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Technical Paper

Modeling and Optimization of Vehicle Acceleration and Fuel Economy Performance with Uncertainty Based on Modelica

2009-04-20
2009-01-0232
To design and optimize the vehicle driveline is necessary to decrease the fuel consumption and improve dynamic performance. This paper describes a methodology to optimize the driveline design including the axle ratio, transmission shift points and transmission shift ratios considering uncertainty. A new and flexible tool for modeling multi-domain systems, Modelica, is used to carry out the modeling and analysis of a vehicle, and the multi-domain model is developed to determine the optimum design in terms of fuel economy, with determinability. Secondly, a robust optimization is carried out to find the optimum design considering uncertainty. The results indicate that the fuel economy and dynamic performance are improved greatly.
Technical Paper

Special Analytical Target Cascading for Handling Performance and Ride Quality Based on Conceptual Suspension Model and Multi-body Model

2009-04-20
2009-01-1455
A Special Analytical Target Cascading (SATC) process is developed for design problem which is difficult to ascertain the targets cascaded from upper level to lower level. The methodology is applied to achieve improving Handling Performance and Ride Quality (HPRQ) of a passenger car. A bi-level hierarchical structure with target-transforming process is established based on conceptual suspension model and multi-body models. DOE, RSM and a combined optimization method of simulated annealing and Programming Quadratic Line search is applied to execute the optimization process. The result shows that HPRQ is improved through special ATC based on CSM and multi-body modeling technique.
Technical Paper

Robust Design for Vehicle Ride Comfort and Handling with Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm

2013-04-08
2013-01-0415
As is known to all, there are some contradictions between the handling and ride performance during the design process of vehicles. Sometimes owing to serious collisions of each criterion in the high-dimensional solution space, the common method to deal with the contradiction is to transform into a single target according to weights of each objective, which may not obtain a desired result. A multi-criteria approach is therefore adopted to optimize both properties and the result of a multi-criteria design is not a unique one but a series of balanced solutions. This paper is focused on the robust design of a simplified vehicle model in terms of not only ride comfort but also handling and stability using a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA) method. Using the proposed method, the conflicting performance requirements can be better traded off. One of the most important indexes to characterize the vertical ride comfort is the acceleration of the sprung mass.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Braking Force Distribution for Three-Axle Truck

2013-04-08
2013-01-0414
To provide a greater weight capacity, the tandem axle which is a group of two or more axles situated close together has been used on most heavy truck. In general, the reaction moments during braking cause a change in load distribution among both axles of the tandem suspension. Since load transfer among axles of a tandem suspension can lead to premature wheel lockup, tandem-axle geometry and the brake force distribution among individual axles of a tandem suspension have a pronounced effect on braking efficiency. The braking efficiency has directly influence on the vehicle brake distance and vehicle travelling direction stability in any road condition, so how to improve the braking efficiency is researched in this paper. The load transfer among individual axles is not only determined by vehicle deceleration but also by the actual brake force of each axle for tandem axle suspension, which increases the difficulty of braking efficiency improving.
Technical Paper

Synthesis and Analysis of the Double-Axle Steering Mechanism Considering Dynamic Loads

2008-04-14
2008-01-1105
This paper investigates a hierarchical optimization procedure for the optimum synthesis of a double-axle steering mechanism by considering the dynamic load of a vehicle which is seldom discussed in the previous literature. Firstly, a multi-body model of double-axle steering is presented by characterizing the detailed leaf spring effect. Accordingly, the influences of dynamic load including the motion interference of steering linkage resulted from the elastic deformation of leaf spring, and the effects of wheel slip angle and the position discrepancy of wheel speed rotation centers are explored systematically. And then, a hierarchical optimization method based on target cascading methodology is proposed to classify the design variables of double-axle steering mechanism into four levels. At last, a double-axle steering mechanism of a heavy-duty truck is utilized to demonstrate the validity of this method.
Technical Paper

A Fuzzy Synthesis Control Strategy for Active Four-Wheel Steering Based on Multi-Body Models

2008-04-14
2008-01-0603
Active steering systems can help the driver to master critical driving situations. This paper presents a fuzzy logic control strategy on active steering vehicle based on a multi-body vehicle dynamic model. The multi-body vehicle dynamic model using ADAMS can accurately predict the dynamic performance of the vehicle. A new hybrid steering scheme including both active front steering (applying an additional front steering angle besides the driver input) and rear steering is presented to control both yaw velocity and sideslip angle. A set of fuzzy logic rules is designed for the active steering controller, and the fuzzy controller can adjust both sideslip angle and yaw velocity through the co-simulation between ADAMS and the Matlab fuzzy control unit with the optimized membership function. To ensure the design of high-quality fuzzy control rules, a rule optimization strategy is introduced.
Technical Paper

Multi-objective Optimization of the PMS Based on Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II

