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Technical Paper

Development of a Lab Reactor System for the Evaluation of Aftertreatment Catalysts for Stoichiometric Natural Gas Engines

2017-03-28
2017-01-0999
Natural gas powered vehicles are attractive in certain applications due to their lower emissions in general than conventional diesel engines and the low cost of natural gas. For stoichiometric natural gas engines, the aftertreatment system typically consists only of a three-way catalyst (TWC). However, increasingly stringent NOx and methane regulations challenge current TWC technologies. In this work, a catalyst reactor system with variable lean/rich switching capability was developed for evaluating TWCs for stoichiometric natural gas engines. The effect of varying frequency and duty-cycle during lean/rich gas switching experiments was measured with a hot-wire anemometer (HWA) due to its high sensitivity to gas thermal properties. A theoretical reactor gas dispersion model was then developed and validated with the HWA measurements. The model is capable of predicting the actual lean/rich gas exposure to the TWC under different testing conditions.
Technical Paper

Lab Study of Urea Deposit Formation and Chemical Transformation Process of Diesel Aftertreatment System

2017-03-28
2017-01-0915
Diesel exhaust fluid, DEF, (32.5 wt.% urea aqueous solution) is widely used as the NH3 source for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx in diesel aftertreatment systems. The transformation of sprayed liquid phase DEF droplets to gas phase NH3 is a complex physical and chemical process. Briefly, it experiences water vaporization, urea thermolysis/decomposition and hydrolysis. Depending on the DEF doser, decomposition reaction tube (DRT) design and operating conditions, incomplete decomposition of injected urea could lead to solid urea deposit formation in the diesel aftertreatment system. The formed deposits could lead to engine back pressure increase and DeNOx performance deterioration etc. The formed urea deposits could be further transformed to chemically more stable substances upon exposure to hot exhaust gas, therefore it is critical to understand this transformation process.
Technical Paper

NO2 Formation and Mitigation in an Advanced Diesel Aftertreatment System

2018-04-03
2018-01-0651
Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is known to pose a risk to human health and contributes to the formation of ground level ozone. In recognition of its human health implications, the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) set a Threshold Limit Value (TLV) of 0.2 ppmv NO2 in 2012. For mobile sources, NO2 is regulated as a component of NOx (NO + NO2). In addition, the European Commission has indicated it is considering separate Euro 6 light-duty diesel and Euro VI heavy-duty diesel NO2 emissions limits likely to mitigate the formation of ground level ozone in urban areas. In this study, we conduct component-level reactor-based experiments to understand the effects that various aftertreatment catalyst technologies including diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), diesel particulate filter (DPF), selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst and ammonia oxidation (AMOX) catalyst have on the formation and mitigation of NO2 emissions.
Technical Paper

Predictive Modeling of Impact of ANR Non-Uniformity on Transient SCR System DeNOx Performance

2015-04-14
2015-01-1055
Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is a promising technology for meeting the stringent requirements pertaining to NOx emissions. One of the most important requirements to achieve high DeNOx performance is to have a high uniformity of ammonia to NOx ratio (ANR) at the SCR catalyst inlet. Steady state 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models are frequently used for predicting ANR spatial distribution but are not feasible for running a transient cycle like Federal Test Procedure (FTP). On the other hand, 1D kinetic models run in real time and can predict transient SCR performance but do not typically capture the effect of non-axial non-uniformities. In this work, two 3D to 1D coupling methods have been developed to predict transient SCR system performance, taking the effect of ANR non-uniformity into account. First is a probability density function (PDF) based approach and the second is a geometrical sector based approach.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of a Predictive Model for DEF Injection and Urea Decomposition in Mobile SCR DeNOx Systems

2010-04-12
2010-01-0889
Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of oxides of nitrogen with ammonia gas is a key technology that is being favored to meet stringent NOx emission standards across the world. Typically, in this technology, a liquid mixture of urea and water - known as Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) - is injected into the hot exhaust gases leading to atomization and subsequent spray processes. The water content vaporizes, while the urea content undergoes thermolysis and forms ammonia and isocyanic acid, that can form additional ammonia through hydrolysis. Due to the increasing interest in SCR technology, it is desirable to have capabilities to model these processes with reasonable accuracy to both improve the understanding of processes important to the aftertreatment and to aid in system optimization. In the present study, a multi-dimensional model is developed to simulate DEF spray processes and the conversion of urea to ammonia. The model is then implemented into a commercial CFD code.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Emissions of Chemical Species from Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines and the Effects of Modern Aftertreatment Technology

