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Technical Paper

An Experimental Study on the Effects of Split Injection in Stoichiometric Dual-Fuel Compression Ignition (SDCI) Combustion

2015-04-14
2015-01-0847
Stoichiometric dual-fuel compression ignition (SDCI) combustion has superior potential in both emission control and thermal efficiency. Split injection of diesel reportedly shows superiority in optimizing combustion phase control and increasing flexibility in fuel selection. This study focuses on split injection strategies in SDCI mode. The effects of main injection timing and pilot-to-total ratio are examined. Combustion phasing is found to be retarded in split injection when overmixing occurs as a result of early main injection timing. Furthermore, an optimised split injection timing can avoid extremely high pressure rise rate without great loss in indicated thermal efficiency while maintaining soot emission at an acceptable level. A higher pilot-to-total ratio always results in lower soot emission, higher combustion efficiency, and relatively superior ITE, but improvements are not significant with increased pilot-to-total ratio up to approximately 0.65.
Technical Paper

Investigations into Multiple Premixed Compression Ignition Mode Fuelled with Different Mixtures of Gasoline and Diesel

2015-04-14
2015-01-0833
A study of Multiple Premixed Compression Ignition (MPCI) with mixtures of gasoline and diesel is performed on a light-duty single cylinder diesel engine. The engine is operated at a speed of 1600rpm with the same fuel mass per cycle. By keeping the same intake pressure and EGR ratio, the influence of different blending ratios in gasoline and diesel mixtures (90vol%, 80vol% and 70vol% gasoline) is investigated. Combustion and emission characteristics are compared by sweeping the first (−95 ∼ −35deg ATDC) and the second injection timing (−1 ∼ 9deg ATDC) with an injection split ratio of 80/20 and an injection pressure of 80MPa. The results show that compared with diesel combustion, the gasoline and diesel mixtures can reduce NOx and soot emissions simultaneously while maintaining or achieving even higher indicated thermal efficiency, but the HC and CO emissions are high for the mixtures.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Pressure Oscillation Modes and Audible Noise in RCCI, HCCI, and CDC

2013-04-08
2013-01-1652
This study uses Fourier analysis to investigate the relationship between the heat release event and the frequency composition of pressure oscillations in a variety of combustion modes. While kinetically-controlled combustion strategies such as HCCI and RCCI offer advantages over CDC in terms of efficiency and NOX emissions, their operational range is limited by audible knock and the possibility of engine damage stemming from high pressure rise rates and oscillations. Several criteria such as peak pressure rise rate, ringing intensity, and various knock indices have been developed to quantify these effects, but they fail to capture all of the dynamics required to form direct comparisons between different engines or combustion strategies. Experiments were performed with RCCI, HCCI, and CDC on a 2.44 L heavy-duty engine at 1300 RPM, generating a significant diversity of heat release profiles.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study on Pre-Ignition and Super-Knock in Gasoline Engine Combustion with Carbon Particle at Elevated Temperatures and Pressures

2015-04-14
2015-01-0752
Occurrence of sporadic super-knock is the main obstacle to the development of advanced gasoline engines. One of the possible inducements of super-knock, agglomerated soot particle induced pre-ignition, was studied for high boosted gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines. The correlation between soot emissions and super-knock frequency was investigated in a four-cylinder gasoline direct injection production engine. The test results indicate that higher in-cylinder soot emission correlate with more pre-ignition and super-knock cycles in a GDI production engine. To study the soot/carbon particles trigger super-knock, a single-cylinder research engine for super-knock study was developed. The carbon particles with different temperatures and sizes were introduced into the combustion chamber to trigger pre-ignition and super-knock.
Technical Paper

Investigation into the Effect of Flame Propagation in the Gasoline Compression Ignition by Coupling G-Equation and Reduced Chemical Kinetics Combustion Model

2015-09-01
2015-01-1799
Gasoline Compression Ignition has been widely studied in recent years. The in-cylinder stratified charge in gasoline Partially Premixed Compression Ignition (PPCI) can extend the high load range with lower pressure rise rate than Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI). However, it is still not clear that whether there is flame propagation in the gasoline compression igntion mode and how the flame propagation influences the combustion process and pollution formation. In order to investigate the effect of flame, several gasoline compression ignition cases, including the single-stage and two-stage heat release processes, are simulated with the KIVA-3V Release 2 code in this study. The G-equation is employed to account for flame propagation, and the reduced i-octane/n-heptane mechanism is used to handle the chemical reactions. The results show that the flame propagation exists in the combustion process and it can accelerate the heat release slightly.
Technical Paper

Role of Wall Effect on Hot-Spot Induced Deflagration to Detonation in Iso-Octane/Air Mixture Under High Temperature and Pressure

