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Technical Paper

Comparisons of Computed and Measured Results of Combustion in a Diesel Engine

1998-02-23
980786
Results of computations of flows, sprays and combustion performed in an optically- accessible Diesel engine are presented. These computed results are compared with measured values of chamber pressure, liquid penetration, and soot distribution, deduced from flame luminosity photographs obtained in the engine at Sandia National Laboratories and reported in the literature. The computations were performed for two operating conditions representing low load and high load conditions as reported in the experimental work. The computed and measured peak pressures agree within 5% for both the low load and the high load conditions. The heat release rates derived from the computations are consistent with expectations for Diesel combustion with a premixed phase of heat release and then a diffusion phase. The computed soot distribution shows noticeable differences from the measured one.
Technical Paper

Free Gas Pulsation of a Helmholtz Resonator Attached to a Thin Muffler Element

1998-02-23
980281
Helmholtz resonator has been used in industry for a long time to reduce the noise from exhaust system in vehicle or machinery. Numerous investigations have been done in the past to study the effect of a Helmholtz resonator connected to a pipeline. A general procedure for the analysis of curved or flat, thin two dimensional gas cavities such as thin compressor or engine manifolds or so-called thin shell type muffler elements, which can efficiently utilize the limited space of hermetically sealed compressors or small engine compartments, has been developed by the authors, as long as the thickness of the cavities is substantially small compared to the shortest wavelength of interest. However, to the authors' knowledge, a Helmholtz resonator attached to a rectangular thin muffler element, which is similar to a refrigeration compressor muffler, has not been analyzed.
Technical Paper

The Computed Structure of a Combusting Transient Jet Under Diesel Conditions

1998-02-23
981071
Numerical computations of combusting transient jets are performed under diesel-like conditions. Discussions of the structure of such jets are presented from global and detailed points of view. From a global point of view, we show that the computed flame heights agree with deductions from theory and that integrated soot mass and heat release rates are consistent with expected trends. We present results of several paramaters which characterise the details of the jet structure. These are fuel mass fractions, temperature, heat release rates, soot and NO. Some of these parameters are compared with the structure of a combusting diesel spray as deduced from measurements and reported in the literature. The heat release rate contours show that the region of chemical reactions is confined to a thin sheet as expected for a diffusion flame. The soot contour plots appear to agree qualitatively with the experimental observations.
Journal Article

Fuel-Air Mixing Characteristics of DI Hydrogen Jets

2008-04-14
2008-01-1041
The following computational study examines the structure of sonic hydrogen jets using inlet conditions similar to those encountered in direct-injection hydrogen engines. Cases utilizing the same mass and momentum flux while varying exit-to-chamber pressure ratios have been investigated in a constant-volume computational domain. Furthermore, subsonic versus sonic structures have been compared using both hydrogen and ethylene fuel jets. Finally, the accuracy of scaling arguments to characterize an underexpanded jet by a subsonic “equivalent jet” has been assessed. It is shown that far downstream of the expansion region, the overall jet structure conforms to expectations for self-similarity in the far-field of subsonic jets. In the near-field, variations in fuel inlet-to-chamber pressure ratios are shown to influence the mixing properties of sonic hydrogen jets. In general, higher pressure ratios result in longer shock barrel length, though numerical resolution requirements increase.
Journal Article

Gerotor Pumps for Automotive Drivetrain Applications: A Multi Domain Simulation Approach

2011-09-13
2011-01-2272
This paper presents a simulation model for the analysis of internal gear ring pumps. The model follows a multi domain simulation approach comprising sub-models for parametric geometry generation, fluid dynamic simulation, numerical calculation of characteristic geometry data and CAD/FEM integration. The sub-models are interacting in different domains and relevant design and simulation parameters are accessible in a central, easy to handle graphical user interface. The potentials of the described tool are represented by simulation results for both steady state and transient pump operating conditions and by their correlation with measured data. Although the presented approach is suitable to all applications of gear ring pumps, a particular focus is given to hydraulic actuation systems used in automotive drivetrain applications.
Journal Article

