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Journal Article

A Review on Physical Mechanisms of Tire-Pavement Interaction Noise

Abstract Tire-pavement interaction noise (TPIN) dominates for passenger cars above 40 km/h and trucks above 70 km/h. Numerous studies have attempted to uncover and distinguish the basic mechanisms of TPIN. However, intense debate is still ongoing about the validity of these mechanisms. In this work, the physical mechanisms proposed in the literature were reviewed and divided into three categories: generation mechanisms, amplification mechanisms, and attenuation mechanisms. The purpose of this article is to gather the published general opinions for further open discussions.
Journal Article

Intelligent Transportation System Security: Hacked Message Signs

Abstract “It cannot happen to us” is one of many common myths regarding cybersecurity in the transportation industry. The traditional view that the threats to transportation are low probability and low impact keep agencies from mitigating security threats to transportation critical infrastructure. Current transportation systems depend on closed proprietary systems, which are enhanced by connected cyber-physical systems. Variable Message Signs (VMS) deliver advisory information to road users to ensure safe and efficient trips. Since the first VMS physical hacking more than a decade ago, the importance of VMS security has been a pressing one. VMS hacks can include physical and remote breaches due to the weak protection of the signs and cyber-physical systems.
Journal Article

Impact of Dynamic Characteristics of Wheel-Rail Coupling on Rail Corrugation

Abstract To gain a better understanding of the characteristics of corrugation, including the development and propagation of corrugation, and impact of vehicle and track dynamics, a computational model was established, taking into account the nonlinearity of vehicle-track coupling. The model assumes a fixed train speed of 300 km/h and accounts for vertical interaction force components and rail wear effect. Site measurements were used to validate the numerical model. Computational results show that (1) Wheel polygonalisation corresponding to excitation frequency of 545-572 Hz was mainly attributed to track irregularity and uneven stiffness of under-rail supports, which in turn leads to vibration modes of the bogie and axle system in the frequency range of 500-600 Hz, aggregating wheel wear. (2) The peak response frequency of rail of the non-ballasted track coincides with the excitation frequency of wheel-rail coupling; the resonance results in larger wear amplitude of the rail.
Journal Article

Detection Method for Cavity Defects in Ballastless Track Structures of High-Speed Railways Based on Air-Coupled Ultrasonic Lamb Waves

Abstract This study proposes a method for the rapid detection and location of cavity defects in ballastless track structures of high-speed railways in service. First, the propagation law of air-coupled ultrasonic Lamb waves in the ballastless track structure is studied. Theoretical calculation results show that the ultrasonic Lamb wave group velocity of the A2 mode in the track plate is 4000 m/s. Then, the excitation and reception methods of the air-coupled ultrasound are studied. Theoretical and experimental results show that the A2 mode Lamb wave can be generated by the 3.8° oblique incidence of the ballastless track structure. Finally, an experimental system for air-coupled ultrasonic testing is constructed. A pair of air-coupled ultrasonic probes is used to provide excitation and reception Lamb wave signals at an inclined angle of 3.8°, 20 mm away from the surface of the track plate, and 40 mm/step along the scanning direction.
Journal Article

Localization Requirements for Autonomous Vehicles

Abstract Autonomous vehicles require precise knowledge of their position and orientation in all weather and traffic conditions for path planning, perception, control, and general safe operation. Here we derive these requirements for autonomous vehicles based on first principles. We begin with the safety integrity level, defining the allowable probability of failure per hour of operation based on desired improvements on road safety today. This draws comparisons with the localization integrity levels required in aviation and rail where similar numbers are derived at 10−8 probability of failure per hour of operation. We then define the geometry of the problem where the aim is to maintain knowledge that the vehicle is within its lane and to determine what road level it is on.
Journal Article

