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Technical Paper

A Model Based Definition of a Reference CO2 Emissions Value for Passenger Cars under Real World Conditions

2018-05-30
2018-37-0031
With the adoption of the Worldwide harmonized Light Vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP) and the Real Driving Emissions (RDE) regulations for testing and monitoring the vehicle pollutant emissions, as well as CO2 and fuel consumption, the gap between real world and type approval performances is expected to decrease to a large extent. With respect to CO2, however, WLTP is not expected to fully eliminate the reported 40% discrepancy between real world and type approval values. This is mainly attributed to the fact that laboratory tests take place under average controlled conditions that do not fully replicate the environmental and traffic conditions experienced over daily driving across Europe. In addition, any uncertainties of a pre-defined test protocol and the vehicle operation can be optimized to lower the CO2 emissions of the type approval test. Such issues can be minimized in principle with the adoption of a real-world test for fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Experimental Evaluation of the Fuel Consumption and Emissions Reduction Potential of Low Viscosity Lubricants

2009-06-15
2009-01-1803
Reducing fuel consumption and emissions from road transport is a key factor for tackling global warming, promoting energy security and sustaining a clean environment. Several technical measures have been proposed in this aspect amongst which the application of low viscosity engine lubricants. Low viscosity lubricants are considered to be an interesting option for reducing fuel consumption (and CO2 emissions) throughout the fleet in a relatively cost effective way. However limited data are available regarding their actual “real-world” performance with respect to CO2 and other pollutant emissions. This study attempts to address the issue and to provide experimental data regarding the benefit of low viscosity lubricants on fuel consumption and CO2 emissions over both the type-approval and more realistic driving cycles.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Biodiesel Blends on the Performance and Emissions of a Common-Rail Light-Duty Engine and Vehicle

2009-04-20
2009-01-0692
Today most of the European member states offer diesel fuel which contains fatty acid methylesters (biodiesel) at a range between 0.5 to 5% vol. In order to meet longer term objectives, the mixing ratio is expected to rise up to 10% vol. in the years to come. The question therefore arises, how current engine technologies, which were not originally designed to operate on biodiesel blends, perform at this relatively high mixing ratio. A number of experiments were therefore performed over several steady-state operation modes, using a 10% vol. biodiesel blend (palm oil feedstock) on a light-duty common-rail Euro 3 engine. The experiments included measurement of the in-cylinder pressure during combustion, regulated pollutants emissions and fuel consumption. The analysis showed that the blends tested present good fuel characteristics. Combustion effects were limited but changes in the start of ignition and heat release rate could still be identified.
Technical Paper

Use of a PPS Sensor in Evaluating the Impact of Fuel Efficiency Improvement Technologies on the Particle Emissions of a Euro 5 Diesel Car

2014-04-01
2014-01-1601
The effect of “Start & Stop” and “Gear Shift Indicator” - two widespread fuel saving technologies - on fuel consumption and particle emissions of a Euro 5 passenger car is evaluated in this paper. The vehicle was subjected to a series of different driving cycles, including the current (NEDC) and future (WLTC) cycles implemented in the European type approval procedure at cold and hot start condition and particle number was measured with an AVL Particle Counter. In addition, we have utilized two Pegasor Particle Sensor units positioned in different locations along the sampling line to assess the impact of the sampling location on the particle characteristics measured during highly transient events. The results showed that the particle number emission levels over the WLTC were comparable to the NEDC ones, whereas NOx emissions were more than twofold higher. Both fuel saving technologies can lead to reduced fuel consumption and, subsequently CO2 emissions, in the order of 5%.
Technical Paper

Development of a Template Model and Simulation Approach for Quantifying the Effect of WLTP Introduction on Light Duty Vehicle CO2 Emissions and Fuel Consumption

