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Technical Paper

Particle Emissions Characteristics of Different On-Road Vehicles

Due to the stringent emission standards set worldwide, particulate matter (PM) emissions from diesel vehicles have been significantly curtailed in the last decade, and are expected to be reduced even further in the future. This evolution has brought forward two main issues: whether PM emissions should only be regulated for diesel vehicles and whether gasoline powered vehicles can be further neglected from PM emission inventories. This paper addresses these issues comparing the characteristics of particle emissions from a current diesel passenger car, a gasoline one and two small two-wheelers. It is shown that the gasoline car is a negligible source of particle emissions while the two-wheelers may be even more significant particle sources than the diesel car.
Technical Paper

Evolution of Passenger Car Emission in Germany - A Comparative Assessment of Two Forecast Models

Two models for the forecast of road traffic emissions, independently developed in parallel, are comparatively presented and assessed: EPROG developed by BMW and enlarged by VDA for a national application (Germany) and FOREMOVE, developed for application on European Community scale. The analysis of the methodological character of the two algorithms proves that the models are fundamentally similar with regard to the basic calculation schemes used for the emissions. The same holds true as far as the significant dependencies of the emission factors, and the recognition and incorporation of the fundamental framework referring to traffic important parameters (speeds, mileage and mileage distribution etc) are concerned.
Technical Paper

A Model Based Definition of a Reference CO2 Emissions Value for Passenger Cars under Real World Conditions

With the adoption of the Worldwide harmonized Light Vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP) and the Real Driving Emissions (RDE) regulations for testing and monitoring the vehicle pollutant emissions, as well as CO2 and fuel consumption, the gap between real world and type approval performances is expected to decrease to a large extent. With respect to CO2, however, WLTP is not expected to fully eliminate the reported 40% discrepancy between real world and type approval values. This is mainly attributed to the fact that laboratory tests take place under average controlled conditions that do not fully replicate the environmental and traffic conditions experienced over daily driving across Europe. In addition, any uncertainties of a pre-defined test protocol and the vehicle operation can be optimized to lower the CO2 emissions of the type approval test. Such issues can be minimized in principle with the adoption of a real-world test for fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Experimental Evaluation of the Fuel Consumption and Emissions Reduction Potential of Low Viscosity Lubricants

Reducing fuel consumption and emissions from road transport is a key factor for tackling global warming, promoting energy security and sustaining a clean environment. Several technical measures have been proposed in this aspect amongst which the application of low viscosity engine lubricants. Low viscosity lubricants are considered to be an interesting option for reducing fuel consumption (and CO2 emissions) throughout the fleet in a relatively cost effective way. However limited data are available regarding their actual “real-world” performance with respect to CO2 and other pollutant emissions. This study attempts to address the issue and to provide experimental data regarding the benefit of low viscosity lubricants on fuel consumption and CO2 emissions over both the type-approval and more realistic driving cycles.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Biodiesel Blends on the Performance and Emissions of a Common-Rail Light-Duty Engine and Vehicle

Today most of the European member states offer diesel fuel which contains fatty acid methylesters (biodiesel) at a range between 0.5 to 5% vol. In order to meet longer term objectives, the mixing ratio is expected to rise up to 10% vol. in the years to come. The question therefore arises, how current engine technologies, which were not originally designed to operate on biodiesel blends, perform at this relatively high mixing ratio. A number of experiments were therefore performed over several steady-state operation modes, using a 10% vol. biodiesel blend (palm oil feedstock) on a light-duty common-rail Euro 3 engine. The experiments included measurement of the in-cylinder pressure during combustion, regulated pollutants emissions and fuel consumption. The analysis showed that the blends tested present good fuel characteristics. Combustion effects were limited but changes in the start of ignition and heat release rate could still be identified.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Biodiesel on PAHs, Nitro-PAHs and Oxy-PAHs Emissions from a Light Vehicle Operated Over the European and the Artemis Driving Cycles