A Review of Sensor Technologies for Automotive Fuel Economy Benefits

Abstract This article is a review of automobile sensor technologies that have the potential to enhance fuel economy. Based on an in-depth review of the literature and demonstration projects, the following sensor technologies were selected for evaluation: vehicular radar systems (VRS), camera systems (CS), and vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) systems. V2V and V2I systems were found to have the highest merit in improving fuel economy over a wide range of integration strategies, with fuel economy improvements ranging from 5 to 20% with V2V and 10 to 25% for V2I. However, V2V and V2I systems require significant adoption for practical application which is not expected in this decade. Numerous academic studies and contemporary vehicular safety systems attest VRS as more technologically mature and robust relative to other sensors. However, VRS offers less fuel economy enhancement (~14%).
Journal Article

A Wind-Tunnel Investigation of the Influence of Separation Distance, Lateral Stagger, and Trailer Configuration on the Drag-Reduction Potential of a Two-Truck Platoon

Abstract A wind-tunnel study was undertaken to investigate the drag reduction potential of two-truck platooning, in the context of understanding some of the factors that may influence the potential fuel savings and greenhouse-gas reductions. Testing was undertaken in the National Research Council Canada 2 m × 3 m Wind Tunnel with two 1/15-scale models of modern aerodynamic tractors paired with dry-van trailers configured with and without combinations of side-skirts and boat-tails. Separation distances of 0.14, 0.28, 0.49, 0.70 and 1.04 vehicle lengths were tested (3 m, 6 m, 10.5 m, 15 m, and 22.5 m full scale). Additionally, within-lane lateral offsets up to 0.31 vehicle widths (0.8 m full scale) were evaluated, along with a full-lane offset of 1.42 vehicle widths (3.7 m full scale). This study has made use of a wind-averaged-drag coefficient as the primary metric for evaluating the effect of vehicle platooning.
Journal Article

Flow Analysis between Two Bluff Bodies in a Close Distance Platooning Configuration

Abstract This article analyses the flow field between two 1/8-scale Generalized European Transport System (GETS) models which are placed in a two-vehicle platoon at close distances. Numerical simulations using the lattice Boltzmann method together with a wind tunnel experiment (open jet facility, OJF) were executed. Next, to balance measurements, coaxial volumetric velocimetry (CVV) measurements were performed to obtain information about the flow field. Three intervehicle distances, 0.10, 0.45 and 0.91 times the vehicle length, were tested for various platoon configurations where the vehicles in the platoon varied in terms of front-edge radius and the addition of tails. At the smallest intervehicle distance, the greatest reductions in drag were found for both the leading and trailing vehicles. The flow in the gap between the two vehicles follows an S-shaped path with small variations between the configurations.
Journal Article

Performance Margin for Geometric Road Design

Abstract Although several methods exist for measuring the performance capability of a vehicle, many require detailed knowledge of the forces acting at each tire contact patch or do not account for both the vehicle dynamics and the road geometry. A simple vehicle model is proposed to estimate the upper limit of performance capability for a given operating condition (the Performance Envelope) based on the Effective Friction and the road geometry (slope and cross-slope). The Effective Friction accounts for both the vehicle dynamics and road surface properties and is estimated, through simulation or experimentation, using two standard vehicle dynamics tests: constant radius cornering and straight-line braking. The Performance Margin is defined as the additional performance capability available before the vehicle reaches the Performance Envelope, both represented in the intuitive units of gravity.
Journal Article

Windshield Glare from Bus Interiors: Potential Impact on City Transit Drivers at Night

Abstract Windshield glare at night is a safety concern for all drivers. Public transit bus drivers also face another concern about glare caused by interior lighting sources originally designed for passenger safety. The extent to which interior light reflections contribute to glare is unknown. Unique methods for measuring discomfort and disability glare during bus driving were developed. An initial simulation study measured windshield luminance inside of a New Flyer D40LF diesel bus parked in a controlled, artificial, totally darkened test environment. Findings indicated significant disability glare (from elevated luminance) in the drivers’ primary field of view due to interior reflections. Any reduction in contrast would result in less prominent glare if actual driving conditions differ. To assess this, levels of windshield glare were also measured with the bus parked on the roadside under the “background glow” of the urban environment.
Journal Article

