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Technical Paper

Estimation of Vehicle Tire-Road Contact Forces: A Comparison between Artificial Neural Network and Observed Theory Approaches

One of the principal goals of modern vehicle control systems is to ensure passenger safety during dangerous maneuvers. Their effectiveness relies on providing appropriate parameter inputs. Tire-road contact forces are among the most important because they provide helpful information that could be used to mitigate vehicle instabilities. Unfortunately, measuring these forces requires expensive instrumentation and is not suitable for commercial vehicles. Thus, accurately estimating them is a crucial task. In this work, two estimation approaches are compared, an observer method and a neural network learning technique. Both predict the lateral and longitudinal tire-road contact forces. The observer approach takes into account system nonlinearities and estimates the stochastic states by using an extended Kalman filter technique to perform data fusion based on the popular bicycle model.
Journal Article

Finite Element Modeling of Tire Transient Characteristics in Dynamic Maneuvers

Studying the kinetic and kinematics of the rim-tire combination is very important in full vehicle simulations, as well as for the tire design process. Tire maneuvers are either quasi-static, such as steady-state rolling, or dynamic, such as traction and braking. The rolling of the tire over obstacles and potholes and, more generally, over uneven roads are other examples of tire dynamic maneuvers. In the latter case, tire dynamic models are used for durability assessment of the vehicle chassis, and should be studied using high fidelity simulation models. In this study, a three-dimensional finite element model (FEM) has been developed using the commercial software package ABAQUS. The purpose of this study is to investigate the tire dynamic behavior in multiple case studies in which the transient characteristics are highly involved.
Technical Paper

Using Collocation to Propagate Uncertainties Through “Black-Box” Vehicle Models

This study developed and implemented an efficient computational method to propagate uncertainties through “black-box” models of mechanical systems. The system of interest was a wheel loader, but the methodology developed can be applied to various multibody systems. The technique implemented focused on efficiently modeling stochastic systems for which the equations of motion (EOMs) are not available. The analysis targeted the reaction forces in joints of interest. To validate the stochastic method proposed, it was implemented on a simple linkage mechanism modeled in two different ways: i) using differential algebraic equations (DAEs) coded in Matlab, and ii) using computer aided design (CAD) in ProMechanica (the so-called “black-box” model). A stochastic model of the simple mechanism was developed using a Monte Carlo approach and a linear/quadratic transformation method, to serve for benchmarking purposes.
Journal Article

A 3D Semi-Empirical On-Road Transient Tire Model

To realistically predict the dynamics of a vehicle, the forces and moments in the contact patch must be accurately computed. A two-dimensional semi-empirical transient tire model was previously developed in the Advanced Vehicle Dynamics Lab (AVDL) at Virginia Tech, and extended the capabilities of the steady-state tire model also developed at AVDL. In this paper, a three-dimensional semi-empirical transient tire model is presented. The tire structure is modeled by an elastic ring supported on a spring and damper system. The elastic ring represents the belt ring and the spring and damper system represents the sidewall and the tread element. The analysis of the deformation of the tire structure with camber angle is performed on a flat surface to obtain the geometry of the contact patch and the normal pressure distribution. The forces and the moments are formulated using empirical data and based on theoretical mechanics.
Journal Article

Experimental Determination of the Effect of Cargo Variations on Steering Stability

Mission demands for U.S. military tactical trucks require them to transport a broad array of cargo types, including intermodal containers. The wide range of mass properties associated with these diverse cargo requirements has resulted in potential for steering stability issues. The potential for steering stability issues largely originates from the high mobility characteristics of single-unit military tactical trucks relative to typical commercial cargo carriers. To quantify the influence of cargo variations on stability, vehicle dynamics experiments were conducted to obtain steering stability measurements for a tactical cargo truck hauling a broad range of rigid cargo loadings. The basic relationship for the understeer gradient measure of directional response behavior and observed data trends from the physical experiments were used to evaluate the relationship between the steering stability of the truck and the mass properties of the cargo.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Heavy Truck Ride Comfort and Stability

This paper presents a six degree of freedom full vehicle model simulating the testing of heavy truck suspensions to evaluate the ride comfort and stability using actual characteristics of gas charged single tube shock absorbers. The model is developed using one of the commercial multi-body dynamics software packages, ADAMS. The model incorporates all sources of compliance: stiffness and damping with linear and non-linear characteristics. The front and the rear springs and dampers representing the suspension system were attached between the axles and the vehicle body. The front and the rear axles were attached to a wheel spindle assembly, which in turn was attached to the irregular drum wheel, simulating the road profile irregularities. As a result of the drum rotation, sudden vertical movements were induced in the vehicle suspension, due to the bumps and rebounds, thus simulating the road profile.
Technical Paper