This study examines the effects of neat soy-based biodiesel (B100) and its 50% v/v blend (B50) with low sulphur automotive diesel on vehicle PAH emissions. The measurements were conducted on a chassis dynamometer with constant volume sampling (CVS) according to the European regulated technique. The vehicle was a Euro 2 compliant diesel passenger car, equipped with a 1.9 litre common-rail turbocharged direct injection engine and an oxidation catalyst. Emissions of PAHs, nitro-PAHs and oxy-PAHs were measured over the urban phase (UDC) and the extra-urban phase (EUDC) of the type approval cycle (NEDC). In addition, for evaluating realistic driving performance the non-legislated Artemis driving cycles (Urban, Road and Motorway) were used. Overall, 12 PAHs, 4 nitro-PAHs, and 6 oxy-PAHs were determined. The results indicated that PAH emissions exhibited a reduction with biodiesel during all driving modes.
Technical Paper

SCR System Optimization and Control Supported by Simulation Tools

The successful design and especially the control of the SCR system is a challenging process that can be supported by the application of simulation tools. As a first step, we employ physico-chemically informed ‘off-line’ models that are calibrated with the help of targeted small- and full-scale tests. Despite their high level of sophistication, this SCR model is able to be integrated in a control-oriented simulation software platform and connected to other powertrain simulation blocks. The target is to use this simulation platform as a virtual environment for the development and optimization of SCR control strategies. The above process is demonstrated in the case of a passenger car SCR. The model is calibrated at both fresh and aged catalyst condition and validated using experimental data from the engine bench under a wide variety of operating conditions. Next, the calibrated model was coupled with embedded control models, developed for Euro 6 passenger car powertrains.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Interactions Of Soot and SCR Reactions in Advanced DPF Technologies with Non-homogeneous Wall Structure

The pressure for compact and efficient deNO systems has led to increased interest of incorporating SCR coatings in the DPF walls. This technology could be very attractive especially if high amounts of washcoat loadings could be impregnated in the DPF porous walls, which is only possible with high porosity filters. To counterbalance the filtration and backpressure drawbacks from such high porosity applications, the layered wall technology has already been proposed towards minimizing soot penetration in the wall and maximizing filtration efficiency. In order to deal with the understanding of the complex interactions in such advanced systems and assist their design optimization, this paper presents an advanced modeling framework and selected results from simulation studies trying to illustrate the governing phenomena affecting deNO performance and passive DPF regeneration in the above combined systems.
Technical Paper

Use of a PPS Sensor in Evaluating the Impact of Fuel Efficiency Improvement Technologies on the Particle Emissions of a Euro 5 Diesel Car

The effect of “Start & Stop” and “Gear Shift Indicator” - two widespread fuel saving technologies - on fuel consumption and particle emissions of a Euro 5 passenger car is evaluated in this paper. The vehicle was subjected to a series of different driving cycles, including the current (NEDC) and future (WLTC) cycles implemented in the European type approval procedure at cold and hot start condition and particle number was measured with an AVL Particle Counter. In addition, we have utilized two Pegasor Particle Sensor units positioned in different locations along the sampling line to assess the impact of the sampling location on the particle characteristics measured during highly transient events. The results showed that the particle number emission levels over the WLTC were comparable to the NEDC ones, whereas NOx emissions were more than twofold higher. Both fuel saving technologies can lead to reduced fuel consumption and, subsequently CO2 emissions, in the order of 5%.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Cyclic Variability on Combustion and Emissions of a High-Speed SI Engine

Cyclic combustion variability (CCV) is an undesirable characteristic of spark ignition (SI) engines, and originates from variations in gas motion and turbulence, as well as from differences in mixture composition and homogeneity in each cycle. In this work, the cycle to cycle variability on combustion and emissions is experimentally investigated on a high-speed, port fuel injected, spark ignition engine. Fast response analyzers were placed at the exhaust manifold, directly downstream of the exhaust valve of one cylinder, for the determination of the cycle-resolved carbon monoxide (CO) and nitric oxide (NO) emissions. A piezoelectric transducer, integrated in the spark-plug, was also used for cylinder pressure measurement. The impact of engine operating parameters, namely engine speed, load, equivalence ratio and ignition timing on combustion and emissions variability, was evaluated.
Technical Paper

Development of a Template Model and Simulation Approach for Quantifying the Effect of WLTP Introduction on Light Duty Vehicle CO2 Emissions and Fuel Consumption