Multi-objective Optimization Tool for Noise Reduction in Axial Piston Machines

2008-10-07
2008-01-2723
Noise generation in axial piston machines can be attributed to two main sources; fluid borne and structure borne. Any attempt towards noise reduction in axial piston machines should focus on simultaneous reduction of these two sources. A multi-parameter multi-objective optimization approach to design valve plates to reduce both sources of noise for pumps which operate in a wide range of operating conditions has been detailed in a previous work (Seeniraj and Ivantysynova, 2008). The focus of this paper is to explain the background and to demonstrate the functionality and usefulness of the methodology for pump design.
Technical Paper

Influence of Line Length Concerning Noise Source Generation in Hydrostatic Transmissions

2008-10-07
2008-01-2722
The objective of this work is to demonstrate the influence of line length concerning noise source generation using a coupled pump-motor-line model predicting superimposed pulsations of a hydrostatic transmission. This transmission model predicts superimposed flow pulsations throughout the connecting lines as well as oscillating forces dependant on system pressure variances; such oscillations are the primary sources of noise in hydrostatic transmissions which are known as FBN and SBN (Fluid Borne Noise and Structure Borne Noise), respectively. This study is a part of novel research where the prediction of superimposed noise sources considering interrelating dynamics of the pump/motor and connecting lines is accomplished and can potentially be used to develop noise source reduction strategies. An investigation considering the influence of line length demonstrates the potential to further reduce noise source generation in hydrostatic transmissions.
Technical Paper

Externally Electro-Pneumatically Shifting System (E.P.S) to Install on Manual Transmissions

2012-09-24
2012-01-1994
In this study, an Electro-pneumatic shifting system (E.P.S) has been designed to install on manual transmissions to make the selecting and shifting process faster and more reliable compared to manual systems. Shifting mechanism of a six speed gear box has been improved by using two tandem pneumatic cylinders, position sensors, pneumatic valves, and a controlling board based on AVR microcontroller. The central processing unit uses an electronic control system to provide the optimized operation of shift mechanism. This system can be easily adjusted in order to install externally on manual transmission systems without any changes on housing and transmission shift links.
Technical Paper

RANS and LES Study of Lift-Off Physics in Reacting Diesel Jets

2014-04-01
2014-01-1118
Accurate modeling of the transient structure of reacting diesel jets is important as transient features like autoignition, flame propagation, and flame stabilization have been shown to correlate with combustion efficiency and pollutant formation. In this work, results from Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations of flame lift-off in diesel jets are examined to provide insight into the lift-off physics. The large eddy simulation (LES) technique is also used to computationally model a lifted jet flame at conditions representative of those encountered in diesel engines. An unsteady flamelet progress variable (UFPV) model is used as the turbulent combustion model in both RANS simulations and LES. In the model, a look-up table of reaction source terms is generated as a function of mixture fraction Z, stoichiometric scalar dissipation rate Xst, and progress variable Cst by solving the unsteady flamelet equations.
Journal Article

Perception of Diesel Engine Gear Rattle Noise

2015-06-15
2015-01-2333
Component sound quality is an important factor in the design of competitive diesel engines. One component noise that causes complaints is the gear rattle that originates in the front-of-engine gear train which drives the fuel pump and other accessories. The rattle is caused by repeated tooth impacts resulting from fluctuations in differential torsional acceleration of the driving gears. These impacts generate a broadband, impulsive noise that is often perceived as annoying. In most previous work, the overall sound quality of diesel engines has been considered without specifically focusing on predicting the perception of gear rattle. Gear rattle level has been quantified based on angular acceleration measurements, but those measurements can be difficult to perform. Here, the emphasis was on developing a metric based on subjective testing of the perception of gear rattle.
Technical Paper

A Transfer Path Approach for Experimentally Determining the Noise Impact of Hydraulic Components

