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Journal Article

Uncertainty Analysis of High-Frequency Noise in Battery Electric Vehicle Based on Interval Model

Abstract The high-frequency noise issue is one of the most significant noise, vibration, and harshness problems, particularly in battery electric vehicles (BEVs). The sound package treatment is one of the most important approaches toward solving this problem. Owing to the limitations imposed by manufacturing error, assembly error, and the operating conditions, there is often a big difference between the actual values and the design values of the sound package components. Therefore, the sound package parameters include greater uncertainties. In this article, an uncertainty analysis method for BEV interior noise was developed based on an interval model to investigate the effect of sound package uncertainty on the interior noise of a BEV. An interval perturbation method was formulated to compute the uncertainty of the BEV’s interior noise.
Journal Article

A Review on Physical Mechanisms of Tire-Pavement Interaction Noise

Abstract Tire-pavement interaction noise (TPIN) dominates for passenger cars above 40 km/h and trucks above 70 km/h. Numerous studies have attempted to uncover and distinguish the basic mechanisms of TPIN. However, intense debate is still ongoing about the validity of these mechanisms. In this work, the physical mechanisms proposed in the literature were reviewed and divided into three categories: generation mechanisms, amplification mechanisms, and attenuation mechanisms. The purpose of this article is to gather the published general opinions for further open discussions.
Journal Article

A Review of Sensor Technologies for Automotive Fuel Economy Benefits

Abstract This article is a review of automobile sensor technologies that have the potential to enhance fuel economy. Based on an in-depth review of the literature and demonstration projects, the following sensor technologies were selected for evaluation: vehicular radar systems (VRS), camera systems (CS), and vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) systems. V2V and V2I systems were found to have the highest merit in improving fuel economy over a wide range of integration strategies, with fuel economy improvements ranging from 5 to 20% with V2V and 10 to 25% for V2I. However, V2V and V2I systems require significant adoption for practical application which is not expected in this decade. Numerous academic studies and contemporary vehicular safety systems attest VRS as more technologically mature and robust relative to other sensors. However, VRS offers less fuel economy enhancement (~14%).
Journal Article

Hydro-Pneumatic Energy Harvesting Suspension System Using a PSO Based PID Controller

Abstract In this article, a unique design for Hydro-Pneumatic Energy Harvesting Suspension HPEHS system is introduced. The design includes a hydraulic rectifier to maintain one-way flow direction in order to obtain maximum power generation from the vertical oscillation of the suspension system and achieve handling and comfort car drive. A mathematical model is presented to study the system dynamics and non-linear effects for HPEHS system. A simulation model is created by using Advanced Modeling Environment Simulations software (AMEsim) to analyze system performance. Furthermore, a co-simulation platform model is developed using Matlab-Simulink and AMEsim to optimize the PID controller parameters of the external variable load resistor applied on the generator by using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO).
Journal Article

Electrifying Long-Haul Freight—Part II: Assessment of the Battery Capacity

Abstract Recently, electric heavy-duty tractor-trailers (EHDTTs) have assumed significance as they present an immediate solution to decarbonize the transportation sector. Hence, to illustrate the economic viability of electrifying the freight industry, a detailed numerical model to estimate the battery capacity for an EHDTT is proposed for a route between Washington, DC, to Knoxville, TN. This model incorporates the effects of the terrain, climate, vehicular forces, auxiliary loads, and payload in order to select the appropriate motor and optimize the battery capacity. Additionally, current and near-future battery chemistries are simulated in the model. Along with equations describing vehicular forces based on Newton’s second law of motion, the model utilizes the Hausmann and Depcik correlation to estimate the losses caused by the capacity offset of the batteries. Here, a Newton-Raphson iterative scheme determines the minimum battery capacity for the required state of charge.
Journal Article

Mechanical Behavior of Representative Volume Element Specimens of Lithium-Ion Battery Modules without and with Electrolyte under Quasi-Static and Dynamic In-Plane Compressive Loading Conditions

Abstract Small rectangular representative volume element (RVE) specimens of lithium-ion battery modules without and with electrolyte were tested under quasi-static and dynamic in-plane constrained compressive loading conditions. Effects of electrolyte and loading rate on the compressive behavior of RVE specimens were examined. The test results show that the average buckling stress of the specimens with electrolyte is higher than that of the specimens without electrolyte under both quasi-static and dynamic loading conditions. The test results also show that the average buckling stress of the specimens under dynamic loading conditions is higher than that of the specimens under quasi-static loading conditions, without or with the presence of electrolyte in the specimens. The percentage of increase of the average buckling stress of the specimens due to electrolyte under dynamic loading conditions is more than that of the specimens under quasi-static loading conditions.
Journal Article

Fault Diagnosis Approach for Roller Bearings Based on Optimal Morlet Wavelet De-Noising and Auto-Correlation Enhancement

