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Technical Paper

Stratification of Swirl Intensity in the Axial Direction for Control of Turbulence Generation During the Compression Stroke

1991-02-01
910261
Control of turbulence during the compression stroke is suggested by both theoretical calculations and experimental results obtained with an LDV measurement in a motored engine. The authors have found experimentally that when an axial distribution of swirl intensity exists, a large-scale annular vortex is formed inside the cylinder during the compression stroke and this vortex generates and transports turbulence energy. A numerical calculation is adopted to elucidate this phenomenon. Then, an axial stratification of swirl intensity is found to generate a large-scale annular vortex during the compression stroke by an interaction between the piston motion and the axial pressure gradient. The initial swirl profile is parametrically varied to assess its effect on the turbulence parameters. Among calculated results, turbulence energy is enhanced strongest when the swirl intensity is highest at the piston top surface and lowest at the bottom surface of the cylinder head.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study of a Gasoline HCCI Engine Using the Blow-Down Super Charge System

2009-04-20
2009-01-0496
The objective of this study is to extend the high load operation limit of a gasoline HCCI engine. A new system extending the high load HCCI operation limit was proposed, and the performance of the system was experimentally demonstrated. The proposed system consists of two new techniques. The first one is the “Blow-down super charging (BDSC) system”, in which, EGR gas can be super charged into a cylinder during the early stage of compression stroke by using the exhaust blow-down pressure wave from another cylinder phased 360 degrees later/earlier in the firing order. The other one is “EGR guide” for generating a large thermal stratification inside the cylinder to reduce the rate of in-cylinder pressure rise (dP/dθ) at high load HCCI operation. The EGR guides consist of a half-circular part attached on the edge of the exhaust ports and the piston head which has a protuberant surface to control the mixing between hot EGR gas and intake air-fuel mixture.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation to Understand the Cause and Sequence of LSPI Phenomena and Suggestion of CaO Mechanism in Highly Boosted SI Combustion in Low Speed Range

2015-04-14
2015-01-0755
The authors investigated the reasons of how a preignition occurs in a highly boosted gasoline engine. Based on the authors' experimental results, theoretical investigations on the processes of how a particle of oil or solid comes out into the cylinder and how a preignition occurs from the particle. As a result, many factors, such as the in-cylinder temperature, the pressure, the equivalence ratio and the component of additives in the lubricating oil were found to affect the processes. Especially, CaCO3 included in an oil as an additive may be changed to CaO by heating during the expansion and exhaust strokes. Thereafter, CaO will be converted into CaCO3 again by absorbing CO2 during the intake and compression strokes. As this change is an exothermic reaction, the temperature of CaCO3 particle increases over 1000K of the chemical equilibrium temperature determined by the CO2 partial pressure.
Technical Paper

Effect of the Ratio Between Connecting-rod Length and Crank Radius on Thermal Efficiency

2006-11-13
2006-32-0098
In reciprocating internal combustion engines, the Otto cycle indicates the best thermal efficiency under a given compression ratio. To achieve an ideal Otto cycle, combustion must take place instantaneously at top dead center, but in fact, this is impossible. Meanwhile, if we allow slower piston motion around top dead center, combustion will be promoted at that period; then both the in-cylinder pressure and degree of constant volume will increase, leading to higher thermal efficiency. In order to verify this hypothesis, an engine with slower piston motion around top dead center, using an ideal constant volume combustion engine, was built and tested. As anticipated, the degree of constant volume increased. However, thermal efficiency was not improved, due to increased heat loss.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Breakup Modeling of a Diesel Spray by Making Comparisons with 2D Measurement Data

2007-07-23
2007-01-1898
In this study, the characteristics of diesel spray droplets, such as the velocity and the diameter were simultaneously measured by using an improved ILIDS (Interferometric Laser Imaging for Droplet Sizing) method on a 2D plane to evaluate the droplet breakup modeling. In numerical analysis, DDM (Discrete Droplet Model) was employed with sub-models such as droplet breakup, droplet drag force and turbulence. Experiments have been performed with an accumulator type unit-injector system and a constant-volume high-pressure vessel under the condition of quiescent ambient gas. The injection pressure and ambient gas pressure were set up to 100 MPa and 0.1 / 1 MPa, respectively. The nozzle orifice diameter was 0.244 mm with a single hole. The measurement region was chosen at 40 ∼ 60 mm from the nozzle-tip. Numerical analysis of diesel sprays was conducted and the results were compared to the measured results.
Technical Paper