2015-09-29
2015-01-2854
This work contributes to the overall goal of identifying and reducing noise sources and propagation in hydraulic systems. This is a general problem and a primary design concern for all fluid power applications. The need for new methods for identification of noise sources and transmission is evident in order to direct future modeling and experimental efforts aimed at reducing noise emissions of current fluid power machines. In this paper, this goal is accomplished through the formulation of noise functions used to identify contributions and transfer paths from different components of the system. An experimental method for noise transfer path analysis was developed and tested on a simple hydraulic system composed of a reference external gear pump, attached lines, and loading valve. Pressure oscillations in the working fluid are measured at the outlet of the pump. Surface vibrations are measured at multiple locations on the pump and connected system.
Technical Paper

Designing a High Voltage Energy Storage System for a Parallel-Through-The-Road Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2013-04-08
2013-01-0557
A parallel-through-the-road (PTTR) plug-in hybrid electric vehicle is being created by modifying a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu. This is being accomplished by replacing the stock 2.4L gasoline engine which powers the front wheels of the vehicle with a 1.7L diesel engine and by placing a high voltage electric motor in the rear of the vehicle to power the rear wheels. In order to meet the high voltage needs of the vehicle created by the PTTR hybrid architecture, an energy storage system (ESS) will need to be created. This paper explains considerations, such as location, structure integrity, and cooling, which are needed in order to properly design an ESS.
Technical Paper

Key Outcomes of Year One of EcoCAR 2: Plugging in to the Future

2013-04-08
2013-01-0554
EcoCAR 2: Plugging In to the Future (EcoCAR) is North America's premier collegiate automotive engineering competition, challenging students with systems-level advanced powertrain design and integration. The three-year Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition (AVTC) series is organized by Argonne National Laboratory, headline sponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) and General Motors (GM), and sponsored by more than 28 industry and government leaders. Fifteen university teams from across North America are challenged to reduce the environmental impact of a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu by redesigning the vehicle powertrain without compromising performance, safety, or consumer acceptability. During the three-year program, EcoCAR teams follow a real-world Vehicle Development Process (VDP) modeled after GM's own VDP. The VDP serves as a roadmap for the engineering process of designing, building and refining advanced technology vehicles.
Technical Paper

Real-Time On-Board Indirect Light-Off Temperature Estimation as a Detection Technique of Diesel Oxidation Catalyst Effectiveness Level

2013-04-08
2013-01-1517
The latest US emission regulations require dramatic reductions in Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) emissions from vehicular diesel engines. Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) is the current technology that achieves NOx reductions of up to 90%. It is typically mounted downstream of the existing after-treatment system, i.e., after the Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) and Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF). Accurate prediction of input NO₂:NO ratio is useful for control of SCR urea injection to reduce NOx output and NH₃ slippage downstream of the SCR catalyst. Most oxidation of NO to NO₂ occurs in the DOC since its main function is to oxidize emission constituents. The DOC thus determines the NO₂:NO ratio as feedgas to the SCR catalyst. The prediction of NO₂:NO ratio varies as the catalyst in the DOC ages or deteriorates due to poisoning. Thus, the DOC prediction model has to take into account the correlation of DOC conversion effectiveness and the aging of the catalyst.
Journal Article

The Application of Singular Value Decomposition to Determine the Sources of Far Field Diesel Engine Noise

2013-05-13
2013-01-1974
The identification of the dominant noise sources in diesel engines and the assessment of their contribution to far-field noise is a process that can involve both fired and motored testing. In the present work, the cross-spectral densities of signals from cylinder pressure transducers, accelerometers mounted on the engine surface, and microphones (in the near and far fields), were used to identify dominant noise sources and estimate the transfer paths from the various “inputs” (i.e., the cylinder pressures, the accelerometers and the near field microphones) to the far field microphones. The method is based on singular value decomposition of the input cross-spectral matrix to relate the input measurements to independent virtual sources. The frequencies at which a particular input is strongly affected by an independent source are highlighted, and with knowledge of transducer locations, inferences can be drawn as to possible noise source mechanisms.
Technical Paper

Development of a SIL, HIL and Vehicle Test-Bench for Model-Based Design and Validation of Hybrid Powertrain Control Strategies