2016-04-05
2016-01-0552
A 1-Dimensional (1-D) model of fluid dynamic and chemistry kinetics following hot spot auto-ignition has been developed to simulate the process from auto-ignition to pressure wave propagation. The role of wall effect on the physical-chemical interaction process is numerically studied. A pressure wave is generated after hot spot auto-ignition and gradually damped as it propagates. The reflection of the wall forms a reflected pressure wave with twice the amplitude of the incident wave near the wall. The superposition of the reflected and forward pressure waves reinforces the intensity of the initial pressure wave. Wall effect is determined by the distance between the hot spot center and the cylinder wall. Hot spot auto-ignition near the wall easily initiates detonation under high-temperature and high-pressure conditions because pressure wave reflection couples with chemical reactions and propagates in the mixture with high reactivity.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Multiple Premixed Compression Ignition Engine Fueled with Heavy Naphtha for High Efficiency and Low Emissions

2014-10-13
2014-01-2678
A study of Multiple Premixed Compression Ignition (MPCI) with heavy naphtha is performed on a light-duty single cylinder diesel engine. The engine is operated at a speed of 1600rpm with the net indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) from 0.5MPa to 0.9MPa. Commercial diesel is also tested with the single injection for reference. The combustion and emissions characteristics of the heavy naphtha are investigated by sweeping the first (−200 ∼ −20 deg ATDC) and the second injection timing (−5 ∼ 15 deg ATDC) with an injection split ratio of 50/50. The results show that compared with diesel combustion, the naphtha MPCI can reduce NOx, soot emissions and particle number simultaneously while maintaining or achieving even higher indicated thermal efficiency. A low pressure rise rate can be achieved due to the two-stage combustion character of the MPCI mode but with the penalty of high HC and CO emissions, especially at 0.5MPa IMEP.
Technical Paper

Study of Engine Knock in HCCI Combustion using Large Eddy Simulation and Complex Chemical Kinetics

2014-10-13
2014-01-2573
This paper studied the knock combustion process in gasoline HCCI engines. The complex chemical kinetics was implemented into the three-dimensional CFD code with LES (Large eddy simulation) to study the origin of the knock phenomena in HCCI combustion process. The model was validated using the experimental data from the cylinder pressure measurement. 3D-CFD with LES method gives detailed turbulence, species, temperature and pressure distribution during the gasoline HCCI combustion process. The simulation results indicate that HCCI engine knock originates from the random multipoint auto-ignition in the combustion chamber due to the slight inhomogeneity. It is induced by the significantly different heat release rate of high temperature oxidation (HTO) and low temperature oxidation (LTO) and their interactions.
Technical Paper

Relative Impact of Chemical and Physical Properties of the Oil-Fuel Droplet on Pre-Ignition and Super-Knock in Turbocharged Gasoline Engines

2016-10-17
2016-01-2278
A conceptual approach to help understand and simulate droplet induced pre-ignition is presented. The complex phenomenon of oil-fuel droplet induced pre-ignition has been decomposed to its elementary processes. This approach helps identify the key fluid properties and engine parameters that affect the pre-ignition phenomenon, and could be used to control LSPI. Based on the conceptual model, a 3D CFD engine simulation has been developed which is able to realistically model all of the elementary processes involved in droplet induced pre-ignition. The simulation was successfully able to predict droplet induced pre-ignition at conditions where the phenomenon has been experimentally observed. The simulation has been able to help explain the observation of pre-ignition advancement relative to injection timing as experimentally observed in a previous study [6].
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Improving Homogeneous Charge Induced Ignition (HCII) Combustion at Medium and High Load by Reducing Compression Ratio

2017-03-28
2017-01-0765
This research focuses on the potential of Homogeneous Charge Induced Ignition (HCII) combustion meeting the Euro V emission standard on a heavy-duty multi-cylinder engine using a simple after-treatment system. However, in our previous studies, it was found that the gasoline ratio was limited in HCII by the over-high compression ratio (CR). In this paper, the effects of reducing CR on the performances of HCII at medium and high loads were explored by experimental methods. It was found that by reducing CR from 18:1 to 16:1 the peak in-cylinder pressure and the peak pressure rise rate were effectively reduced and the gasoline ratio range could be obviously extended. Thus, the combustion and emission characteristics of HCII at medium and high loads were noticeably improved. Soot emissions can be significantly reduced because of the increase of premixed combustion ratio. The reduction could be over 50% especially at high load and high speed conditions.
Technical Paper

