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Journal Article

Fracture-Splitting Processing Performance Study and Comparison of the C70S6 and 36MnVS4 Connecting Rods

2018-08-08
Abstract 36MnVS4 is a new connecting-rod fracture-splitting material. To explore why it has a high fracture- splitting defective index, this article simulated the fracture-splitting process of connecting rods. Comparing 36MnVS4 with C70S6, this article analyzed the stress-strain state of the groove roots, the position of crack initiation, the plastic deformation distribution of the fracture surface, and the splitting force changes in fracture splitting process. Results show that the crack initiation position of the 36MnVS4 connecting rod is relatively more scattered and random, and the crack starting point of the C70S6 connecting rod is more unique. Compared with the C70S6 connecting rod, the 36MnVS4 connecting rod has an earlier crack initiation time and smaller fracture-splitting force. Therefore, the 36MnVS4 has higher gap sensitivity and its fracture surface is more prone to tear.
Journal Article

Numerical Prediction of Various Failure Modes in Spotweld Steel Material

2018-05-11
Abstract Crash simulation is targeted mainly carried out by the collision regulations FMVSS simulation to identify problems in vehicle structures. A modern car structure consist of several thousand weld-type connections, and failure in these connections plays an important role for the crashworthiness of the vehicle. Therefore accurate modeling of these connections is important for the automotive industry in order to improve Vehicle collision characteristics. In pursuit of this key requirement, we introduced a proper methodology for the development detailed weld model to study structural response of the weld when the applied load range is beyond the yield strength. Three-dimensional finite element (FE) models of spot welded joints are developed using the LS-Dyna FE code. In this process the force estimation model of spot welds is explained. The results from this paper shows good agreement between the simulations and the tests.
Journal Article

Metallurgical Approach for Improving Life and Brinell Resistance in Wheel Hub Units

2017-09-17
Abstract Raceway Brinell damage is one major cause of wheel bearing (hub unit) noise during driving. Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) customers have asked continuously for its improvement to the wheel bearing supply base. Generally, raceway Brinelling in a wheel hub unit is a consequence of metallic yielding from high external loading in a severe environment usually involving a side impact to the wheel and tire. Thus, increasing the yielding strength of steel can lead to higher resistance to Brinell damage. Both the outer ring and hub based on Generation 3 (Gen. 3) wheel unit are typically manufactured using by AISI 1055 bearing quality steel (BQS); these components undergo controlled cooling to establish the core properties then case hardening via induction hardening (IH). This paper presents a modified grade of steel and its IH design that targets longer life and improves Brinell resistance developed by ILJIN AMRC (Advanced Materials Research Center).
Journal Article

Optimization of WEDM Cutting Parameters on Surface Roughness of 2379 Steel Using Taguchi Method

2018-04-07
Abstract Surface roughness is one of the important aspects in producing quality die. Wire Electrical Discharge Machine (WEDM) is commonly used in tool and die fabrication, since the die material is usually difficult to cut using traditional metal removal processes. Selection of optimal WEDM cutting parameters is crucial to obtain quality die finish. In this study, 2379 steel which equivalent to SKD 11 is selected as the die material. Four main WEDM cutting parameters, namely, pulse duration (A), pulse interval (B), servo voltage (C), ignition pulse current (D), were experimentally evaluated for both main cut and multiple trim cuts using Taguchi Method. Taguchi’s L9 orthogonal array is employed for experimental design and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used in recognizing levels of significance of WEDM cutting parameters.
Journal Article

Response of Austempering Heat Treatment on Microstructure and Mechanical Property in Different Zones of As-Welded Ductile Iron (DI)

2018-05-08
Abstract Sound ductile iron (DI) welded joints were performed using developed coated electrode and optimized welding parameters including post weld heat treatment (PWHT).Weldments consisting of weld metal, partially melted zone (PMZ), heat affected zone (HAZ) and base metal were austenitized at 900 °C for 2 hour and austempered at 300 °C and 350 °C for three different holding time (1.5 hour, 2 hour and 2.5 hour). In as-weld condition, microstructures of weld metal and PMZ show ledeburitic carbide and alloyed pearlite, but differ with their amount. Whereas microstructure of HAZ shows pearlite with some ledeburitic carbide and base metal shows only ferrite.
Journal Article

Investigation of Residual Stresses in Cold-Formed Steel Sections with Nonlinear Strain-Hardened Material Model

2018-09-17
Abstract In this article, forming residual stresses in cold-formed small-radius corner sections are analytically predicted with the consideration of the shift in the neutral axis and the nonlinear strain-hardened material model. The predicted forming stress results in the transverse direction show a trend of increased compressive residual stress in the outer surface and reduced tensile residual stress in the inner surface as the corner radius-to-thickness ratio increases in small-radius bends. In the longitudinal direction, there is no significant change in the residual stress values observed in the inner and outer surfaces with respect to an increase in corner radius-to-thickness ratios. But a considerable decrease in compressive residual stress and an increase in tensile stress values are observed in the midsection areas with an increase in the corner radius-to-thickness ratio.
Journal Article

Toward Material Efficient Vehicles: Ecodesign Recommendations Based on Metal Sustainability Assessments

