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Technical Paper

The Potential of the Variable Stroke Spark-Ignition Engine

A comprehensive quasi-dimensional computer simulation of the spark-ignition (SI) engine was used to explore part-load, fuel economy benefits of the Variable Stroke Engine (VSE) compared to the conventional throttled engine. First it was shown that varying stroke can replace conventional throttling to control engine load, without changing the engine characteristics. Subsequently, the effects of varying stroke on turbulence, burn rate, heat transfer, and pumping and friction losses were revealed. Finally these relationships were used to explain the behavior of the VSE as stroke is reduced. Under part load operation, it was shown that the VSE concept can improve brake specific fuel consumption by 18% to 21% for speeds ranging from 1500 to 3000 rpm. Further, at part load, NOx was reduced by up to 33%. Overall, this study provides insight into changes in processes within and outside the combustion chamber that cause the benefits and limitations of the VSE concept.
Technical Paper

Series Hydraulic Hybrid System for a Passenger Car: Design, Integration and Packaging Study

This paper is on the development process of a hydraulic hybrid passenger vehicle. A subcompact passenger vehicle is chosen for modification into a series hydraulic hybrid with the aim of achieving a fuel economy of 100 MPG (2.35 L/100km) on the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS). This work develops a methodology for simultaneously designing a powertrain and power management strategy of a series hydraulic hybrid. The design process was initiated by developing a system level model validated using engine and hydraulic pump/motor testing by the US EPA at the National Vehicle and Fuel Efficiency Laboratory (NVFEL). Parametric studies were performed in order to determine the size of the pump/motors and accumulators. Several candidate engines were tested and the system models were used to determine which one could provide the best fuel economy while meeting performance constraints.
Technical Paper

Computationally Efficient Li-Ion Battery Aging Model for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Supervisory Control Optimization

This paper presents the development of an electrochemical aging model of LiFePO4-Graphite battery based on single particle (SP) model. Solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) growth is considered as the aging mechanism. It is intended to provide both sufficient fidelity and computational efficiency required for integration within the HEV power management optimization framework. The model enables assessment of the battery aging rate by considering instantaneous lithium ion surface concentration rather than average concentration, thus enhancing the fidelity of predictions. In addition, an approximate analytical method is applied to speed up the calculation while preserving required accuracy. Next, this aging model are illustrated two applications. First is hybrid electric powertrain system model integration and simulation.
Technical Paper

Cam-Phasing Optimization Using Artificial Neural Networks as Surrogate Models-Maximizing Torque Output

Variable Valve Actuation (VVA) technology provides high potential in achieving high performance, low fuel consumption and pollutant reduction. However, more degrees of freedom impose a big challenge for engine characterization and calibration. In this study, a simulation based approach and optimization framework is proposed to optimize the setpoints of multiple independent control variables. Since solving an optimization problem typically requires hundreds of function evaluations, a direct use of the high-fidelity simulation tool leads to the unbearably long computational time. Hence, the Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) are trained with high-fidelity simulation results and used as surrogate models, representing engine's response to different control variable combinations with greatly reduced computational time. To demonstrate the proposed methodology, the cam-phasing strategy at Wide Open Throttle (WOT) is optimized for a dual-independent Variable Valve Timing (VVT) engine.
Technical Paper

Cam-phasing Optimization Using Artificial Neural Networks as Surrogate Models-Fuel Consumption and NOx Emissions

Cam-phasing is increasingly considered as a feasible Variable Valve Timing (VVT) technology for production engines. Additional independent control variables in a dual-independent VVT engine increase the complexity of the system, and achieving its full benefit depends critically on devising an optimum control strategy. A traditional approach relying on hardware experiments to generate set-point maps for all independent control variables leads to an exponential increase in the number of required tests and prohibitive cost. Instead, this work formulates the task of defining actuator set-points as an optimization problem. In our previous study, an optimization framework was developed and demonstrated with the objective of maximizing torque at full load. This study extends the technique and uses the optimization framework to minimize fuel consumption of a VVT engine at part load.
Journal Article

Assessing the Regeneration Potential for a Refuse Truck Over a Real-World Duty Cycle

The majority of a refuse truck collection cycle consists of frequent Stop and Go events while moving from one household to another. The nature of this driving mission creates the opportunity to reduce fuel consumption by capturing and re-using the kinetic energy normally wasted during braking. This paper includes the evaluation of the brake energy available for regeneration from the conventional drivetrain; the description of the impact of the vehicle variable mass and auxiliary loads; a model validation over a real-world duty cycle; and the potential for an increase in fuel efficiency through hybridization of the drivetrain. The Hydraulic Hybrid (HH) technology is selected since it has a large power density.
Journal Article

Hybrid Electric Vehicle Powertrain and Control Strategy Optimization to Maximize the Synergy with a Gasoline HCCI Engine

This simulation study explores the potential synergy between the HCCI engine system and three hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) configurations, and proposes the supervisory control strategy that maximizes the benefits of combining these two technologies. HCCI operation significantly improves fuel efficiency at part load, while hybridization aims to reduce low load/low speed operation. Therefore, a key question arises: are the effects of these two technologies additive or overlapping? The HEV configurations include two parallel hybrids with varying degrees of electrification, e.g. with a 5kW integrated starter/motor (“Mild”) and with a 10 kW electric machine (“Medium”), and a power-split hybrid. The engine is a dual-mode, SI-HCCI system and the engine map reflects the impact of HCCI on brake specific fuel consumption.
Journal Article

