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Technical Paper

Experimental Determination of the Noise Emitting Parts of a Rotating Tire in the European Research Project TINO

1999-05-17
1999-01-1732
One of the objectives in the European Research project TINO is to identify, in detail, the surfaces of a rotating tire which actually generate the radiated noise. The approach is completely experimental and is based upon the ASQ (Airborne Sound Quantification) technique. The quantification of the contribution of the different tire surfaces to the sound pressure measured under defined conditions is carried out through a process of near-field measurements during rotation of the tire and static acoustic transfer function measurements. The ASQ method is further developed and tested when focussing at the applications. In first instance, the procedure has been validated and fine-tuned under well-controlled boundary conditions at a tire chassis dynamometer. The results of this first investigation served also as a “reference” set of data which has been used for verification and validation of numerical tire models.
Technical Paper

Tire/Pavement Interaction Noise Source Identification Using Multi-Planar Nearfield Acoustical Holography

1999-05-17
1999-01-1733
In this study, multi-planar Nearfield Acoustical Holography (NAH) is used to investigate noise radiated from the front, side and rear areas of single tires on a two-wheel trailer. Contributions to the radiated noise from the leading edge, trailing edge, and sidewall of the tire are identified. Two tires - an experimental monopitch tire and a production passenger car tire - are evaluated on a smooth asphalt pavement at 58 km/hr. From the measured complex pressure, acoustic intensity is reconstructed on three planes surrounding the tire using modified NAH procedures. Additionally, sound power levels are presented in tabulated and spectra forms. Tire noise generating mechanisms are inferred based on the results.
Technical Paper

Soft Control – Utilizing Existing I/O

1999-05-10
1999-01-1623
The Timken Company's Faircrest Steel Plant has numerous automated control systems. The Raw Material Handling System and a grinder application on the Billet Conditioning system needed upgrading; however, to control costs the upgrades had to use the existing I/O. The overall functionality of these two systems is vastly different. Soft control packages proved capable of interfacing with the existing I/O, satisfied the functional needs of the systems, and enhanced the overall functionality of the systems.
Technical Paper

Investigation of a Roll Control System for an Off-road Vehicle

2000-05-01
2000-01-1646
The current popularity of the Sport Utility Vehicle (SUV) market has led to new developments aiming to increase product performance. Such vehicles pose a significant challenge as they must perform to a high standard over a large variety of road conditions. Previously, emphasis has been placed on off-road ability. However, SUVs are now seen as an alternative to conventional luxury cars, and hence are expected to perform similarly, but without significantly degrading off-road performance. The introduction of a roll control system can achieve body roll levels lower than a conventional sports saloon, whilst improving off-road ability by removing the compromises associated with conventional anti-roll bars. This paper investigates the characteristics of such a system by developing a computer simulation of the vehicle and the associated roll control scheme.
Technical Paper

Bosch ESP Systems: 5 Years of Experience

2000-05-15
2000-01-1633
Although the total number of car occupants involved in accidents in Germany has not significantly reduced during the past 10 years, the number of fatalities has steadily decreased. Most of the severe accidents result from a loss of control of the car. The problem of the driver losing control of his car will be explained. This problem is then used to formulate the goal for the vehicle dynamics control system ESP (Electronic Stability Program, also known as VDC). The approach chosen to reach this goal will then be shown. It will be shown that the vehicle slip angle is a crucial indicator for the maneuverability of the automobile. Since the complete vehicle state is not readily available, estimation algorithms are used to supply the control algorithms with sufficient information. With the automatic control of the slip angle the required yaw moment can be generated by individual wheel slip control.
Technical Paper

Design of Front Wheel Active Steering for Improved Vehicle Handling and Stability

2000-05-15
2000-01-1619
Active steering has received lot of attention in the recent years because of the development of vehicle stability control systems and intelligent vehicle highway systems. Active steering systems allow for correction of the steer angle to achieve the desired vehicle yaw gain. The proposed system can be easily integrated with the vehicle stability control systems that use braking to control the vehicle yaw gain. The paper describes the concept of front wheel active steering system and the design techniques involved in order to achieve the desired performance from the system. The design techniques demonstrated in the paper do not address noise (gear rattles, motor noise, gear whine etc), electromagnetic compatibility and thermal issues related to DC motor and digital controller.
Technical Paper

New Electronically-Controlled Trolling System for Marine Gear

1999-09-28
1999-01-3262
A marine gear is a reversible reduction gear provided in an inboard engine typically used as a propulsion unit for fishing boats. One of its functions is to provide “trolling speed” to make the boat go very slow. Some devices to attain the trolling speed is already available, in which hydraulic oil pressure for clutch coupling is mechanically controlled to achieve the boat's slow speed. However, conventional device is not satisfactory in view of performance and operational handiness. The new control system reported here resolves such problem by utilizing a solenoid to achieve optimal control over the hydraulic oil pressure. It assures easy handling, and provides the most desirable performance for a fishing boat to go dead slow. The system has an additional function to deal with another concern about a marine gear, that is, the rattling noise of the driving gear which often occurs while the engine is running in the low speed range.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Effects of Recirculated Exhaust Gas Upon NOx and Soot Emissions in Diesel Engines with Scrubber EGR System

