine

2016-11-08
2016-32-0030
In recent years, improvements in the fuel economy and exhaust emission performance of internal combustion engines have been increasingly required by regulatory agencies. One of the salient concerns regarding general purpose engines is the larger amount of CO emissions with which they are associated, compared with CO emissions from automobile engines. To reduce CO and other exhaust emissions while maintaining high fuel efficiency, the optimization of total engine system, including various design parameters, is essential. In the engine system optimization process, cycle simulation using 0-D and 1-D engine models are highly useful. To define an optimum design, the model used for the cycle simulation must be capable of predicting the effects of various parameters on the engine performance. In this study, a model for predicting the performance of a general purpose SI (Spark Ignited) engine is developed based on the commercially available engine simulation software, GT-POWER.
Technical Paper

Improvement in Thermal Efficiency of Lean Burn Pre-Chamber Natural Gas Engine by Optimization of Combustion System

2017-03-28
2017-01-0782
To understand the mechanism of the combustion by torch flame jet in a gas engine with pre-chamber and also to obtain the strategy of improving thermal efficiency by optimizing the structure of pre-chamber including the diameter and number of orifices, the combustion process was investigated by three dimensional numerical simulations and experiments of a single cylinder natural gas engine. As a result, the configuration of orifices was found to affect the combustion performance strongly. With the same orifice diameter of 1.5mm, thermal efficiency with 7 orifices in pre-chamber was higher than that with 4 orifices in pre-chamber, mainly due to the reduction of heat loss by decreasing the impingement of torch flame on the cylinder linear. Better thermal efficiency was achieved in this case because the flame propagated area increases rapidly while the flame jets do not impinge on the cylinder wall intensively.
Technical Paper

Visualization of the Heat Transfer Surface of EGR Cooler to Examine Soot Adhesion and Abruption Phenomena

2017-03-28
2017-01-0127
Among the emerging technologies in order to meet ever stringent emission and fuel consumption regulations, Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) system is becoming one of the prerequisites particularly for diesel engines. Although EGR cooler is considered to be an effective measure for further performance enhancement, exhaust gas soot deposition may cause degradation of the cooling. To address this issue, the authors studied the visualization of the soot deposition and removal phenomena to understand its behavior. Based on thermophoresis theory, which indicates that the effect of thermophoresis depends on the temperature difference between the gas and the wall surface exposed to the gas, a visualization method using a heated glass window was developed. By using glass with the transparent conductive oxide: tin-doped indium oxide, temperature of the heated glass surface is raised.
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