2018-09-17
Abstract Current End-of-Life Vehicle (ELV) recycling processes are mainly based on mechanical separation techniques. These methods are designed to recycle those metals with the highest contribution in the vehicle weight such as steel, aluminum, and copper. However, a conventional vehicle uses around 50 different types of metals, some of them considered critical by the European Commission. The lack of specific recycling processes makes that these metals become downcycled in steel or aluminum or, in the worst case, end in landfills. With the aim to define several ecodesign recommendations from a raw material point of view, it is proposed to apply a thermodynamic methodology based on exergy analysis. This methodology uses an indicator called thermodynamic rarity to assess metal sustainability. It takes into account the quality of mineral commodities used in a vehicle as a function of their relative abundance in Nature and the energy intensity required to extract and process them.
Journal Article

Improving Hole Expansion Ratio by Parameter Adjustment in Abrasive Water Jet Operations for DP800

2018-09-17
Abstract The use of Abrasive Water Jet (AWJ) cutting technology can improve the edge stretchability in sheet metal forming. The advances in technology have allowed significant increases in working speeds and pressures, reducing the AWJ operation cost. The main objective of this work was to determine the effect of selected AWJ cutting parameters on the Hole Expansion Ratio (HER) for a DP800 (Dual-Phase) Advanced High-Strength Steel (AHSS) with s0 = 1.2 mm by using a fractional factorial design of experiments for the Hole Expansion Tests (HET). Additionally, the surface roughness and residual stresses were measured on the holes looking for a possible relation between them and the measured HER. A deep drawing quality steel DC06 with s0 = 1.0 mm was used for reference. The fracture occurrence was captured by high-speed cameras and by Acoustic Emissions (AE) in order to compare both methods.
Journal Article

Electrifying Long-Haul Freight-Part II: Assessment of the Battery Capacity

2019-01-25
Abstract Recently, electric heavy-duty tractor-trailers (EHDTTs) have assumed significance as they present an immediate solution to decarbonize the transportation sector. Hence, to illustrate the economic viability of electrifying the freight industry, a detailed numerical model to estimate the battery capacity for an EHDTT is proposed for a route between Washington, DC, to Knoxville, TN. This model incorporates the effects of the terrain, climate, vehicular forces, auxiliary loads, and payload in order to select the appropriate motor and optimize the battery capacity. Additionally, current and near-future battery chemistries are simulated in the model. Along with equations describing vehicular forces based on Newton’s second law of motion, the model utilizes the Hausmann and Depcik correlation to estimate the losses caused by the capacity offset of the batteries. Here, a Newton-Raphson iterative scheme determines the minimum battery capacity for the required state of charge.
Journal Article

Evaluation of Weldability and Mechanical Properties in Resistance Spot Welding of Ultrahigh-Strength TRIP1100 Steel

2018-12-14
Abstract To use steel in the automotive industry, it is essential to characterize its weldability and weldable current range. The resistance spot welding of ultrahigh-strength transformation-induced plasticity steel (TRIP1100 steel), which is a candidate for application in an autobody, is studied here. Identifying the weld lobe and the best welding parameters and studying the microstructure and mechanical properties of the spot welds of TRIP steel were done using metallurgical techniques, tensile-shear and cross-tension tests, and fractography and microhardness testing. A partial fracture analysis (stepwise tensile test) showed a crack initiated at the tip of the notch. The best range for welding current was found to be 10-12 kA. The diameter of the weld nugget increased up to 5√t; however, it was found that at least 15% increase in the diameter of the weld nugget can result in a more favorable failure. The ductility ratio was found to be less than 0.5 for ultrahigh-strength steel.
Journal Article

Parameter Sensitivity and Process Time Reduction for Friction Element Welding of 6061-T6 Aluminum to 1500 MPa Press-Hardened Steel

2018-12-14
Abstract Conventional fusion joining techniques pervasive in the automotive industry are unable to effectively join aluminum and steel. To solve this problem, a technique termed friction element welding (FEW) has been developed, which is able to join any nonferrous top sheet material to a base steel layer, independent of the base layer strength. FEW works on the same principles as friction welding, as a steel element is pushed and rotated against a nonferrous top sheet to create frictional energy which softens and flows the material around the fastener shaft and under the fastener head, exposing the steel below. The element then contacts the steel and bonds through traditional friction welding. FEW is a four-step process (penetration, cleaning, welding, compression), with two to four parameters (endload, spindle speed, displacement transition, time transition) controlling each step.
Journal Article

Low Cycle Fatigue and Ratcheting Behavior of SA333 Gr-6 Steel at 300°C Temperature

2019-01-23
Abstract The objective of this investigation is to study the cyclic deformation behavior of SA333 Gr-6 C-Mn steel at 300°C. Low cycle fatigue tests were carried out at total strain amplitude between ±0.35 and ±1.25% at a constant strain rate of 1 × 10−3 s−1. Ratcheting tests were conducted at a various combination of mean stress and stress amplitude at a constant stress rate of 115 MPa s−1. The material SA333 Gr-6 steel exhibits cyclic hardening throughout its fatigue life. The material shows non-Masing behavior and deviation (δσo ) from Masing behavior increase with an increase of strain amplitude. Ratcheting strain accumulation increases, whereas ratcheting life decreases with an increase in mean stress or stress amplitude. With an increase in mean stress and stress amplitude, ratcheting rate also increases. The material shows hardening characteristic due to dynamic strain aging (DSA) phenomena.
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