1999-09-28
1999-01-3266
The effects of recirculated exhaust gas on the characteristics of NOx and soot emissions under a wide range of engine loads are experimentally investigated using a four-stroke, four-cylinder, indirect injection, water-cooled marine diesel engine operating at two engine speeds. The aim of this study is to develop the EGR control system for reducing NOx and soot emissions simultaneously in diesel engines. The EGR system is used to reduce NOx emissions. And a novel diesel soot-removal device with a cylinder-type scrubber for the experiment system is specially designed and manufactured to reduce soot contents in the recirculated exhaust gas to the intake system of the engine. It is found that NOx emissions decrease markedly, especially at higher loads, while soot emissions increase owing to the drop of intake and exhaust oxygen concentrations, and the rise of equivalence ratio as the EGR rate is elevated.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Sulfur Sensitivity and Reversibility in Late-Model Vehicles

1999-10-25
1999-01-3676
The emissions impact associated with increasing gasoline sulfur content was investigated using eight late-model vehicles, most of which were equipped with advanced emission control systems and certified as California Low-Emission Vehicles. The effect of returning to operation on low-sulfur fuel on emissions was also investigated. Vehicle testing was performed using California Phase 2 Certification test fuels with nominal sulfur levels of 40 and 540 ppm in combination with the LA4 and US06 driving cycles. In addition to exhaust emission measurements, engine-out emissions, air-fuel ratio, catalyst composition, and catalyst temperature data were collected. The data showed that most of the vehicles were sensitive to gasoline sulfur content as emissions increased when the vehicles were operated on the higher-sulfur test fuel; however, the degree of sensitivity varied from vehicle to vehicle.
Technical Paper

Effects of Catalyst Formulation on Vehicle Emissions With Respect to Gasoline Fuel Sulfur Level

1999-10-25
1999-01-3675
Proposed emissions standards will require that emissions control systems function at extremely high efficiency. Recently, studies have shown that elevated gasoline fuel sulfur levels (GFSL) can impair catalytic converter efficiency. In this study, a variety of tri-metal catalysts were evaluated to determine if formulation changes could reduce emissions sensitivity to GFSL. Catalysts with elemental composition similar to an OEM, but with double the precious metal (PM) loading, were evaluated using 38 and 620 ppm GFSL. Doubling the PM loading significantly reduced catalyst sensitivity to sulfur. Doubling the rhodium loading, at the expense of the platinum loading, significantly improved NOx emission sulfur sensitivity.
Technical Paper

A Strategy of On-board Fault Diagnosis of Automated Mechanical Transmission

2000-03-06
2000-01-1160
The paper introduces an on-board fault diagnosis strategy based on analytical redundancy suit for automated mechanical transmission (AMT). Through experiment and theory analysis an identified engine model, a gear box model and a dry clutch model controlled by hydraulic actuators are respectively established. The information redundancy in the local models of the power train and the structure logic relations among the assemblages is used to detect and diagnose the fault in the sensors, the actuators and the unit assemblages of the AMT system. The method has been used in the AMT control system developed for the SVWSANTANA2000.
Technical Paper

Transmission Clutch Pressure Control System: Modeling, Controller Development and Implementation

2000-03-06
2000-01-1149
This paper describes the modeling, controller development, and implementation of a transmission clutch pressure control system. A nonlinear analytical model for the clutch pressure control system is developed and implemented using Matlab/Simulink, and validated by experimental data. The dominant dynamics are identified via model analysis, and a linear model is derived for controller design. Openloop (feedforward) and closed loop (feedback) pressure control strategies are designed and implemented in a test setup. Experimental results show that the combined feedforward and feedback control gives superior performance as compared to feedforward control alone.
Technical Paper

Evaporative Leakage from Gas Caps

2000-03-06
2000-01-1171
The AirCare® vehicle emissions inspection and maintenance program is briefly described, together with the benefits which the program has already achieved. Additional benefits have been projected should the program include some more sophisticated assessment of evaporative emission control systems. The feasibility of including such an assessment has been investigated, and a pilot study has been conducted in the regular inspection lanes. The operational and systems implications are described. The pilot study has resulted in an analysis of the incidence of faulty gas caps in the Lower Fraser Valley light-duty vehicle fleet, and how this relates to other vehicle characteristics such as vehicle make, model, model year, mileage etc.; and inspection data including emission control system components tampering and tailpipe emissions. Approximately 10% of all gas caps tested failed the pressure test, compared to the 1% that were failed by visual inspection.
Technical Paper

Composability in the Time–Triggered Architecture

2000-03-06
2000-01-1382
The next generation of automotive control systems will consist of a set of networked electronic control units (ECUs) that operate in tight coordination to achieve the desired optimal control of the vehicle. The design of these systems must be guided by a composable system architecture that supports the constructive integration of the independently developed components. This paper discusses the four principles of composable architectures and shows how the interoperability of the ECUs is achieved in the time–triggered architecture.
Technical Paper