The paper describes the development of a modelling approach to simulate the effect of the new Worldwide harmonized Light duty Test Procedure (WLTP) on the certified CO2 emissions of light duty vehicles. The European fleet has been divided into a number of segments based on specific vehicle characteristics and technologies. Representative vehicles for each segment were selected. A test protocol has been developed in order to generate the necessary data for the validation of the vehicle simulation models. In order to minimize the sources of uncertainty and the effects of flexibilities, a reference “template model” was developed to be used in the study. Subsequently, vehicle models were developed using AVL Cruise simulation software based on the above mentioned template model. The various components and sub-modules of the models, as well as their input parameters, have been defined with the support of the respective OEMs.
Technical Paper

Applicability of the Pegasor Particle Sensor to Measure Particle Number, Mass and PM Emissions

The Pegasor Particle Sensor (PPS) has been earlier presented by Ntziachristos et al. (SAE Paper 2011-01-0626) as a novel small and robust instrument that can be directly installed in the exhaust line to measure exhaust particles without any dilution. The instrument is based on the electrical detection of aerosol. It is increasingly being used to measure exhaust particles from engines and vehicles with different exhaust configurations. In this study, a number of tests have been conducted using two sensors in parallel, one directly installed in the tailpipe and one installed in the CVS, side by side to the PM sampling filter. Aim of the study was to make recommendations on the proper use of the sensor and to check how the sensor signal compares to particulate mass, soot concentration, and particle number. A first finding is that external heating has to be provided to the sensor to avoid condensation.
Technical Paper

Effect of Diesel Properties on Emissions and Fuel Consumption from Euro 4, 5 and 6 European Passenger Cars

Certain diesel fuel specification properties are considered to be environmental parameters according to the European Fuels Quality Directive (FQD, 2009/EC/30) and previous regulations. These limits included in the EN 590 specification were derived from the European Programme on Emissions, Fuels and Engine Technologies (EPEFE) which was carried out in the 1990’s on diesel vehicles meeting Euro 2 emissions standards. These limits could potentially constrain FAME blending levels higher than 7% v/v. In addition, no significant work has been conducted since to investigate whether relaxing these limits would give rise to performance or emissions debits or fuel consumption benefits in more modern vehicles. The objective of this test programme was to evaluate the impact of specific diesel properties on emissions and fuel consumption in Euro 4, Euro 5 and Euro 6 light-duty diesel vehicle technologies.
Technical Paper

Sampling Conditions Effects on Real-Time Particle Measurements from a Light Duty Vehicle

The effect of sampling conditions on the diesel exhaust aerosol characteristics has been studied so far with the application of Electrostatic Classifiers under steady state conditions. This paper aims at examining the same effects with application of an Electrical Low Pressure Impactor under transient engine operating conditions. Explanation of the results obtained takes into account the different operational characteristics of this new technique (recorded magnitude, size range and resolution). The study confirms particle formation in the dilution tunnel and downstream of a DPF and also coagulation of liquid particles in the tunnel. However, separation of the liquid particle phase has led to modification of the aerosol properties in a direction which may be conversely recorded by instruments based on different operation principles.
Technical Paper

Diesel Particle Exhaust Emissions from Light Duty Vehiclesand Heavy Duty Engines

Diesel engines are widespread in both passenger car and heavy duty truck applications. However, despite that the combustion concepts are similar in the two cases, the engine calibration required for compliance with the different emission standards leads to distinct particle emission behavior from the two categories. This paper compares the exhaust particle emissions from heavy duty engines with typical diesel passenger cars of similar emission standard and/or emission control technology. Measurements were conducted with the same sampling system and sampling protocol to avoid interferences induced by the sampling methodology. A range of particle properties were studied, including mass, number of solid and total particles and total particle surface. For comparability, the results are expressed per unit of exhaust volume, per unit of fuel consumed and per unit of distance driven.
Technical Paper

Effect of a DPF and Low Sulfur Lube Oil on PM Physicochemical Characteristics from a Euro 4 Light Duty Diesel Vehicle