Characterizing One-day Missions of PHEVs Based on Representative Synthetic Driving Cycles

This paper investigates series plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) behavior during one-day with synthesized representative one-day missions. The amounts of electric energy and fuel consumption are predicted to assess the PHEV impact on the grid with respect to the driving distance and different charging scenarios: (1) charging overnight, (2) charging whenever possible. The representative cycles are synthesized using the extracted information from the real-world driving data in Southeast Michigan gathered through the Field Operational Tests (FOT) conducted by the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI). The real-world driving data include 4,409 trips covering 830 independent days and temporal distributions of departure and arrival times. The sample size is large enough to represent real-world driving.
Journal Article

Optimization of the Series-HEV Control with Consideration of the Impact of Battery Cooling Auxiliary Losses

This paper investigates the impact of battery cooling ancillary losses on fuel economy, and optimal control strategy for a series hybrid electric truck with consideration of cooling losses. Battery thermal model and its refrigeration-based cooling system are integrated into vehicle model, and the parasitic power consumption from cooling auxiliaries is considered in power management problem. Two supervisory control strategies are compared. First, a rule-based control strategy is coupled with a thermal management strategy; it controls power system and cooling system separately. The second is optimal control strategy developed using Dynamic Programming; it optimizes power flow with consideration of both propulsion and cooling requirement. The result shows that battery cooling consumption could cause fuel economy loss as high as 5%.
Journal Article

Quantification of Drive Cycle's Rapid Speed Fluctuations Using Fourier Analysis

This paper presents a new way to evaluate vehicle speed profile aggressiveness, quantify it from the perspective of the rapid speed fluctuations, and assess its impact on vehicle fuel economy. The speed fluctuation can be divided into two portions: the large-scale low frequency speed trace which follows the ongoing traffic and road characteristics, and the small-scale rapid speed fluctuations normally related to the driver's experience, style and ability to anticipate future events. The latter represent to some extent the driver aggressiveness and it is well known to affect the vehicle energy consumption and component duty cycles. Therefore, the rapid speed fluctuations are the focus of this paper. Driving data collected with the GPS devices are widely adopted for study of real-world fuel economy, or the impact on electrified vehicle range and component duty cycles.
Journal Article

Frequency Domain Power Distribution Strategy for Series Hybrid Electric Vehicles

Electrification and hybridization have great potential for improving fuel economy and reducing visual signature or soot emissions in military vehicles. Specific challenges related to military applications include severe duty cycles, large and uncertain energy flows through the system and high thermal loads. A novel supervisory control strategy is proposed to simultaneously mitigate severe engine transients and to reduce high electric current in the battery without oversizing the battery. The described objectives are accomplished by splitting the propulsion power demand through filtering in the frequency domain. The engine covers only low frequency power demand profile while the battery covers high frequency components. In the proposed strategy, the separation filter is systematically designed to identify different frequency components with the consideration of fuel consumption, aggressive engine transients, and battery electric loads.
Technical Paper

A Heuristic Supervisory Controller for a 48V Hybrid Electric Vehicle Considering Fuel Economy and Battery Aging

Most studies on supervisory controllers of hybrid electric vehicles consider only fuel economy in the objective function. Taking into consideration the importance of the energy storage system health and its impact on the vehicle’s functionality, cost, and warranty, recent studies have included battery degradation as the second objective function by proposing different energy management strategies and battery life estimation methods. In this paper, a rule-based supervisory controller is proposed that splits the torque demand based not only on fuel consumption, but also on the battery capacity fade using the concept of severity factor. For this aim, the severity factor is calculated at each time step of a driving cycle using a look-up table with three different inputs including c-rate, working temperature, and state of charge of the battery. The capacity loss of the battery is then calculated using a semi-empirical capacity fade model.
Technical Paper

Real-time Reinforcement Learning Optimized Energy Management for a 48V Mild Hybrid Electric Vehicle

Energy management of hybrid vehicle has been a widely researched area. Strategies like dynamic programming (DP), equivalent consumption minimization strategy (ECMS), Pontryagin’s minimum principle (PMP) are well analyzed in literatures. However, the adaptive optimization work is still lacking, especially for reinforcement learning (RL). In this paper, Q-learning, as one of the model-free reinforcement learning method, is implemented in a 48V mild hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) framework to optimize the fuel economy. Different from other RL work in HEV, this paper considers not only battery state-of-charge (SOC), but also vehicle speed and vehicle torque demand as the Q-learning states. In the cost function definition, the fuel consumption contains engine fuel consumption and equivalent battery fuel consumption, which shares the idea with ECMS. The Q-value table is trained over one driving cycle multiple times. During the training process, the exploration and exploitation is discussed.
Journal Article

Low-Cost Pathway to Ultra Efficient City Car: Series Hydraulic Hybrid System with Optimized Supervisory Control

A series hydraulic hybrid concept (SHHV) has been explored as a potential pathway to an ultra-efficient city vehicle. Intended markets would be congested metropolitan areas, particularly in developing countries. The target fuel economy was ~100 mpg or 2.4 l/100km in city driving. Such an ambitious target requires multiple measures, i.e. low mass, favorable aerodynamics and ultra-efficient powertrain. The series hydraulic hybrid powertrain has been designed and analyzed for the selected light and aerodynamic platform with the expectation that (i) series configuration will maximize opportunities for regeneration and optimization of engine operation, (ii) inherent high power density of hydraulic propulsion and storage components will yield small, low-cost components, and (iii) high efficiency and high power limits for accumulator charging/discharging will enable very effective regeneration.