2009-04-20
2009-01-1084
A comparative analysis was made on the emissions from a 2004 and a 2007 heavy-duty diesel engine to determine how new engine and emissions technologies have affected the chemical compounds found in the exhaust gases. Representative samples were collected from a source dilution sampling system and analyzed for both criteria and unregulated gaseous and particulate emissions. Results have shown that the 2007 regulations compliant engine and emissions technology not only reduced the specifically regulated exhaust pollutants, but also significantly reduced the majority of unregulated chemical species. It is believed that these reductions were achieved through the use of engine optimization, aftertreatment system integration, and ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Effect of Hydrothermal Aging on the Catalytic Performance and Morphology of a Vanadia SCR Catalyst

2013-04-08
2013-01-1079
Titania supported vanadia catalysts have been widely used for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitrogen oxides (NOx) in diesel exhaust aftertreatment systems. Vanadia SCR (V-SCR) catalysts are preferred for many applications because they have demonstrated advantages of catalytic activity for NOx removal and tolerance to sulfur poisoning. The primary shortcoming of V-SCR catalysts is their thermal durability. Degradation in NOx conversion is also related to aging conditions such as at high temperatures. In this study, the impact that short duration hydrothermal aging has on a state-of-the-art V-SCR catalyst was investigated by aging for 2 hr intervals with progressively increased temperatures from 525 to 700°C. The catalytic performance of this V-SCR catalyst upon aging was evaluated by three different reactions of NH₃ SCR, NH₃ oxidation, and NO oxidation under simulated diesel exhaust conditions from 170 to 500°C.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Black Carbon Measurements to Solid Particle Number Measurements Made over Steady State and Transient Cycles

2015-04-14
2015-01-1074
Diesel engines have been identified as contributing to more than half of the transport sectors black carbon (BC) emissions in the US. This large contribution to atmospheric BC concentrations has raised concern about source specific emission rates, including off-highway engines. The European Union has recently implemented more stringent particulate regulations in the form of particle number via the Particle Measurement Programme (PMP) methodology. The PMP method counts the non-volatile fraction of particulate matter (PM) above 23 nm and below 2.5 μm via a condensation particle counter. This study evaluates a surrogate black carbon method which uses the PMP particle count method with a correlation factor to the BC fraction. The transient capable Magee Scientific Aethalometer (AE-33) 880 nm wavelength channel was used to determine the BC fraction.
Technical Paper

Effect of Reductive Regeneration Conditions on Reactivity and Stability of a Pd-Based Oxidation Catalyst for Lean-Burn Natural Gas Applications

2016-04-05
2016-01-1005
Regulations on methane emissions from lean-burn natural gas (NG) and lean-burn dual fuel (natural gas and diesel) engines are becoming more stringent due to methane’s strong greenhouse effect. Palladium-based oxidation catalysts are typically used for methane reduction due to their relative high reactivity under lean conditions. However, the catalytic activity of these catalysts is inhibited by the water vapor in exhaust and decreases over time from exposure to trace amounts of sulfur. The reduction of deactivated catalysts in a net rich environment is known to be able to regenerate the catalyst. In this work, a multicycle methane light-off & extinction test protocol was first developed to probe the catalyst reactivity and stability under simulated exhaust conditions. Then, the effect of two different regeneration gas compositions, denoted as regen-A and regen-B, was evaluated on a degreened catalyst and a catalyst previously tested on a natural gas engine.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Diesel Exhaust Fluid Dosing on Tailpipe Particle Number Emissions

2016-04-05
2016-01-0995
Introduction of modern diesel aftertreatment, primarily selective catalytic reduction (SCR) designed to reduced NOx, has increased the presence of urea decomposition byproducts, mainly ammonia, in the aftertreatment system. This increase in ammonia has been shown to lead to particle formation in the aftertreatment system. In this study, a state of the art diesel exhaust fluid (DEF)-SCR system was investigated in order to determine the influence of DEF dosing on solid particle count. Post diesel particulate filter (DPF) particle count (> 23 nm) is shown to increase by over 400% during the World Harmonized Transient Cycle (WHTC) due to DEF dosing. This increase in tailpipe particle count warranted a detailed parametric study of DEF dosing parameters effect on tailpipe particle count. Global ammonia to NOx ratio, DEF droplet residence time, and SCR catalyst inlet temperature were found to be significant factors in post-DPF DEF based particle formation.
Technical Paper