MOTRONIC - Torque Guided Engine Management Systems to Meet Future Challenges in Emissions and Fuel Consumption Reduction

2000-01-15
2000-01-1420
Due to the social and legal requirements on the engine and the entire vehicle the functional scope of modem Engine Management Systems (EMS) has dramatically grown. As driving forces of this ongoing process the reduction of fuel consumption and emissions have to be considered - in the past as well as in the future. But also increasing comfort and diagnosis demands lead to a further increasing complexity of today's and future EMS. In order to securely control this complexity a well structured functional architecture in combination with physically based functions forms the necessary basis. With the launch of the MOTRONIC ME7 Bosch introduced a torque based functional architecture to meet these requirements. This includes not only the mentioned optimization of engine performance and compliance with legal standards on emission, fuel consumption and diagnosis.
Technical Paper

Analysis and Development of Mechatronic Systems - New Approaches in Rotational and Torsional Vibration Analysis

2000-03-06
2000-01-1333
Rotational analysis plays an important role in many automotive engineering areas, such as design and evaluation of drivelines, timing and auxiliary drives. Previous developments have tended to focus on the analysis of the mechanical rotation system, with particular attention being paid to the dynamic behaviour of one or more rotating shafts and its elements. The control of these mechanisms by electronic control systems has become increasingly more apparent in today's industry. This is especially the case for the camshaft of the combustion engine, as this is ‘phased’ for performance and emission purposes. The approach introduced here enhances the classical methods of driveline rotational analysis, by integrating the control unit strategy as an additional point of interest. This expands the analysis of the complete mechatronic system.
Technical Paper

Overview of Diesel Emission Control-Sulfur Effects Program

2000-06-19
2000-01-1879
This paper describes the results of Phase 1 of the Diesel Emission Control - Sulfur Effects (DECSE) Program. The objective of the program is to determine the impact of fuel sulfur levels on emissions control systems that could be used to lower emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) from vehicles with diesel engines. The DECSE program has now issued four interim reports for its first phase, with conclusions about the effect of diesel sulfur level on PM and total hydrocarbon (THC) emissions from the high-temperature lean-NOx catalyst, the increase of engine-out sulfate emissions with higher sulfur fuel levels, the effect of sulfur content on NOx adsorber conversion efficiencies, and the effect of fuel sulfur content on diesel oxidation catalysts, causing increased PM emissions above engine-out emissions under certain operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Statistical Issues in the Evaluation of the Impact of Sulfur in Diesel Fuel on the Performance of Diesel Particulate Filter Emission Control Devices

2000-06-19
2000-01-1958
The Diesel Emission Control - Sulfur Effects (DECSE) program is a joint U.S. government/industry program that studies the impact of diesel sulfur levels on four types of emission control systems. One type of system, Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF), removes particulate matter (PM) from the exhaust stream by collection on a filter. The critical operating issue for DPF technology is the cleaning or regeneration of the control device (by oxidation of the collected PM) to prevent plugging. However, oxidation of sulfur in the exhaust forms sulfates, which are measured as PM. Two types of tests are conducted to evaluate the impacts of fuel sulfur on DPF performance: (1) emissions tests for PM components and gases, and (2) experiments to measure the effect of fuel sulfur on the regeneration temperature required by the filter devices.
Technical Paper

Emissions Characteristics of Diesel Vehicles Equipped With Particulate Filters and Using Fuel Additive For Regeneration

2000-06-19
2000-01-1925
Four vehicles were chosen to cover a range of engine technologies. These vehicles were fitted with diesel particulate filters (DPFs) of differing technology. Three of the vehicles have been driven on the road using an additised fuel to demonstrate totally passive operation of the DPF. As part of this programme all three vehicles underwent regulated emissions testing to demonstrate that there was no deterioration in emissions during the programme. Additionally a light commercial vehicle was tested to demonstrate the effect on emissions of the combination of additised fuel and the DPF. The performance of the DPFs during on-road use has already been reported; this paper therefore concentrates on discussion of the results of the emissions testing.
Technical Paper

Characterization of New Fuel Qualities

2000-06-19
2000-01-2009
Many standardized tests for evaluating fuel properties have originally been designed for screening straight-run hydrocarbon products. In the case of fuels blended with new components or treated with additives, the traditional test methods may give misleading results. The objective of the work was to evaluate the correlation between the results of standardized testing and of the real-life serviceability of new diesel fuel qualities. Combustion properties, properties affecting exhaust emissions, low-temperature performance and diesel fuel lubricity were studied. The test fuel matrix comprised of typical conventional hydrocarbon diesel fuels, low-emission hydrocarbon fuels, rapeseed and tall oil esters and ethanol-blended diesel fuels. The base fuels were blended with a cetane improver additive and some fuels also with a cold flow improver additive. Combustion and emission tests were carried out with a heavy-duty bus engine and a diesel passenger car.
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