A Semi-Empirical Tire Model for Transient Maneuver of On Road Vehicle

To study vehicle dynamics, we need to know the forces and moments acting on the vehicle. The most important forces and moments acting on the vehicle are generated at the tire contact patch. A semi-empirical tire model was developed at Advanced Vehicle Dynamics Lab (AVDL) to use for vehicle simulations for steady-state conditions. In this paper, we extended that model to account for transient conditions. We present the basic concept, the development of the tire model, and selective simulation results. The transient tire model is developed by including the effects of the vertical load variations due to the velocity and the acceleration to the tire characteristic parameters. The simulation was performed for the semi-empirical transient tire model in two scenarios. The vehicle driving and braking maneuver was simulated to present the transient longitudinal tire behavior. The vehicle lane changing maneuver also was performed to present the transient lateral tire behavior.
Journal Article

Investigating the Parameterization of Dugoff Tire Model Using Experimental Tire-Ice Data

Tire modeling plays an important role in the development of an Active Vehicle Safety System. As part of a larger project that aims at developing an integrated chassis control system, this study investigates the performance of a 19” all-season tire on ice for a sport utility vehicle. A design of experiment has been formulated to quantify the effect of operational parameters, specifically: wheel slip, normal load, and inflation pressure on the tire tractive performance. The experimental work was conducted on the Terramechanics Rig in the Advanced Vehicle Dynamics Laboratory at Virginia Tech. The paper investigates an approach for the parameterization of the Dugoff tire model based on the experimental data collected. Compared to other models, this model is attractive in terms of its simplicity, low number of parameters, and easy implementation for real-time applications.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Ride Comfort and Stability Performance Evaluation

This paper presents a comprehensive testing of four different shock absorbers: three were passive and the other was readjust able to study their performance on vehicle ride and stability. For this purpose, a quarter vehicle model and a half vehicle model simulating vehicle suspension testing were devolved in non-dimensional form to study the effect of actual characteristics of shock absorbers on vehicle performance. The shock absorber characteristics were represented by the linear average value of shock absorber (both rebound and compression strokes), the linear rebound, and the compression strokes with different slopes and actual measurements characteristics. Also, a parametric study was carried out to study the effect of mass ratio and stiffness ratio on the vehicle performance. The mass ratio was defined as the ratio of the unsprung mass to the sprung mass while the stiffness ratio, was defined as the ratio of spring stiffness to tire stiffness.
Technical Paper

An Artificial Neural Network Model to Predict Tread Pattern-Related Tire Noise

Tire-pavement interaction noise (TPIN) is a dominant source for passenger cars and trucks above 40 km/h and 70 km/h, respectively. TPIN is mainly generated from the interaction between the tire and the pavement. In this paper, twenty-two passenger car radial (PCR) tires of the same size (16 in. radius) but with different tread patterns were tested on a non-porous asphalt pavement. For each tire, the noise data were collected using an on-board sound intensity (OBSI) system at five speeds in the range from 45 to 65 mph (from 72 to 105 km/h). The OBSI system used an optical sensor to record a once-per-revolution signal to monitor the vehicle speed. This signal was also used to perform order tracking analysis to break down the total tire noise into two components: tread pattern-related noise and non-tread pattern-related noise.
Journal Article

Tire Traction of Commercial Vehicles on Icy Roads

Safety and minimal transit time are vital during transportation of essential commodities and passengers, especially in winter conditions. Icy roads are the worst driving conditions with the least available friction, leaving valuable cargo and precious human lives at stake. The study investigates the available friction at the tire-ice interface due to changes in key operational parameters. Experimental analysis of tractive performance of tires on ice was carried out indoor, using the terramechanics rig located at the Advanced Vehicle Dynamics Laboratory (AVDL) at Virginia Tech. The friction-slip ratio curves obtained from indoor testing were inputted into TruckSIM, defining tire behavior for various ice scenarios and then simulating performance of trucks on ice. The shortcomings of simulations in considering the effects of all the operational parameters result in differences between findings of indoor testing and truck performance simulations.
Technical Paper

Study on the Effects of Rubber Compounds on Tire Performance on Ice

Mechanical and thermal properties of the rubber compounds of a tire play an important role in the overall performance of the tire when it is in contact with the terrain. Although there are many studies conducted on the properties of the rubber compounds of the tire to improve some of the tire characteristics such as the wear of the tread, there is a limited number of studies that focused on the performance of the tire when it is in contact with ice. This study is a part of a more comprehensive project looking into tire-ice performance and modeling. A significant part of this study is the experimental investigation of the effect of rubber compounds on tire performance in contact with ice. For this, four tires have been selected for testing. Three of them are completely identical in all tire parameters (such as tire dimensions), except for the rubber compounds. Several tests were conducted for the chosen tires in three modes: free rolling, braking, and traction.