Emissions of Organic Species from a Nonroad Vanadium-Based SCR Aftertreatment System

2015-09-29
2015-01-2904
U.S. and European nonroad diesel emissions regulations have led to the implementation of various exhaust aftertreatment solutions. One approved configuration, a vanadium-based selective catalytic reduction catalyst followed by an ammonia oxidation catalyst (V-SCR + AMOX), does not require the use of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) or diesel particulate filter (DPF). While certification testing has shown the V-SCR + AMOX system to be capable of meeting the nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, and particulate matter requirements, open questions remain regarding the efficacy of this aftertreatment for volatile and nonvolatile organic emissions removal, especially since the removal of this class of compounds is generally attributed to both the DOC and DPF.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Criteria and Organic Matter Emissions from a Nonroad Diesel Engine Equipped with a Selective Catalytic Reduction System

2014-10-13
2014-01-2911
More stringent emission requirements for nonroad diesel engines both in the U.S. and Europe have spurred the development of engines and exhaust aftertreatment technologies. In this study, one such system consisting of a diesel oxidation catalyst, zeolite-based selective catalytic reduction catalyst, and an ammonia oxidation catalyst was evaluated using both nonroad transient and steady-state cycles in order to understand the emission characteristics of this configuration. Criteria pollutants were analyzed and particular attention was given to organic compound and NO2 emissions since both of these could be significantly affected by the absence of a diesel particulate filter that typically helps reduce semi-volatile and particle-phase organics and consumes NO2 via passive soot oxidation. Results are then presented on a detailed speciation of organic emissions including alkanes, cycloalkanes, aromatics, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their derivatives, and hopanes and steranes.
Technical Paper

Significance of Fuel Sulfur Content and Dilution Conditions on Particle Emissions from a Heavily-Used Diesel Engine During Transient Operation

2007-04-16
2007-01-0319
The effects of fuel sulfur content and dilution conditions on diesel engine PM number emissions have been researched extensively through steady state testing. Most results show that the concentration of nuclei-mode particles emitted increases with fuel sulfur content. A few studies further observed that fuel sulfur content has little effect on the emissions of heavily-used engines. It has also been found that primary dilution conditions can have a large impact on the size and number distribution of the nuclei-mode particles. These effects, however, have not yet been fully understood through transient testing, the method used by governments worldwide to certify engines and regulate emissions, and a means of experimentation which generates realistic conditions of on-road vehicles by varying the load and speed of the engine.
Technical Paper

Effect of Nano-Filtered Intake Air on Diesel Particulate Matter Emissions

2004-03-08
2004-01-0642
While most reductions in diesel particulate matter (PM) have been implemented through internal engine improvements and aftertreatment systems, additional reductions may be found by controlling intake contaminants. Under the ideal conditions of operating with ultra low sulfur diesel fuel and filtered and conditioned intake air, a diesel engine produces a certain amount of PM. The PM emission levels may increase when intake air is polluted during harsh on- or off-road conditions. In this study, contaminants were allowed to enter the intake tract of the engine to determine whether or not increased particle ingestion leads to increased particulate matter expulsion. Diesel and test dust contaminants dispersed in intake air were filtered using both a conventional filtering medium and a nano-medium to determine their effects on diesel engine-out PM emissions. The paper characterizes the two media by microstructure, permeability, porosity, and fractional efficiency.
Technical Paper

Transient Analysis of Engine Nano-Particles Using a Fast-Scanning Differential Mobility Particle Analyzer

2004-03-08
2004-01-0971
The characterization of engine particulate matter size distributions has become an important topic in the investigation of particulate matter formation, transport, and emission reduction technology. The majority of current size distribution analyses are conducted during steady state engine conditions. Although steady state analysis is valuable, most engines in mobile applications are operated under transient conditions, creating a demand for the transient state analysis of particulate emission patterns. In order to measure the instantaneous emissions of an engine under transient conditions, instrumentation must respond to the changing engine conditions as quickly as possible. In this study, a fast-scanning nanometer Aerosol Size Analyzer (n-ASA) was used to measure the emitted particles of a heavy duty diesel engine during transient simulations. The results showed patterns of PM emissions at key areas throughout the test.
Technical Paper