This paper studies the effect of a Catalyzed Diesel Particle Filter (CDPF) on the emission profile of a Euro 4 diesel vehicle operated on low sulfur fuel and lubrication oil. The vehicle was tested in its original configuration and with the CDPF retrofitted in place of its main underbody catalyst. Experiments included steady state tests, the certification cycle and real-world high speed transient driving conditions. Measurements included total particle mass collected on Teflon-coated filters, total particle number measured by a condensation particle counter, size distributions determined by a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer and chemical analysis of the mass collected for elemental and organic carbon, ions, PAHs, and trace elements. Results showed that the vehicle complies with the Euro 4 emission limits when tested over the type-approval NEDC, but it emits more nitrogen oxides and, in some cases, more particulate matter when tested over real-world test cycles.
Technical Paper

Effect of Lube Oil on the Physicochemical Characteristics of Particulate Matter Emitted from a Euro 4 Light Duty Diesel Vehicle

This paper investigates the effect of lubrication oil on the physical and chemical characteristics of the particulate matter (PM) emitted from a Euro 4 diesel vehicle. Two different lubrication oils were examined. A fully synthetic ACEA grade B3 service-fill oil of low sulfur content (1760 ppm wt.) falling into the OW-40 SAE viscosity grade and a mineral ACEA B2-98 motor oil of high sulfur (8890 ppm wt.), falling into the 15W-40 SAE viscosity grade. To exclude interferences from the fuel derived sulfur, a rather sulfur-free fuel (< 10 ppm wt.) was used in the experiments. The experiments included steady state tests, the certification cycle and real-world highspeed transient driving conditions. The properties measured included total particle mass collected on Teflon-coated filters, total particle number measured by a condensation particle counter, size distributions determined by a scanning mobility particle sizer.
Technical Paper

Experimental evaluation of cottonseed oil-diesel blends as automotive fuels via vehicle and engine measurements

Vegetable oils blended with diesel fuel are recognised as biofuels by the European legislation and their application is an interesting option for increasing the market share of biofuels. This paper presents results from a detailed study conducted on a Euro 3 compliant diesel passenger car and a high injection pressure test bench engine using 10% Cottonseed oil- 90% Diesel blends as fuel. The tests included fuel consumption and emissions measurements. Aim of the experimental analysis was to accurately evaluate the effect of biofuel application on a common rail engine. The measurement protocol included measurements of regulated emissions, fuel consumption and in-cylinder pressure at various operation modes. Results from the bench engine measurements are in line with those retrieved from the vehicle and indicate that the fuel tested presents good characteristics and that under certain conditions it can be applied as automotive fuel in a broader scale.
Technical Paper

Performance Evaluation of a Novel Sampling and Measurement System for Exhaust Particle Characterization

This paper presents a novel partial flow sampling system for the characterization of airborne exhaust particle emissions. The sampled aerosol is first conditioned in a porous dilutor and then subsequent ejector dilutors are used to decrease its concentration to the range of the instrumentation used. First we examine the sensitivity of aerosol properties to boundary sampling conditions. This information is then used to select suitable sampling parameters to distinguish both the nucleation and the accumulation mode. Selecting appropriate sampling parameters, it is demonstrated that a distinct nucleation mode can be formed and measured with different instruments. Using these parameters we examine the performance of the system over transient vehicle operation. Additionally, we performed calculations of particle losses in the various components of the system which are then used to correct signals from the instruments.
Technical Paper

Comparative Assessment of Two Different Sampling Systems for Particle Emission Type-Approval Measurements

The Particle Measurement Programme (PMP), initiated from different Member States, aims at developing a method and sampling recommendations for a particle number-based emission standard, to support future emission regulation in Europe. In this paper we applied two different commercially available dilution systems (an FPS from Dekati Ltd and an MD19-2E from Matter Engineering AG) to record the particle emissions of a Euro II and a Euro III diesel passenger car. The latter was also fitted with a diesel particle filter (DPF) to simulate future emission levels. At their present development stage, both dilution systems failed to totally comply with all requirements of the PMP protocol. The main problems appeared to be the lack of accurate determination of the dilution ratio and the inability to reach the desired dilution temperature.