2015-09-06
2015-24-2391
The paper describes the development of a modelling approach to simulate the effect of the new Worldwide harmonized Light duty Test Procedure (WLTP) on the certified CO2 emissions of light duty vehicles. The European fleet has been divided into a number of segments based on specific vehicle characteristics and technologies. Representative vehicles for each segment were selected. A test protocol has been developed in order to generate the necessary data for the validation of the vehicle simulation models. In order to minimize the sources of uncertainty and the effects of flexibilities, a reference “template model” was developed to be used in the study. Subsequently, vehicle models were developed using AVL Cruise simulation software based on the above mentioned template model. The various components and sub-modules of the models, as well as their input parameters, have been defined with the support of the respective OEMs.
Technical Paper

Effect of Diesel Properties on Emissions and Fuel Consumption from Euro 4, 5 and 6 European Passenger Cars

2016-10-17
2016-01-2246
Certain diesel fuel specification properties are considered to be environmental parameters according to the European Fuels Quality Directive (FQD, 2009/EC/30) and previous regulations. These limits included in the EN 590 specification were derived from the European Programme on Emissions, Fuels and Engine Technologies (EPEFE) which was carried out in the 1990’s on diesel vehicles meeting Euro 2 emissions standards. These limits could potentially constrain FAME blending levels higher than 7% v/v. In addition, no significant work has been conducted since to investigate whether relaxing these limits would give rise to performance or emissions debits or fuel consumption benefits in more modern vehicles. The objective of this test programme was to evaluate the impact of specific diesel properties on emissions and fuel consumption in Euro 4, Euro 5 and Euro 6 light-duty diesel vehicle technologies.
Technical Paper

Experimental evaluation of cottonseed oil-diesel blends as automotive fuels via vehicle and engine measurements

2007-09-16
2007-24-0126
Vegetable oils blended with diesel fuel are recognised as biofuels by the European legislation and their application is an interesting option for increasing the market share of biofuels. This paper presents results from a detailed study conducted on a Euro 3 compliant diesel passenger car and a high injection pressure test bench engine using 10% Cottonseed oil- 90% Diesel blends as fuel. The tests included fuel consumption and emissions measurements. Aim of the experimental analysis was to accurately evaluate the effect of biofuel application on a common rail engine. The measurement protocol included measurements of regulated emissions, fuel consumption and in-cylinder pressure at various operation modes. Results from the bench engine measurements are in line with those retrieved from the vehicle and indicate that the fuel tested presents good characteristics and that under certain conditions it can be applied as automotive fuel in a broader scale.
Journal Article

Impact of FAME Content on the Regeneration Frequency of Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs)

2014-04-01
2014-01-1605
Modern diesel vehicles utilize two technologies, one fuel based and one hardware based, that have been motivated by recent European legislation: diesel fuel blends containing Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) and Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF). Oxygenates, like FAME, are known to reduce PM formation in the combustion chamber and reduce the amount of soot that must be filtered from the engine exhaust by the DPF. This effect is also expected to lengthen the time between DPF regenerations and reduce the fuel consumption penalty that is associated with soot loading and regeneration. This study investigated the effect of FAME content, up to 50% v/v (B50), in diesel fuel on the DPF regeneration frequency by repeatedly running a Euro 5 multi-cylinder bench engine over the European regulatory cycle (NEDC) until a specified soot loading limit had been reached.
Journal Article

Impact of Biodiesel Blends on Fuel Consumption and Emissions in Euro 4 Compliant Vehicles

2010-05-05
2010-01-1484
Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) products derived from vegetable oils and animal fats are now widely used in European diesel fuels and their use will increase in order to meet mandated targets for the use of renewable products in road fuels. As more FAME enters the diesel pool, understanding the impact of higher FAME levels on the performance and emissions of modern light-duty diesel vehicles is increasingly important. Of special significance to Well-to-Wheels (WTW) calculations is the potential impact that higher FAME levels may have on the vehicle's volumetric fuel consumption. The primary objective of this study was to generate statistically robust fuel consumption data on three light-duty diesel vehicles complying with Euro 4 emissions regulations. These vehicles were evaluated on a chassis dynamometer using four fuels: a hydrocarbon-only diesel fuel and three FAME/diesel fuel blends containing up to 50% v/v FAME. One FAME type, a Rapeseed Methyl Ester (RME), was used throughout.
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