Abstract This article presents a fault diagnosis approach for roller bearing by applying the autocorrelation approach to filtered vibration measured signal. An optimal Morlet wavelet filter is applied to eliminate the frequency associated with interferential vibrations; the raw measured signal is filtered with a band-pass filter based on a Morlet wavelet function whose parameters are optimized based on maximum Kurtosis. Autocorrelation enhancement is applied to the filtered signal to further reduce the residual in-band noise and highlight the periodic impulsive feature. The proposed technique is used to analyze the experimental measured signal of investigated vehicle gearbox. An artificial fault is introduced in vehicle gearbox bearing an orthogonal placed groove on the inner race with the initial width of 0.6 mm approximately. The faulted bearing is a roller bearing located on the gearbox input shaft - on the clutch side.
Journal Article

Artificial Lightning Tests on Metal and CFRP Automotive Bodies: A Comparative Study

Abstract Carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) has been used in automobiles as well as airplanes. Because of its light weight and high strength, CFRP is a good choice for making vehicle bodies lighter, which would improve fuel economy. Conventional metal bodies provide a convenient body return for electric wiring and offer good shielding against electromagnetic fields. Although CFRP is a conductor, its conductivity is much lower than that of metals. Therefore, CFRP bodies are usually not useful for electric wiring. In thunderstorms, an automotive body is considered to be a Faraday cage that protects the vehicle’s occupants from the potential harms of lightning. Before CFRP becomes widely applied to automotive bodies, its electric and electromagnetic properties need to be investigated in order to determine whether it also works as a Faraday cage against lightning. In this article, CFRP and metal body vehicles were tested under artificial lightning.
Journal Article

System Performance Comparison of Direct Torque Control Strategies Based on Flux Linkage and DC-Link Voltage for EV Drivetrains

Abstract Numerous works have been carried out with perspectives to improve the energy efficiency of electric vehicle (EV) drivetrains; much of the attention has been on the design of highly efficient electric motors, power converters, and energy storage system. Besides the abovementioned factors, selection of the drivetrain configuration and control strategy also influence the efficiency and performance of EV drivetrain. The drivetrain efficiency and performance indices, such as torque ripple and total harmonic distortion (THD) of voltage and current, are sensitive to the direct current (dc)-link voltage and flux linkage values for a drivetrain control strategy. Therefore, in this work, the efficiency and the performance of two popular direct torque controlled induction motor (IM) drives are compared on the basis of adjustable dc-link voltage and flux linkage values for desired operating condition. Both these techniques are implemented on a lab scale test bed.
Journal Article

Lightweight Carbon Composite Chassis for Engine Start Lithium Batteries

Abstract The supersession of metallic alloys with lightweight, high-strength composites is popular in the aircraft industry. However, aviation electronic enclosures for large format batteries and high power conversion electronics are still primarily made of aluminum alloys. These aluminum enclosures have attractive properties regrading structural integrity for the heavy internal parts, electromagnetic interference (EMI) suppression, electrical bonding for the internal cells, and/or electronics and failure containment. This paper details a lightweight carbon fiber composite chassis developed at Meggitt Sensing Systems (MSS) Securaplane, with a copper metallic mesh co-cured onto the internal surfaces resulting in a 50% reduction in weight when compared to its aluminum counterpart. In addition to significant weight reduction, it provides equal or improved performance with respect to EMI, structural and flammability performance.
Journal Article

A Review on Electromagnetic Sheet Metal Forming of Continuum Sheet Metals

Abstract Electromagnetic forming (EMF) is a high-speed impulse forming process developed during the 1950s and 1960s to acquire shapes from sheet metal that could not be obtained using conventional forming techniques. In order to attain required deformation, EMF process applies high Lorentz force for a very short duration of time. Due to the ability to form aluminum and other low-formability materials, the use of EMF of sheet metal for automobile parts has been rising in recent years. This review gives an inclusive survey of historical progress in EMF of continuum sheet metals. Also, the EMF is reviewed based on analytical approach, finite element method (FEM) simulation-based approach and experimental approach, on formability of the metals.
Journal Article

Automated Guided Vehicles for Small Manufacturing Enterprises: A Review

Abstract Automated guided vehicle systems (AGVS) are the prominent one in modern material handling systems used in small manufacturing enterprises (SMEs) due to their exciting features and benefits. This article pinpoints the need of AGVS in SMEs by describing the material handling selection in SMEs and enlightening recent technological developments and approaches of the AGVS. Additionally, it summarizes the analytical and simulation-based tools utilized in design problems of AGVS along with the influence of material handling management and key hurdles of AGVS. The current study provides a limelight towards making smart automated guided vehicles (AGVs) with the simplified and proper routing system and favorable materials and more importantly reducing the cost and increasing the flexibility.
Journal Article

A Comprehensive Data Reduction Algorithm for Automotive Multiplexing

Abstract Present-day vehicles come with a variety of new features like the pre-crash warning, the vehicle-to-vehicle communication, semi-autonomous driving systems, telematics, drive by wire. They demand very high bandwidth from in-vehicle networks. Various ECUs present inside the automotive transmits useful information via automotive multiplexing. Transmission of data in real-time achieves optimum functionality. The high bandwidth and high-speed requirement can be achieved either by using multiple buses or by implementing higher bandwidth. But, by doing so, the cost of the network as well as the complexity of the wiring increases. Another option is to implement higher layer protocol which can reduce the amount of data transferred by using data reduction (DR) techniques, thus reducing the bandwidth usage. The implementation cost is minimal as the changes are required in the software only and not in hardware.
Journal Article

An Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) Based Model for the Temperature Prediction of Lithium-Ion Power Batteries

Abstract Li-ion batteries have been widely applied in the areas of personal electronic devices, stationary energy storage system and electric vehicles due to their high energy/power density, low self-discharge rate and long cycle life etc. For the better designs of both the battery cells and their thermal management systems, various numerical approaches have been proposed to investigate the thermal performance of power batteries. Without the requirement of detailed physical and thermal parameters of batteries, this article proposed a data-driven model using the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) to predict the battery temperature with the inputs of ambient temperature, current and state of charge. Thermal response of a Li-ion battery module was experimentally evaluated under various conditions (i.e. ambient temperature of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 °C, and current rate of C/2, 1C and 2C) to acquire the necessary data sets for model development and validation.
Journal Article

Cyberattacks and Countermeasures for Intelligent and Connected Vehicles

Abstract ICVs are expected to make the transportation safer, cleaner, and more comfortable in the near future. However, the trend of connectivity has greatly increased the attack surfaces of vehicles, which makes in-vehicle networks more vulnerable to cyberattacks which then causes serious security and safety issues. In this article, we therefore systematically analyzed cyberattacks and corresponding countermeasures for in-vehicle networks of intelligent and connected vehicles (ICVs). Firstly, we analyzed the security risk of ICVs and proposed an in-vehicle network model from a hierarchical point of view. Then, we discussed possible cyberattacks at each layer of proposed network model.
Journal Article

Autoregressive Moving Average Exogenous Model-Based Adaptive Model Predictive Control for Dual-Clutch Transmission Starting Process

Abstract To address the difficulties in modeling the starting process of dual-clutch transmission (DCT) vehicles and poor adaptability of vehicles in complex driving conditions, this article proposes a new modeling and control strategy for the DCT starting system based on data-driven autoregressive moving average exogenous (ARMAX) modeling. Firstly, the DCT starting process is considered equivalent to the time series-related ARMAX model, and a data-driven ARMAX model could be obtained using input-output data relating to the starting process; also, the effectiveness of the data-driven ARMAX modeling technique is verified using the starting test of a real vehicle. Secondly, a data-driven adaptive model predictive control (A-MPC) strategy, which synthetically considers driving intention and clutch engagement status, is proposed.
Journal Article


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Journal Article

Recent Development in Friction Stir Welding Process: A Review

Abstract The Friction stir welding (FSW) is recently presented so to join different materials without the melting process as a solid-state joining technique. A widely application for the FSW process is recently developed in automotive industries. To create the welded components by using the FSW, the plunged probe and shoulder as welding tools are used. The Finite Element Method (FEM) can be used so to simulate and analyze material flow during the FSW process. As a result, thermal and mechanical stresses on the workpiece and welding tool can be analyzed and decreased. Effects of the welding process parameters such as tool rotational speed, welding speed, tool tilt angle, depth of the welding tool, and tool shoulder diameter can be analyzed and optimized so to increase the efficiency of the production process. Material characteristics of welded parts such as hardness or grain size can be analyzed so to increase the quality of part production.
Journal Article

Automated Diagnosis of Engine Misfire Faults Using Combination Classifiers

Abstract Existing on-board diagnostics vehicle systems can detect the existence of faults, but their diagnostic (fault isolation) capabilities are rather low. Extensions to on-board diagnostics are needed in order to provide a high degree of automated diagnostic support. In this context, we study in this article the problem of internal combustion engine misfires, which constitute a class of automotive faults known to be difficult to diagnose, and present a combination classifier that has excellent performance in classifying the various root causes of misfire faults. We first obtained real-life data and built a database consisting of 2,299 time instances of actual misfire and misfire-free cases. Fault data were captured on several different vehicle makes and models, with each misfire fault belonging to one of three different categories (air-intake, coil-ignition, and fuel-injection), further subdivided into a total of seven subcategories.
Journal Article

Coordination Control Strategy for Mode Switching of a Parallel Hybrid Electric System Based on Continuously Variable Transmission

Abstract This study aims to solve the problem of impact in a parallel hybrid electric system based on the continuously variable transmission (CVT) during switching from pure electric mode to engine-driven, power-generating mode. Taking into account the torque response characteristics of the engine and motor and the dynamic characteristics of the wet clutch hydraulic control system, the mode switching process is divided into six stages, namely, pure electric mode, wet-clutch free travel, engine start-up, engine speed synchronization, clutch combination, and engine intervention drive. A coordination control strategy is developed based on the model predictive control algorithm to ensure smooth mode switching. The effectiveness of the control algorithm is verified using Matlab/Simulink and the AMESim co-simulation platform. Results show that with the mode switching coordination control strategy, the components of the system work harmoniously.