2014-04-01
2014-01-1906
Hybrid powertrains with multiple sources of power have generated new control challenges in the automotive industry. Purdue University's participation in EcoCAR 2, an Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition managed by the Argonne National Laboratories and sponsored by GM and DOE, has provided an exciting opportunity to create a comprehensive test-bench for the development and validation of advanced hybrid powertrain control strategies. As one of 15 competing university teams, the Purdue EcoMakers are re-engineering a donated 2013 Chevrolet Malibu into a plug-in parallel- through-the-road hybrid-electric vehicle, to reduce its environmental impact without compromising performance, safety or consumer acceptability. This paper describes the Purdue team's control development process for the EcoCAR 2 competition.
Technical Paper

Recent Developments in a Novel Blended Hydraulic Hybrid Transmission

2014-09-30
2014-01-2399
A novel Blended Hydraulic Hybrid transmission architecture is presented in this paper with benefits over conventional designs. This novel configuration combines elements of a hydrostatic transmission, a parallel hybrid, and a selectively connectable high pressure accumulator using passive and actively controlled logic elements. Losses are reduced compared to existing series hybrid transmissions by enabling the units to operate efficiently at pressures below the current high pressure accumulator's pressure. A selective connection to the high pressure accumulator also allows for higher system precharge which increases regenerative braking torque and energy capture with little determent to system efficiency. Finally operating as a hydrostatic transmission increases transmission stiffness (i.e. driver response) and may improve driver feel in certain situations when compared to a conventional series hybrid transmission.
Technical Paper

Advanced Hydraulic Systems for Active Vibration Damping and Forklift Function to Improve Operator Comfort and Machine Productivity of Next Generation of Skid Steer Loaders

2016-09-27
2016-01-8116
Mobile Earth Moving Machinery like Skid-steer loaders have tight turning radius in limited spaces due to a short wheelbase which prevents the use of suspensions in these vehicles. The absence of a suspension system exposes the vehicle to ground vibrations of high magnitude and low frequency. Vibrations reduce operator comfort, productivity and life of components. Along with vibrations, the machine productivity is also hampered by material spillage which is caused by the tilting of the bucket due to the extension of the boom. The first part of the paper focuses on vibration damping. The chassis’ vibrations are reduced by the use of an active suspension element which is the hydraulic boom cylinder which is equivalent to a spring-damper. With this objective, a linear model for the skid steer loader is developed and a state feedback control law is implemented.
Technical Paper

Novel Mode-Switching Hydraulic Hybrid - A Study of the Architecture and Control

2016-09-27
2016-01-8111
With the need for improvement in the fuel economy along with reduction in emissions due to stringent regulations, powertrain hybridization has become the focal point of research for the automotive sector. Hydraulic hybrids have progressively gained acceptance due to their high power density and low component costs relative to their electric counterpart and many different architectures have been proposed and implemented on both on and off-highway applications. The most commonly used architecture is the series hybrid which offers great flexibility for implementation of power management strategies. But the direct connection of the high pressure accumulator to the system often results in operation of the hydraulic units in high pressure and low displacement mode. However, in this operating mode the hydraulic units are highly inefficient. Also, the accumulator renders the system highly compliant and makes the response of the transmission sluggish.
Journal Article

Prechamber Hot Jet Ignition of Ultra-Lean H2/Air Mixtures: Effect of Supersonic Jets and Combustion Instability

2016-04-05
2016-01-0795
An experiment has been developed to investigate the ignition characteristics of ultra-lean premixed H2/air mixtures by a supersonic hot jet. The hot jet is generated by combustion of a stoichiometric mixture in a small prechamber. The apparatus adopted a dual-chamber design in which a small-volume (1% of the main chamber by volume) prechamber was installed within a large-volume main chamber. A small orifice (nozzle) connects the two chambers. Spark initiated combustion inside the prechamber causes a pressure rise and pushes the gases though the nozzle, resulting in a hot jet that would ignite the lean mixture in the main chamber. Simultaneous high-speed Schlieren photography and OH* Chemiluminescence were applied to visualize the jet penetration and the ignition processes inside the main chamber. Hot Wire Pyrometry (HWP) was used to measure temperature distribution of the transient hot jet.
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