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White Paper

Electric Flight Technology

2017-10-25
WP-0002
The environmental impact of hydrocarbon-burning aircraft, both from the perspective of gas emissions and that of noise, is one of the main motivations for the move to electric propulsion. The added benefit from this shift to electric propulsion is that it has resulted in lowering the costs of electrical components such as motors, power electronic (PE) circuits, and batteries that are essential to this technology. This white paper seeks to explore the history, architecture, electrical components, and future trends of electric flight technology.
Technical Paper

A Review of Fuel, Intake and Combustion System Deposit Issues Relevant to 4-Stroke Gasoline Direct Fuel Injection Engines

2001-03-05
2001-01-1202
The recent emergence of production Gasoline Direct Fuel Injection (GDFI) engines into the world markets offers the promise of both improved fuel economy and emissions for 4-stroke Spark Ignition (SI) engines. However with all new technologies there are new challenges that accompany them. The subjects of fuel and intake system and combustion chamber deposits in Port Fuel Injected (PFI) SI engines are well researched and documented. Today only a small amount of specific research exists for GDFI engines [1,2,3,4]. In any case, based on available PFI deposit literature it is possible to make a number of observations about the likely GDFI fuel and intake system deposit issues and their effect on fuel economy, exhaust emissions and performance during a lifetime of service.
Technical Paper

Development of New Concept Iridium Plug

2001-03-05
2001-01-1201
In the field of automotive gasoline engines, new products aiming at greater fuel economy and cleaner exhaust gases are under development with the aim of preventing environmental destruction. Severe ignition environments such as lean combustion, stronger charge motion, and large quantities of EGR require ever greater combustion stability. In an effort to meet these requirements, an iridium plug has been developed that achieves high ignitability and long service life through reduction of its diameter, using a highly wear-resistant iridium alloy as the center electrode.(1)(2) Recently, direct injection engines have attracted attention. In stratified combustion, a feature of the direct injection engine, the introduction of rich air-fuel mixtures in the vicinity of the plug ignition region tends to cause carbon fouling. This necessitates plug carbon fouling resistance.
Technical Paper

Intake-Valve Temperature Histories During S.I. Engine Warm-Up

2001-05-14
2001-01-1704
The present study is an experimental investigation on the influence of engine operational parameters on the temperature history of intake valves. During the initial stage of the warm-up process, the temperature history of the intake valve followed an exponential behavior with a time constant that ranged from about 23 to 39 s for the test conditions examined. In contrast, the temperature history of the coolant varied linearly with time suggesting that the net heat input to the coolant is roughly constant during the initial stage of the engine warm-up process. After the initial transient phase that lasted about one minute, the temperature rise of the intake valve was quasi-steady. During this latter period, the measured intake valve temperature was predicted by the steady-state temperature correlation developed in an earlier study.
Technical Paper

Validation of the EFEA Method through Correlation with Conventional FEA and SEA Results

2001-04-30
2001-01-1618
The Energy Finite Element Analysis(EFEA) is a recent development for high frequency vibro-acoustic analysis, and constitutes an evolution in the area of high frequency computations. The EFEA is a wave based approach, while the SEA is a modal based approach. In this paper the similarities in the theoretical development of the two methods are outlined. The main scope of this paper is to establish the validity of the EFEA by analyzing several complex structural-acoustic systems. The EFEA solutions are compared successfully to SEA results and to solutions obtained from extremely dense conventional FEA models.
Technical Paper

Design and Transient Simulation of Vehicle Air Conditioning Systems

2001-05-14
2001-01-1692
This paper describes the need for dynamic (transient) simulation of automotive air conditioning systems, the reasons why such simulations are challenging, and the applicability of a general purpose off-the-shelf thermohydraulic analyzer to answer such challenges. An overview of modeling methods for the basic components are presented, along with relevant approximations and their effect on speed and accuracy of the results.
Technical Paper

A Dynamometer for Automobile Brake Squeal Study

2001-04-30
2001-01-1599
Automobile brake squeal has been experimentally studied in many ways over the past 65 years. A large body of published research and a substantial amount of unpublished work have attempted to experimentally define the variables involved with and describe the system dynamics initiating the friction-induced self-excited vibration. Much of this work has centered on pin on disk type test rigs used to characterize the contact mechanics and/or friction laws without considering the brake system influence. This paper describes a dynamometer designed and constructed to study brake squeal on a system level.
Technical Paper

Frictional and Acoustic Behavior of Automotive Interior Polymeric Material Pairs Under Environmental Conditions

2001-04-30
2001-01-1550
As automotive manufacturers continue to increase their use of thermoplastics for interior and exterior components, there is a likelihood of squeaks due to material contacts. To address this issue, Ford's Body Chassis NVH Squeak and Rattle Prevention Engineering Department has developed a tester that can measure friction, and any accompanying audible sound, as a function of sliding velocity, normal load, surface roughness, and environmental factors. The Ford team has been using the tester to address manufacturing plant issues and to develop a database of polymeric material pairings that will be used as a guide for current and future designs to eliminate potential noise concerns. Based upon the database, along with a physical property analysis of the various plastic (viscoelastic) materials used in the interior, we are in the process of developing an analytical model which will be a tool to predict frictional behavior.
Technical Paper