Transient Performance of Diesel Particulate Filters as Measured by an Engine Exhaust Particle Size Spectrometer

2005-04-11
2005-01-0185
The performance of diesel particulate filters (DPF) has historically been evaluated by gravimetric efficiency, which measures the mass of particulate matter (PM) trapped in the filters. This method does not measure the filtration efficiency at different PM size ranges and, therefore, cannot provide information on fractional performance of DPFs. This fact becomes significant because the adverse effects of diesel PM emissions on human health and the environment are size dependent. A previous study investigated the fractional performance of DPFs under steady state conditions using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). In the real world, however, nearly all engines operate under transient conditions. DPFs also have to perform under such conditions, so any measurement of performance must be able to react to quickly changing DPF conditions.
Technical Paper

Measuring the Fractional Efficiency of Diesel Particulate Filters

2002-03-04
2002-01-1007
To meet stringent emission regulations, particulate filters will be required for diesel engines. Effective filters should reduce both the mass and number concentrations of particulate matter. For this reason, the performance of diesel particulate filters (DPFs) should be evaluated by measuring both gravimetric and fractional efficiency. This paper reports on a method developed for measuring particulate emissions on a mass and number basis. A two-stage dilution process was used in which the entire engine exhaust gas is directed into a primary dilution tunnel with a critical flow venturi. This constant volume system maintains proportional sampling throughout temperature excursions. A portion of the diluted exhaust gas is directed to a secondary dilution tunnel, for further dilution and determination of particle size distribution using a scanning mobility particle sizer. The engine was run at ISO 8178 modes.
Technical Paper

Diesel Particulate Filters: Trends and Implications of Particle Size Distribution Measurement

2003-03-03
2003-01-0046
In order to comply with tightening environmental standards, diesel particulate filters will be used for engine particle emission control. A well-defined testing method is needed to characterize and evaluate the diesel particulate filters. A previously developed testing method yielded unexpected results which were believed to be caused by dilution air contamination and particle formation downstream of the filters. In this study, the testing method has been modified in order to address these issues. Various wall-flow diesel particulate filters of fibrous and porous materials were tested using the modified method in this study. The results were compared with the previous data to evaluate the level of improvement. The results were also analyzed using particle size distributions and filtration mechanisms described by various theories. Particle size distributions demonstrated significant improvement of the modified testing method.
Technical Paper

Development of a Method to Measure Engine Air Cleaner Fractional Efficiency

1999-03-01
1999-01-0002
The gravimetric method is commonly used in engine air filtration technology for air cleaner, filter element and filter media testing. An “absolute” filter is employed in-line to collect any dust particles passing through the test filter. Air filter efficiency is calculated by comparing the mass of dust collected by the test filter with that fed to the filter. This method measures only the mass of dust penetrating the filter. It does not provide information on contaminant particle size. Moreover, this method, in many cases, has inadequate precision to distinguish between filters. Both the dust mass and its particle size are needed to estimate engine wear. Therefore, the SAE J726 Air Cleaner Committee initiated work on a test method to measure engine air cleaner fractional efficiency. This paper discusses problems associated with development of the fractional efficiency method for engine air cleaners.
Journal Article

Comparison of Measurement Strategies for Light Absorbing Aerosols from Modern Diesel Engines

2014-04-01
2014-01-1570
Light absorbing components of aerosols, often called black carbon (BC), are emitted from combustion sources and are believed to play a considerable role in direct atmospheric radiative forcing by a number of climate scientists. In addition, it has been shown that BC is associated with adverse health effects in a number of epidemiological studies. Although the optical properties (both absorbing and scattering) of combustion aerosols are needed in order to accurately assess the impact of emissions on radiative forcing, many models use radiative properties of diesel particulate matter that were determined over two decades ago. In response to concerns of the human health impacts of particulate matter (PM), regulatory bodies around the world have significantly tightened PM emission limits for diesel engines. These requirements have resulted in considerable changes in engine technology requiring updated BC measurements from modern engines equipped with aftertreatment systems.
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