Quantitative 2-D Gas Concentration Measurement by Laser-Beam Scanning Technique with Combination of Absorption and Fluorescense

2003-10-27
2003-01-3153
In order to measure the spatial distribution of fuel jet concentration quantitatively, a technique combining methods of fluorescence with absorption was developed. LIF method can obtain the spatial fuel distribution qualitatively, but quantitative measurement is difficult. Meanwhile, laser-beam absorption method can quantitatively obtain the integrated jet concentration on the light-path. In addition, scanning the laser-beam allows for a quasi 2-D quantitative measurement of the jet concentration. Firstly, in this study, this measurement system was tested in a homogeneously charged field while varying the dopant NO2 concentration, the laser-beam scanning speed, and the ambient pressure. As a result, some data-correction techniques were developed to produce a quantitative measurement. Secondly, this system was applied to gaseous jet fields in a constant volume bomb.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Mixture Formation Process in a Reverse Uniflow-Type Two-Stroke Gasoline DI Engine

2002-10-29
2002-32-1774
A reverse uniflow-type two-stroke gasoline direct injection engine, which has potentials of high power weight ratio, high thermal efficiency and low exhaust gas emissions, has been developed and tested. In this study, one of the features of this engine: very low cycle-to-cycle combustion variation at idling condition, is focused to clarify the reasons. To achieve this, a transparent cylinder model engine was designed and built to visualize the in-cylinder mixture formation process, and the free spray characteristics of a swirl-type injector were examined using a large chamber with changing the injection pressure, environmental gas pressure, and the gas temperature. As a result, the reasons of stable idling operation were deduced.
Journal Article

A Study of Low Speed Preignition Mechanism in Highly Boosted SI Gasoline Engines

2015-09-01
2015-01-1865
The authors investigated the reasons of how a preignition occurs in a highly boosted gasoline engine. Based on the authors' experimental results, theoretical investigations on the processes of how a particle of oil or solid comes out into the cylinder and how a preignition occurs from the particle. As a result, many factors, such as the in-cylinder temperature, the pressure, the equivalence ratio and the component of additives in the lubricating oil were found to affect the processes. Especially, CaCO3 included in an oil as an additive may be changed to CaO by heating during the expansion and exhaust strokes. Thereafter, CaO will be converted into CaCO3 again by absorbing CO2 during the intake and compression strokes. As this change is an exothermic reaction, the temperature of CaCO3 particle increases over 1000K of the chemical equilibrium temperature determined by the CO2 partial pressure.
Journal Article

Evaluation of the Performance of a Boosted HCCI Gasoline Engine with Blowdown Supercharge System

2013-10-15
2013-32-9172
HCCI combustion can realize low NOx and particulate emissions and high thermal efficiency. Therefore, HCCI combustion has a possibility of many kinds of applications, such as an automotive powertrain, general-purpose engine, motorcycle engine and electric generator. However, the operational range using HCCI combustion in terms of speed and load is restricted because the onset of ignition and the heat release rate cannot be controlled directly. For the extension of the operational range using either an external supercharger or a turbocharger is promising. The objective of this research is to investigate the effect of the intake pressure on the HCCI high load limit and HCCI combustion characteristics with blowdown supercharging (BDSC) system. The intake pressure (Pin) and temperature (Tin) were varied as experimental parameters. The intake pressure was swept from 100 kPa (naturally aspirated) to 200 kPa using an external mechanical supercharger.
Journal Article

Effect of Fuel and Thermal Stratifications on the Operational Range of an HCCI Gasoline Engine Using the Blow-Down Super Charge System

2010-04-12
2010-01-0845
In order to extend the HCCI high load operational limit, the effects of the distributions of temperature and fuel concentration on pressure rise rate (dP/dθ) were investigated through theoretical and experimental methods. The Blow-Down Super Charge (BDSC) and the EGR guide parts are employed simultaneously to enhance thermal stratification inside the cylinder. And also, to control the distribution of fuel concentration, direct fuel injection system was used. As a first step, the effect of spatial temperature distribution on maximum pressure rise rate (dP/dθmax) was investigated. The influence of the EGR guide parts on the temperature distribution was investigated using 3-D numerical simulation. Simulation results showed that the temperature difference between high temperature zone and low temperature zone increased by using EGR guide parts together with the BDSC system.
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