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Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel and Diluents on Stratified Charge Turbulent Combustion in Simplified Conditions

Stratified charge combustion system is widely used for production engines due to the significant potentials, such as low fuel consumption rate and low exhaust gas emissions. The combustion phenomena in simplified stratified charge conditions have been examined with changing the initial turbulence intensity, degree of mixture charge stratification, and kinds of fuels in order to clarify the features. Moreover, it should be noted that the stratified charge combustion may cause raising NOx formation. EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) system is widely used for this solution. In this study, EGR was simulated by using dilution gases, such as CO2 and N2. Combustion characteristics in homogeneous and stratified charge fields with dilution gas were examined. As a result, some interesting combustion characteristics between CO2 and N2 depending on the specific heat, initial turbulence intensity, and degree of charge stratification were found.
Technical Paper

Driving Cycle Simulation of a Vehicle with Gasoline Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine Using a Low-RON Fuel

An improvement of thermal efficiency of internal combustion engines is strongly required. Meanwhile, from the viewpoint of refinery, CO2 emissions and gasoline price decrease when lower octane gasoline can be used for vehicles. If lower octane gasoline is used for current vehicles, fuel consumption rate would increase due to abnormal combustion. However, if a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine were to be used, the effect of octane number on engine performance would be relatively small and it has been revealed that the thermal efficiency is almost unchanged. In this study, the engine performance estimation of HCCI combustion using lower octane gasoline as a vision of the future engine was achieved. To quantitatively investigate the fuel consumption performance of a gasoline HCCI engine using lower octane fuel, the estimation of fuel consumption under different driving test cycles with different transmissions is carried out using 1D engine simulation code.
Technical Paper

Visualization of the Heat Transfer Surface of EGR Cooler to Examine Soot Adhesion and Abruption Phenomena

Among the emerging technologies in order to meet ever stringent emission and fuel consumption regulations, Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) system is becoming one of the prerequisites particularly for diesel engines. Although EGR cooler is considered to be an effective measure for further performance enhancement, exhaust gas soot deposition may cause degradation of the cooling. To address this issue, the authors studied the visualization of the soot deposition and removal phenomena to understand its behavior. Based on thermophoresis theory, which indicates that the effect of thermophoresis depends on the temperature difference between the gas and the wall surface exposed to the gas, a visualization method using a heated glass window was developed. By using glass with the transparent conductive oxide: tin-doped indium oxide, temperature of the heated glass surface is raised.
Technical Paper

Effect of Coolant Water and Intake Air Temperatures on Thermal Efficiency of Gasoline Engines

An optimization of thermal management system in a gasoline engine is considered to improve thermal efficiency by minimizing the cost increase without largely changing the configuration of engine system. In this study, the influence of water temperature and intake air temperature on thermal efficiency were investigated using an inline four-cylinder 1.2L gasoline engine. In addition, one-dimensional engine simulations were conducted by using a software of GT-SUITE. Brake thermal efficiency for different engine speeds and loads could be quantitatively predicted with changing the cooling water temperature in the cylinder head. Then, in order to predict the improvement of the fuel consumption in actual use, vehicle mode running simulation and general-purpose engine transient mode simulation were carried out by GT-SUITE. As a result, it was found that by controlling the temperatures of the cooling water and intake gas, thermal efficiency can be improved by several percent.
Technical Paper

Analyses of Cycle-to-Cycle Variation of Combustion and In-Cylinder Flow in a Port Injection Gasoline Engine Using PIV and PLIF Techniques

Reduction in the cycle-to-cycle variation (CCV) of combustion in internal combustion engines is required to reduce fuel consumption, exhaust emissions, and improve drivability. CCV increases at low load operations and lean/dilute burn conditions. Specifically, the factors that cause CCV of combustion are the cyclic variations of in-cylinder flow, in-cylinder distributions of fuel concentration, temperature and residual gas, and ignition energy. However, it is difficult to measure and analyze these factors in a production engine. This study used an optically accessible single-cylinder engine in which combustion and optical measurements were performed for 45 consecutive cycles. CCVs of the combustion and in-cylinder phenomena were investigated for the same cycle. Using this optically accessible engine, the volume inside the combustion chamber, including the pent-roof region can be observed through a quartz cylinder.
Technical Paper

Mixture Formation Analysis of a Schnurle-Type Two-Stroke Gasoline DI Engine

Because the two-stroke gasoline engine has a feature of high power density, it might become a choice for automobiles' power train if the high HC exhaust emissions and high fuel consumption rate could be improved. As the GDI technology is quite effective for two-stroke engines, a Schnurle-type small engine was modified to a GDI engine, and its performance was tested. Also, numerical analysis of the mixture-formation process was carried out. Results indicated it was possible to reduce both the HC emissions and fuel consumption drastically with the same maximum power as a carbureted engine at WOT condition. However, misfiring in light load condition was left unresolved. Numerical analysis clarified the process of how the mixture formation got affected by the injector location, injection timing, and gas motion.
Technical Paper

Performance Tests of Reverse Uniflow-Type Two-Stroke Gasoline DI Engine

Conventional two-stroke engines have defects such as unstable combustion, high fuel consumption rate and high HC emissions. In order to overcome the defects, a direct fuel injection system and a novel scavenging system were adopted. The authors tested a newly developed reverse uniflow-type two-stroke direct injection gasoline engine that was designed by numerical simulations. In comparison with the base engine at low engine speed, HC emission was decreased by up to 80%, and BSFC was reduced by around 40%. Power and BSFC were superior to those of a latest port-injection four-stroke engine. Furthermore, it was found that engine performance of exhaust gas emissions, fuel economy or output power can be selectively optimized by switching homogeneous and stratified combustion.
Technical Paper

Research and Development of a Direct Injection Stratified Charge Rotary Engine with a Pilot Flame Ignition System

A Direct Injection Stratified Charge Rotary Engine ( DISC-RE ) with a pilot flame ignition system has been studied to find the possibility of simultaneous reductions of fuel consumption rate and HC exhaust gas emissions. Firstly, combustion characteristics in a model combustion chamber, which simulates the DISC-RE were examined from the viewpoints of calculation and experiment. The high speed photography and the indicated pressure analysis were experimentally performed while numerical calculations of the mixture formation and combustion processes were also carried out. As a result, it has been found that the combustion using the pilot flame ignition system is much activated and a better ignitability is attained under lean mixtures than using a spark ignition system. Secondly, a single rotor with 650 cc displacement DISC-RE was built as a prototype. Combustion characteristics and its performance were tested using a combustion analyzer.
Journal Article

The Effects of Ignition Environment and Discharge Waveform Characteristics on Spark Channel Formation and Relationship between the Discharge Parameters and the EGR Combustion Limit

In order to realize the high compression ratio and high dilution combustion toward improvement in thermal efficiency, the improvement in stability of ignition and initial phase of combustion under the high gas flow field is the major challenge. In terms of the shift on the higher power side of the operating point by downsizing and improvement of real world fuel consumption, the improvement of ignitability is increasingly expected in the wide operating range also including high load and high engine speed region. In this study, the effects of the gas pressure, gas flow velocity near the spark gap at ignition timing, and discharge current characteristics on spark channel formation were analyzed, focusing on restrike event and spark channel stretching in the spark channel formation process. And the relationship between the average discharge current until 1 ms and the EGR combustion limit was considered.