Material Damping Properties: A Comparison of Laboratory Test Methods and the Relationship to In-Vehicle Performance

2001-04-30
2001-01-1466
This paper presents the damping effectiveness of free-layer damping materials through standard Oberst bar testing, solid plate excitation (RTC3) testing, and prediction through numerical schemes. The main objective is to compare damping results from various industry test methods to performance in an automotive body structure. Existing literature on laboratory and vehicle testing of free-layer viscoelastic damping materials has received significant attention in recent history. This has created considerable confusion regarding the appropriateness of different test methods to measure material properties for damping materials/treatments used in vehicles. The ability to use the material properties calculated in these tests in vehicle CAE models has not been extensively examined. Existing literature regarding theory and testing for different industry standard damping measurement techniques is discussed.
Technical Paper

Development of a High Strength Fin Stock Aluminium Alloy

2001-05-14
2001-01-1735
As part of the overall target in the automotive industry to decrease weight and production costs, the heat exchanger market has to develop more effective designs on an on-going basis. In turn this places demands on the material supplier to develop higher strength alloys, which enable down-gauging for lighter-weight structures, or the use of high pressure cycles, and/or an increased amount of fins for increased cooling efficiency. This increased performance must be achieved cost effectively and with brazing and corrosion performance equivalent to, or superior to, the existing material. In order to meet these demands Corus Aluminium has developed over the last few years new families of improved alloys for heat exchanger tubes and core plates, that are suitable for Vacuum and/or Controlled Atmosphere Brazing (CAB) [1]. To further complete this development a programme was started to develop a series of high strength alloys for the heat exchanger cooling fins.
Technical Paper

Diesel Particle Size Distribution: The Conversion Of Particle Number Size Distribution To Mass Distribution

2001-05-07
2001-01-1946
The ELPI particle size instrument measures the number of particles in 12 size ranges using a series of impaction stages. To convert the measurement of number to mass, the instrument assumes that all the particles are spheres and are of a constant density, defined by the user, but normally around 1000kg/m3. Both of these assumptions are incorrect for all size ranges and the resultant mass emissions for PM10 usually do not agree with standard filter paper measurements. This paper presents a review of the current situation of the knowledge on converting particle number into mass, using the ELPI or other particle size instruments. Andersen Impactors were used for gravimetric determinations of the mass in the sizes above 400nm, in order to compare their resullts with ELPI number measurements. Gravimetric determination of mass using the ELPI was also attempted. The sampling time with both instruments was two hours to collect enough mass to weigh in each size range.
Technical Paper

Challenges in Reforming Gasoline: All Components are Not Created Equal

2001-05-07
2001-01-1915
Gasoline is a complex fuel. Many of the constituents of gasoline that are beneficial for the internal combustion engine (ICE) are expected to be challenging for on-board reformers in fuel-cell vehicles. To address these issues, the autothermal reforming of gasoline and individual components of gasoline has been investigated. The results indicate that aromatic components require higher temperatures and longer contact times to reform than paraffinic components. Napthenic components require higher temperatures to reform, but can be reformed at higher space velocities than paraffinic components. The effects of sulfur are dependent on the catalyst. These results suggest that further evolution of gasoline could reduce the demands on the reformer and provide a better fuel for a fuel-cell vehicle.
Technical Paper

Transient Temperature Measurement of Gas Using Fiber Optic Heterodyne Interferometry

2001-05-07
2001-01-1922
A fiber optical heterodyne interferometry system was developed to obtain high temporal resolution temperature histories of unburned and burned gases non-intrusively. The effective optical path length of the test beam changes with the gas density and corresponding changes of the refractive index. Therefore, the temperature history of the gas can be determined from the pressure and phase shift of the interference signal. The resolution of the temperature measurement is approximately 0.5 K, and is dependent upon both the sampling clock speed of the A/D converter and the length of the test section. A polarization-preserving fiber is used to deliver the test beam to and from the test section, to improve the feasibility of the system as a sensor probe. This optical heterodyne interferometry system may also be used for other applications that require gas density and pressure measurements with a fast response time, or a transient temperature record.
Technical Paper

AUTOMOBILE BODY DESIGN

1920-01-01
200003
The author first considers the style and arrangement of the seats, the position of the rear axle as affecting the rear kick-up in the chassis frame, and the position of the rear wheels as determining the distance from the back of the front seat to a point where the curve of the rear fender cuts across the top edge of the chassis frame. The location of the driver's seat and of the steering-wheel are next considered, the discussion then passing to the requirements that affect the height of the body, the width of the rear seat, and the general shape. The evolution of the windshield is reviewed and present practice stated. Structural changes are then considered in relation to the artistic requirements, as regards the various effects obtained by varying the size or location of such details as windows, doors, moldings, panels, pillars, belt lines, etc., and the general lines necessary to produce an effect in keeping with the character of the car.
Technical Paper

