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Technical Paper

Effects of High-Boost Turbocharging on Combustion Characteristics and Improving Its Low Engine Speed Torque

This paper describes the experimental studies of turbocharged and intercooled diesel engines with particular emphasis on combustion characteristics following increase of boost pressure. Through these studies, it has become possible to determine the optimum air quantity for minimizing fuel consumption at each engine speed range under the restrictive conditions of NOx emission, exhaust smoke and maximum cylinder pressure. Discussed also is the lack of air quantity in the low engine speed range of high-boost turbocharged diesel engines. Various turbocharging systems to improve air quantity in this speed range are introduced herein. Practically the engine performance of conventional turbocharging, waste gate control turbocharging and variable geometry turbocharging are discussed from the viewpoint of torque recovery in the low engine speed range.
Technical Paper

Reduction of NOx and PM for a Heavy Duty Diesel Using 50% EGR Rate in Single Cylinder Engine

For reducing NOx emissions, EGR is effective, but an excessive EGR rate causes the deterioration of smoke emission. Here, we have defined the EGR rate before the smoke emission deterioration while the EGR rate is increasing as the limiting EGR rate. In this study, the high rate of EGR is demonstrated to reduce BSNOx. The adapted methods are a high fuel injection pressure such as 200 MPa, a high boost pressure as 451.3 kPa at 2 MPa BMEP, and the air intake port that maintains a high air flow rate so as to achieve low exhaust emissions. Furthermore, for withstanding 2 MPa BMEP of engine load and high boosting, a ductile cast iron (FCD) piston was used. As the final effect, the installations of the new air intake port increased the limiting EGR rate by 5%, and fuel injection pressure of 200 MPa raised the limiting EGR rate by an additional 5%. By the demonstration of increasing boost pressure to 450 kPa from 400 kPa, the limiting EGR rate was achieved to 50%.
Technical Paper

Reexamination of Multiple Fuel Injections for Improving the Thermal Efficiency of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

As a technology required for future commercial heavy-duty diesel engines, this study reexamines the potential of the multiple injection strategy for improving the thermal efficiency while maintaining low engine-out exhaust emissions with a high EGR rate of more than 50% and high boost pressure of 276.3 kPa abs under medium load conditions. The experiments were conducted with a single cylinder research engine. The engine was operated at BMEP of 0.8 MPa at a medium speed. Using multiple injections, the temporal and spatial in-cylinder temperature distribution was changed to investigate the effect on fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. The results showed that the multiple injection strategy combined with higher EGR rate could improve fuel consumption by about 3% due to the reduction of heat loss from the wall.
Technical Paper

BSFC Improvement and NOx Reduction by Sequential Turbo System in a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

Reduction of exhaust emissions and BSFC has been studied using a high boost, a wide range and high-rate EGR in a Super Clean Diesel, six-cylinder heavy duty engine. In the previous single-turbocharging system, the turbocharger was selected to yield maximum torque and power. The selected turbocharger was designed for high boosting, with maximum pressure of about twice that of the current one, using a titanium compressor. However, an important issue arose in this system: avoidance of high boosting at low engine speed. A sequential and series turbo system was proposed to improve the torque at low engine speeds. This turbo system has two turbochargers of different sizes with variable geometry turbines. At low engine speed, the small turbocharger performs most of the work. At medium engine speed, the small turbocharger and large turbocharger mainly work in series.
Technical Paper

Fuel Consumption Improvement and Operation Range Expansion in HCCI by Direct Water Injection

HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition) combustion results in very low NOx emissions, however, it is not without problems. One of them is that the heavy load operation range is limited by knock, due to an exceptionally high heat release rate. Knock increases the heat loss to the cylinder walls and piston, reducing thermal efficiency. To help solve these problems, direct (in-cylinder) water injection has been suggested to lower the local temperatures that seem to cause knock in HCCI. Water injection was adapted in an HCCI engine fueled with DME and Propane. Results showed that the indicated thermal efficiency was improved by about 2% (λ = 3.0, NA), and the operation range was expanded from 460kPa to 700kPa (NA) maintaining a low NOx level.
Technical Paper

Impingement Spray System with Direct Water Injection for Premixed Lean Diesel Combustion Control

Premixed Lean Diesel Combustion (PREDIC) has very low NOx combustion because of early injection timing, for example, at -120 degrees ATDC; however, it has some problems. One problem is that so much fuel spray reaches the cylinder wall, which causes high HC emission and high fuel consumption. The other problem is that compression ignition timing control is difficult due to the dependence on the in-cylinder temperature. To solve these problems, an impingement spray system with two nozzles is attempted to obtain the spray increasing at the center of the combustion chamber instantaneously. This impingement spray system has two nozzles, which are located diagonally. Two sprays, one injected from each side injector, impinge each other at the center of the cylinder to create an air-fuel mixture.That is,this impingement spray system creates the air-fuel mixture by using the penetration of both sides of the sprays instead of early timing injection.
Technical Paper

Premixed Lean Diesel Combustion (PREDIC) using Impingement Spray System

Premixed lean Diesel Combustion (PREDIC) provides low NOx, however, it has some challenges associated with high HC emission, high fuel consumption and difficult timing control of compression ignition. To solve these problems, an impingement spray system with two injectors was tested to obtain positional controllability and larger volume of the air-fuel mixture formation in our previous study. The positional controllability means mainly the fuel mixture formation is the center of the cylinder with some space from the cylinder wall. The larger volume means the fuel mixture formation is leaner air-fuel mixture than that of free spray, which results in a possibility of higher thermal efficiency. Thus, the impingement spray system has a possibility of HC reduction and fuel consumption improvement in PREDIC.
Journal Article

BSFC Improvement by Diesel-Rankine Combined Cycle in the High EGR Rate and High Boosted Diesel Engine

In heavy duty diesel engines, waste heat recovery systems are remarkable means for fuel consumption improvement. In this paper, Diesel-Rankine combined cycle which is combined diesel cycle with Rankine cycle is studied to clarify the quantitative potential of fuel consumption improvement with a high EGR rate and high boosted diesel engine. The high EGR rate and high boosted diesel engine of a single cylinder research engine was used and it reaches brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) of 193.3 g/kWh at full load (BMEP=2.0MPa). And its exhaust temperature reaches 370 C. The exhaust gas temperature does not exceed 400 C in high boosted diesel engine even at full load operating condition because of a high excess air ratio. On the other hand, exhaust gas quantity is larger due to a high boosting.
Journal Article

Fundamental Study of Waste Heat Recovery in the High Boosted 6-cylinder Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

In heavy duty diesel engines, the waste heat recovery has attracted much attention as one of the technologies to improve fuel economy further. In this study, the available energy of the waste heat from a high boosted 6-cylinder heavy duty diesel engine which is equipped with a high pressure loop EGR system (HPL-EGR system) and low pressure loop EGR system (LPL-EGR system) was evaluated based on the second law of thermodynamics. The maximum potential of the waste heat recovery for improvement in brake thermal efficiency and the effect of the Rankine combined cycle on fuel economy were estimated for each single-stage turbocharging system (single-stage system) and 2-stage turbocharging system (2-stage system).