A Novel Metaheuristic for Adaptive Signal Timing Optimization Considering Emergency Vehicle Preemption and Tram Priority

Abstract In this article, a novel hybrid metaheuristic based on passing vehicle search (PVS) cultural algorithm (CA) is proposed. This contribution has a twofold aim: First is to present the new hybrid PVS-CA. Second is to prove the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm for adaptive signal timing optimization. For this, a system that can adapt efficiently to the real-time traffic situation based on priority signal control is developed. Hence, Transit Signal Priority (TSP) techniques have been used to adjust signal phasing in order to serve emergency vehicles (EVs) and manage the tram priority in a coordinated tram intersection. The system used in this study provides cyclic signal operation based on a real-time control approach, including an optimization process and a database to manage the sensor data from detectors for real-time predictions of EV and tram arrival time.
Journal Article

A Review on Electromagnetic Sheet Metal Forming of Continuum Sheet Metals

Abstract Electromagnetic forming (EMF) is a high-speed impulse forming process developed during the 1950s and 1960s to acquire shapes from sheet metal that could not be obtained using conventional forming techniques. In order to attain required deformation, EMF process applies high Lorentz force for a very short duration of time. Due to the ability to form aluminum and other low-formability materials, the use of EMF of sheet metal for automobile parts has been rising in recent years. This review gives an inclusive survey of historical progress in EMF of continuum sheet metals. Also, the EMF is reviewed based on analytical approach, finite element method (FEM) simulation-based approach and experimental approach, on formability of the metals.
Journal Article

Automated Guided Vehicles for Small Manufacturing Enterprises: A Review

Abstract Automated guided vehicle systems (AGVS) are the prominent one in modern material handling systems used in small manufacturing enterprises (SMEs) due to their exciting features and benefits. This article pinpoints the need of AGVS in SMEs by describing the material handling selection in SMEs and enlightening recent technological developments and approaches of the AGVS. Additionally, it summarizes the analytical and simulation-based tools utilized in design problems of AGVS along with the influence of material handling management and key hurdles of AGVS. The current study provides a limelight towards making smart automated guided vehicles (AGVs) with the simplified and proper routing system and favorable materials and more importantly reducing the cost and increasing the flexibility.
Journal Article

Recent Development in Friction Stir Welding Process: A Review

Abstract The Friction stir welding (FSW) is recently presented so to join different materials without the melting process as a solid-state joining technique. A widely application for the FSW process is recently developed in automotive industries. To create the welded components by using the FSW, the plunged probe and shoulder as welding tools are used. The Finite Element Method (FEM) can be used so to simulate and analyze material flow during the FSW process. As a result, thermal and mechanical stresses on the workpiece and welding tool can be analyzed and decreased. Effects of the welding process parameters such as tool rotational speed, welding speed, tool tilt angle, depth of the welding tool, and tool shoulder diameter can be analyzed and optimized so to increase the efficiency of the production process. Material characteristics of welded parts such as hardness or grain size can be analyzed so to increase the quality of part production.
Journal Article

Development of an Overall Vehicle Sizing and Packaging Tool for Autonomous Electric Buses in the Early Concept Phase

Abstract The demand for autonomous electric public transport is increasing globally. The operational requirement of these autonomous vehicles differs widely. Hence, there is an increase in the demand for different vehicle sizes and configurations. This has led to a number of methods and improvements in the vehicle package development process. This article presents the development of a holistic parametric packaging tool for autonomous vehicles called Autonomous Electric Vehicle Tool (AEV tool). The tool is designed with MATLAB, and via a Graphical User Interface (GUI), the user can input parameter data, which directly adjusts a parametric Computer-Aided Design (CAD) model developed with CATIA software. The overall vehicle dimensions, as well as the size of single components, can be changed, and different topology configurations can be chosen.
Journal Article