Characterizing Propane Flash Boiling Spray from Multi-Hole GDI Injector

2018-04-03
2018-01-0278
In this research, propane flash boiling sprays discharged from a five-hole gasoline direct injector were studied in a constant volume vessel. The fuel temperature (Tfuel) ranged from 30 °C to 90 °C, and the ambient pressure (Pamb) varied from 0.05 bar to 11.0 bar. Different flash boiling spray behavior compared to that under sub-atmospheric conditions was found at high Pamb. Specifically, at the sub-atmospheric pressures, the individual flashing jets merged into one single jet due to the strong spray collapse. In contrast, at Pamb above 3.0 bar and Tfuel above 50 °C, the spray collapse was mitigated and the flashing jets were separated from each other. Further analyses revealed that the mitigation of spray collapse at high Pamb was ascribed to the suppression of jet expansion. In addition, it was found that the spray structure was much different at similar Rp, indicating that Rp lacked the generality in describing the structure of flash boiling sprays.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Lean Mixture Combustion at Ultra-High Compression Ratios in a Rapid Compression Machine

2018-04-03
2018-01-1422
In order to meet increasingly stringent fuel consumption and emission regulations, more attentions are paid to improve engine efficiency. A large amount of energy-saving technologies have been applied in automotive field especially in gasoline engines. It is well known that lean burn and ultra-high compression ratio technologies are two basic and important methods to increase efficiency. In this paper, a rapid compression machine was employed to study combustion process of lean iso-octane mixture at ultra-high compression ratios (16 to 19:1). Regardless of flammability of the mixture, spark was triggered at the timing right after the end of compression, then, the flame propagation and/or auto-ignition can be recorded using high-speed photography simultaneously. The effects of equivalence ratio (φ), compression ratio (ε), dilution ratio, and effective temperature (Teff) on the combustion process was investigated.
Journal Article

High Speed Imaging Study on the Spray Characteristics of Dieseline at Elevated Temperatures and Back Pressures

2014-04-01
2014-01-1415
Dieseline combustion as a concept combines the advantages of gasoline and diesel by offline or online blending the two fuels. Dieseline has become an attractive new compression ignition combustion concept in recent years and furthermore an approach to a full-boiling-range fuel. High speed imaging with near-parallel backlit light was used to investigate the spray characteristics of dieseline and pure fuels with a common rail diesel injection system in a constant volume vessel. The results were acquired at different blend ratios, and at different temperatures and back pressures at an injection pressure of 100MPa. The penetrations and the evaporation states were compared with those of gasoline and diesel. The spray profile was analyzed in both area and shape with statistical methods. The effect of gasoline percentage on the evaporation in the fuel spray was evaluated.
Journal Article

Visualization of Partially Premixed Combustion of Gasoline-like Fuel Using High Speed Imaging in a Constant Volume Vessel

2012-04-16
2012-01-1236
Combustion visualizations were carried out in a constant volume vessel to study the partially premixed combustion of a gasoline-like fuel using high speed imaging. The test fuel (G80H20) is composed by volume 80% commercial gasoline and 20% n-heptane. The effects of ambient gas composition, ambient temperature and injection pressure on G80H20 combustion characteristics were analyzed. Meanwhile, a comparison of the EGR effect on combustion process between G80H20 and diesel was made. Four ambient gas conditions that represent the in-cylinder gas compositions of a heavy-duty diesel engine with EGR ratios of 0%, 20%, 40% and 60% were used to simulate EGR conditions. Variables also include two ambient temperature (910K and 870K) and two injection pressure (20 MPa and 50 MPa) conditions.
Journal Article

Highly Turbocharged Gasoline Engine and Rapid Compression Machine Studies of Super-Knock

2016-04-05
2016-01-0686
Super-knock has been a significant obstacle for the development of highly turbocharged (downsized) gasoline engines with spark ignition, due to the catastrophic damage super-knock can cause to the engine. According to previous research by the authors, one combustion process leading to super-knock may be described as hot-spot induced pre-ignition followed by deflagration which can induce detonation from another hot spot followed by high pressure oscillation. The sources of the hot spots which lead to pre-ignition (including oil films, deposits, gas-dynamics, etc.) may occur sporadically, which leads to super-knock occurring randomly at practical engine operating conditions. In this study, a spark plasma was used to induce preignition and the correlation between super-knock combustion and the thermodynamic state of the reactant mixture was investigated in a four-cylinder production gasoline engine.
Journal Article

Experimental Investigation of Homogeneous Charge Induced Ignition (HCII) with Low-Pressure Injection to Reduce PM Emissions in a Heavy-Duty Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0775
Homogeneous Charge Induced Ignition (HCII) combustion utilizes a port injection of high-volatile fuel to form a homogeneous charge and a direct injection of high ignitable fuel near the Top Dead Center (TDC) to trigger combustion. Compared to Conventional Diesel Combustion (CDC) with high injection pressures, HCII has the potential to achieve diesel-like thermal efficiency with significant reductions in NOx and PM emissions with relatively low-pressure injections, which would benefit the engine cost saving remarkably. In the first part of current investigation, experiments were conducted at medium load with single diesel injection strategy. HCII exhibited great potential of using low injection pressures to achieve low soot emissions. But the engine load for HCII was limited by high heat release rate. Thus, in the second and third part, experiments were performed at high and low load with double diesel injection strategy.
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