BETTERING THE EFFICIENCY OF EXISTING ENGINES

1920-01-01
200005
First reviewing the history of the progressive insufficiency of the supply of highly volatile internal-combustion engine fuels and the early efforts made to overcome this by applying heat to produce rapid vaporization, the author gives an outline of the methods already found valuable in offsetting the rising boiling points of engine fuels and states the resulting three-fold problem now confronting the automotive industry. The tendency to subordinate efficient vaporization to the attainment of maximum volumetric efficiency is criticised at some length and the volatility of fuel is discussed in detail, with reference to characteristic distillation, time of evaporation and distillation-temperature curves which are analyzed. Heating devices are then divided into four classes and described, consideration then being given to fuel losses outside the engine.
Technical Paper

Development of mayday system

2000-06-12
2000-05-0381
In the event of an emergency situation or a roadside trouble, drivers need rapid help. But, in many cases, it takes too much time to get help, and it even results in a more fatal situation. Rapid response to run-off-the-road and other accidents can help reduce the number of resulting deaths. In many countries, mayday service was developed and commercialized to provide a call and dispatching service in an emergency situation. Daewoo Motor is developing a DreamNet™ system which uses technologies for real-time emergency call and dispatching. The DreamNet™ system is composed mainly of in-vehicle unit, communications system and DreamNet™ service center. The system can be operated by user''s request and also be activated by an external event such as accident, emergency and theft of the vehicle. It transmits the location and type of distress information of the vehicle to the DreamNet™ service center.
Technical Paper

Basic Considerations for the Concepts of Wheeled off-Road Vehicles

2000-06-12
2000-05-0387
The demand for greater mobility on unprepared terrain in all seasons by agriculture, construction, and the military has stimulated interest in the study of off-road vehicles. Thus the use of automobiles for cross-country movements and the potential for building more efficient automobiles and vehicles with high off-road mobility has also increased significantly. The engineers and designers of off-road vehicles face a lack of generally recognized theories. Usually, the concept of terrain vehicles are developed very empirically and are based on principles of mechanics and land locomotion. The author presents a general overview on models and considerations for wheeled off-road vehicle concepts. First vehicle and soil are defined, then the interaction between these two elements is discussed. Based on these models, methods to predict and measure traction of off-road vehicles are evaluated. The relevant elements of off-road vehicles and their influence on mobility are presented.
Technical Paper

Expressway speed limits: Germany is right, ECMT is tragically wrong

2000-06-12
2000-05-0362
Three years of research, and two papers, showing a strong correspondence between traffic fatality rates and the business cycle, have proven that, alcohol aside, the fundamental cause of traffic accidents is the mentally distracted driver. This paper is in four parts. A quick review of the discovery/development of the Driver''s Economic Distraction Indicator (DEDI - SAE 970280 on European expressways in the ''70s) and its application to all traffic fatalities in countries around the world (in F98S565). The DEDI is then updated to the ''90s while exploring: a) the use of M2 (as recommended by the American economist, Dr. Milton Friedman) instead of M1; b) OECD''S new Composite Leading Indicators; and c) the use of a locally available leading economic indicator (i.e., new vehicle sales) to give an early warning of a rise in local traffic accidents.
Technical Paper

The development of in-vehicle unit of advanced vehicle information and communication system

2000-06-12
2000-05-0370
This paper presents an in-vehicle information system, AVICS in development. With AVICS, the driver could get the various information on traffic, news, weather, restaurants, and so on, which the AVICS information center provides via mobile telecommunication network. The driver requests the information to operator in center by voice with hands-free system or by handling the menu offered in the form of web-page. The in-vehicle unit for AVICS is designed to interface with wireless network with a built-in RF MODEM, to control NAVI system, and to display the information on the LCD monitor of AV system. The Internet browser is customized to parse specific HTML tags, application software is realized on 32-bit RISC processor. In this paper, we will overview the concept of AVICS and focus on development of in-vehicle unit of AVICS.
Technical Paper

The aXcessaustralia hybrid electric project

2000-06-12
2000-05-0355
The first aXcessaustralia project was a conventionally powered car that displayed Australian innovation. The project demonstrated the practical, stylish, low-cost components that can be supplied by the Australian automotive components industry. Austalia, with one hundred years of automotive history, is one of very few countries that can style, design, engineer and construct complete cars, even though the domestic market is only around 700,000 vehicles. The new project provides the opportunity to show recent technology developments and build an exciting car. It provides useful information to the global automotive community that will help prepare the path towards affordable, less-polluting vehicles. The project demonstrates the emerging technologies and reinforces Australian industry''s position in the changing global market. The paper provides an overview of how this innovative approach was undertaken.
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