Updating the Grade Severity Rating System (GSRS) for Wyoming Mountain Passes: A Description of Tests and Results

Abstract Truck crashes on Wyoming mountain passes due to brake heating has been a long-standing issue due to the steep downgrades that characterize some routes in the state. The grade severity rating system (GSRS) developed by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) to recommend maximum safe speeds has been identified as a viable countermeasure to reducing the incidence of downgrade truck crashes. However, several decades have passed since the GSRS was developed. In the decades since its development, truck features have undergone radical changes in terms of design. The streamlined design of tractors and trailers, use of drag reduction devices, changes in engine features, and adoption of radial tires have led to a reduction in the non-brake forces that retard motion. Truck brakes have also changed along with retarder characteristics. This has meant that maximum safe speeds recommended by the GSRS have been conservative.
Journal Article

Control Performance of Damping and Air Spring of Heavy Truck Air Suspension System with Optimal Fuzzy Control

Abstract The air suspension system of heavy trucks not only improves the vehicle’s ride comfort but also reduces the negative impact on the road surface. In order to evaluate the performance of the control damping (CD) and the control air spring (CAS) of the vehicle air suspension system on the ride comfort and the road friendliness, a three-dimensional (3D) nonlinear dynamic model with 14 degrees of freedom (DOF) of the heavy trucks and optimal fuzzy control (OFC) with control rules optimized by the genetic algorithm (GA) are proposed in this study. The root mean square (RMS) acceleration response of the tractor and the dynamic load coefficient (DLC) at the wheel axles are chosen as objective functions under the various operating conditions. Contrastive analysis of the RMS and DLC values with the passive (P), CD, and CAS methods of the air suspension system is carried out respectively.
Journal Article

Research on Control Target of Truck Platoon Based on Maximizing Fuel Saving Rate

Abstract In view of the traditional constant spacing policy (CSP) can’t maximize the fuel saving rate of the truck platoon when choosing the smaller desired vehicle spacing as the control target, a new control strategy is proposed in this article. This strategy dramatically reduces the fuel consumption of the truck platoon from the start to the formation of a stable platoon, thus greatly increasing the fuel saving rate of the platoon. To prove the effectiveness of the strategy, this article carried out the longitudinal dynamics modeling of the truck and the modeling of the fuel consumption model of engine first. Longitudinal dynamics modeling establishes the dynamic equations for truck braking and nonbraking. The fuel consumption model of engine is built using a three-dimensional map. Second, the design of the controller is described. The controller calculates the desired acceleration of the following vehicle based on the speed error and the following distance error.
Journal Article

Data-Driven Modeling of Hybrid Vehicle Vibration on Roads with Low Surface Friction

Abstract This research aimed to develop a principle model with the goal of clarifying the mechanism of vibration generated in a hybrid vehicle braking on a road with partially low surface friction. One conventional analysis method involves the application of detailed CAE models that enable the implementation of precise analysis. However, issues of this method include complexity and the time required to measure the characteristics (such as stiffness) of various components. In contrast, another conventional method is to apply simple models. Although the simplicity of these models facilitates the fitting of model parameters with experimental data, such models cannot always express the necessary mechanism and it is unknown which degrees of freedom should be considered. To help resolve these issues, this article applies an experiment-based method for hybrid vehicles that adopt a different approach to these conventional methods.
Journal Article

Theoretical Development of Localized Pseudo Damage

Abstract Damage is accumulated by vehicles as they travel. Current damage methods allow for the total accumulated damage to be identified; however, they do not allow for identification of the road segments that induce the largest component of the damage. The objective of this article is to develop a measure, Localized Pseudo Damage (LPD), which defines the amount of damage each individual road excitation contributes to the total accumulated pseudo damage. A novel theoretical development of LPD along with analytical and discrete simulation analyses is presented. The results show that the LPD is causal and correctly identifies the location and magnitude of damaging events. This is further demonstrated with the application of the method on a real road surface.