2015-04-14
2015-01-1675
In order to reasonably match the variable stiffness and location of the Powertrain Mounting System (PMS) and optimize the ride comfort of commercial vehicle, a thirteen degrees of freedom (DOF) model of a commercial vehicle was established in Adams/view. Specially, the support rod installed on the upside of the transmission case was modeled as a flexible body. The vibration isolation provided by the PMS was evaluated in three aspects: the energy decoupling of the powertrain, the response force of the mount and the displacement of the powertrain. The energy decoupling ratio, the force RMS of the mount when force excitation was applied on the powertrain and the displacement of the powertrain Center of Gravity (C.G) when displacement excitation was applied on the vehicle chassis were selected as the optimal target. Adams and MATLAB were integrated into the optimization software iSIGHT to optimize the PMS. NSGA-II is used to obtain some Pareto-optimal solutions of PMS.
Journal Article

Optimization Design of a Six-Point Powetrain Mounting System with Flexible Support Rod

2014-04-01
2014-01-1682
NVH quality is one of the most important criteria by which people judge the design of a vehicle. The Powertrain Mounting System (PMS), which can reduce the vibration from engine to vehicle cab as well as the inside noise, has attained significant attention. Much research has been done on the isolation method for three- and four-point mounting. But the six-point mounting system, which is usually equipped in commercial vehicle, is seldom studied and should be paid more attention. In this paper, the support rod installed on the upside of the transmission case is considered as a flexible body. Thus a rigid-flexible coupling model of PMS is established and the necessity of the established model is analyzed by comparing the simulation results of the new model and those of the conventional model.
Journal Article

A New Interval Inverse Analysis Method and Its Application in Vehicle Suspension Design

2016-04-05
2016-01-0277
Interval inverse problems can be defined as problems to estimate input through given output, where the input and output are interval numbers. Many problems in engineering can be formulated as inverse problems like vehicle suspension design. Interval metrics, instead of deterministic metrics, are used for the suspension design of a vehicle vibration model with five degrees of freedom. The vibration properties of a vehicle vibration model are described by reasonable intervals and the suspension interval parameters are to be solved. A new interval inverse analysis method, which is a combination of Chebyshev inclusion function and optimization algorithm such as multi-island genetic algorithm, is presented and used for the suspension design of a vehicle vibration model with six conflicting objective functions. The interval design of suspension using such an interval inverse analysis method is shown and validated, and some useful conclusions are reached.
Journal Article

Suspension Kinematic/Compliance Uncertain Optimization Using a Chebyshev Polynomial Approach

2015-04-14
2015-01-0432
The optimization of vehicle suspension kinematic/compliance characteristics is of significant importance in the chassis development. Practical suspension system contains many uncertainties which may result from poorly known or variable parameters or from uncertain inputs. However, in most suspension optimization processes these uncertainties are not accounted for. This study explores the use of Chebyshev polynomials to model complex nonlinear suspension systems with interval uncertainties. In the suspension model, several kinematic and compliance characteristics are considered as objectives to be optimized. Suspension bushing characteristics are considered as design variables as well as uncertain parameters. A high-order response surface model using the zeros of Chebyshev polynomials as sampling points is established to approximate the suspension kinematic/compliance model.
Journal Article

Ride Optimization for a Heavy Commercial Vehicle

2014-04-01
2014-01-0843
The ride comfort of the commercial vehicle is mainly affected by several vibration isolation systems such as the primary suspension system, engine mounting system and the cab mounting system. A rigid-flexible coupling model for the truck was built and analyzed in multi-body environment (ADAMS). The method applying the excitation on the wheels center and the engine mountings in time domain was presented. The variables' effects on the ride performance were studied by design of experiment (DOE). The optimal design was obtained by the co-simulation of the ADAMS/View, iSIGHT and Matlab. It was found that the vertical root mean square (RMS) acceleration and frequency-weighted RMS acceleration on the seat track were reduced about 17% and 11% respectively at different speeds relative to baseline according to ISO 2631-1.
Journal Article

Optimization of Suspension Elastomeric Bushing Compliance Under Constraints of Handling, Ride and Durability

2010-04-12
2010-01-0721
Elastomeric bushings are widely used in the passenger cars to make the cars have an ideal vehicle Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH) performance. However, elastomeric bushings also influence on the vehicle handling, ride and the durability performance of each component in the vehicle suspension system. It is relatively easy and cost effective to change the compliance of the bushing components compared with other method because they are made of elastomeric materials. The design of an elastomeric bushing is really a big challenge. One of the main difficulties comes from the different target compliance is wanted according to the handling, ride and durability demand at each different orientation (indicated by X Y Z) of the bushing. In this paper the following procedure was used for optimization of suspension elastomeric bushing compliance. Firstly, a detailed multi-body model was built including the nonlinear bushing effects and lower control arm flexibility.
X