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Technical Paper

Speech processing for vehicles: What's next?

The human voice is and remains the best form of communication. Therefore, spoken language interfaces to computers are a topic that has engaged engineers and speech scientists since the fifties. Once limited to the realm of science fiction, speech technology has now passed the threshold of practicality. The commercial deployment of these systems has already begun, although the applications are still specialized for certain purposes. This paper presents a speech recognition system that is particularly suited for drivers and passengers in a vehicle environment. The first chapter is describing a typical system design of today. Tens of thousands of these units are already in use. Thereafter a future system design will be described, in which the voice control of a navigation system is the most challenging problem. Finally the papers shows as an outlook, what comes next after the future. In particular, distributed speech processing systems will be used based on client-server architecture.
Technical Paper

Development and Evaluation of a Human Lower Extremity Model

A finite element model of the human lower extremity has been developed in this study to simulate lower extremity behavior in frontal car crashes. Precise geometry of the human lower extremity and material properties of the hard and soft tissues were introduced to the model. The performance of the model was evaluated by comparing with dynamic loading test data using post mortem human subjects (PMHS). The comparison proved its ability to estimate dynamic responses of the human lower extremity. A study was conducted using the model to investigate possible factors of loading to the ankle and tibia. Force and moment were calculated with different time history profiles of footwell intrusion and pelvis motion. The results suggested that timing of maximum intrusion was important as well as its magnitude. It was also found that loading to the tibia could be affected not only by intrusion but also by pelvis motion.
Technical Paper

Parametric Modeling for Semi-trailer Tank Vehicle

This paper treats the study case of semi-trailer structures by using Finite Element Method (FEM). It has the main proposal to stablish an automatic procedure for model preparation, that means: meshing generation, design loads and constraints applications, for a family of semi-trailer from 15000 to 35000 dm3 capacity, automatically built by the computer program GERTAP with a very few user interference. For this reason, the program does not demand any FEM expertise so that engineers can focus main construction problems without excessive concerning about model theoretical characteristics and model mistakes. At present moment, we are able to develop static analysis, with use of equivalent accelerations, in order to compute weighting, braking and turning loads. Soon, in a very near future, we are going to apply dynamics analysis that will simulate the actual bad conditions of Brazilian roads, so that fatigue-cracking problems could be prevented in design stage.
White Paper

Rethinking the Way We Move Beyond COVID-19

As the world grapples to combat the spread of COVID-19, our city streets have nearly emptied. Unprecedented community mitigation interventions have been applied in efforts to “flatten the curve” and slow the transmission of the virus. Social distancing measures have dramatically altered our daily behavior; notably, in the ways we do or do not move. This report seeks to identify emerging trends in urban mobility and road safety in respect to COVID-19. This is followed by a discussion of how we could shape our mobility future as communities begin to reopen.
White Paper

IAASS-SSI-1700 Commercial Human-Rated System

This document establishes the safety requirements applied by the IAASS Space Safety Institute (SSI) for the safety certification of Commercial Human Rated Systems (CHS). This standard covers any human-rated system commercially developed and operated to perform suborbital, orbital, or interplanetary missions, including transport vehicles such as capsules or winged bodies, orbital stations, unmanned cargo transport vehicles intended to dock with crewed stations, bases, descent and ascent vehicles, and integrated systems (e.g., capsule on launcher). NOTE: The mandatory (i.e., shall) requirements in this standard are based on selected best practices from past and present governmental space programs.
Technical Paper

Monoplane or Biplane

AFTER pointing out that the rivalry between the monoplane and the biplane is of long standing, and that each must therefore have some advantages, the author proceeds to the consideration of the question at issue by comparing structural efficiency, aerodynamic characteristics, performance, and certain other features. In structural efficiency the biplane is considered superior both in strength-weight ratio and in rigidity, but the monoplane has the advantage of being better adapted to metal construction. In aerodynamic characteristics the monoplane has the advantage on the basis of wings of the same area and profile, but the lower lift-drag ratio and greater unit weight of the monoplane wing tend to reduce its superiority. World's records in performance are divided between the two types, and in speed the recent Schneider Cup races show the monoplane and the biplane to be about equal.
Technical Paper

Duralumin All-Metal Airplane Construction

PSYCHOLOGY of the public, as well as engineering structure and aerodynamics, is involved in commercial aviation. The public has confidence in metal. With quantity production in view, the author and his associates considered costs of production as related to quantity and also costs of maintenance at airports and in the field, and chose metal as the material of construction. Structural members are fashioned from sheet duralumin rather than from tubes and a type of construction was evolved that can be made with the minimum investment in tools, that is cheap to put together and that can be repaired with the smallest amount of equipment and labor. For compression loads, duralumin has a great deal more strength for a given weight than has steel. It cannot be used, however, for compression members in combination with steel in tension members because of the difference in coefficient of expansion.
Technical Paper

Methods of Building Metal Airplane Structures

USEFUL load-carrying capacity is a measure of the comparative value of two airplanes of the same size, having identical powerplants, speed, rate of climb and other flying characteristics. It seems to be feasible to combine in the same airplane both the greatest ability to carry useful load and the least cost of construction. Blanked and pressed metal work offers substantial advantage to the extent that parts, particularly sub-assemblies, can be made directly by machine in complete units ready to set in the final assembly. The author shows and describes the methods followed by his organization in forming the members, building the frames and assembling the units of metal aircraft. Trusses are blanked and the web members pressed to ¾-circle form. Dies for long members are variable in length by being made in pieces that can be removed or inserted as desired. Flanged-tube sections are employed for truss chords.
Technical Paper

Self-Energizing Brakes

THE theory and characteristics of brakes of the Steeldraulic system are set forth and their application in practice is explained. Self-energizing brakes are said to be desirable because they allow large clearances, low pedal-effort and frictional coefficient and, if properly designed, give a high degree of efficiency with smooth uniform action. To accomplish these results, the controls should deliver equal and accurate actuation to all brakes at all times, be designed to minimize the possibility of becoming inoperative on account of dirt and rust, require no servicing, be noiseless and of good appearance, and remain unaffected by climatic changes. Shoe design should allow very liberal limits and tolerances in wheel, axle and drum assemblies, without causing erratic brake-action or noises. The brake hook-up should follow the simplest line and use the least number of connecting links.