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Technical Paper

A Driving Simulator Using Microprocessors

1988-03-01
871156
An inexpensive driving simulation system with sufficient fidelity has been developed. The system produces motion cues of four degrees of freedom, visual and auditory cues, and control feel on the steering wheel. This paper describes the features of this newly developed system and gives examples that demonstrate its effectiveness. The motion cues provided in this system are yaw, heave, and lateral and fore/aft accelerations. The lateral and fore/aft accelerations are simulated by tilting the simulator compartment. A computer-processed road image is given through a CRT monitor. The restoring torque of the steering wheel is produced by an electrical servosystem via a coil spring. Cruising sound is given in order to improve speed perception. Since the system uses digital computers, the vehicle characteristics are altered easily by merely rewriting the software. This enables us to simulate special vehicle dynamics such as front & rear wheel steering.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Performance of Guideway Bus Steering Control System

1988-03-01
871231
In this paper a computer simulation study on the effects of steering parameters on lateral dynamics of the guideway bus to contribute to a development practice of designing optimum steering control system are dealt with. A stability limit of vehicle lateral motion is analyzed and an emphasis is laid on the effects of moment of inertia of a conventional steering wheel and lateral elasticity of the guide rail which have proven to reduce the critical vehicle speed. It is pointed out conclusively that a normal bus equipped with additional simple guidance equipments can be guided smoothly on a simple guideway at adequately high vehicle speed.
Technical Paper

Influence of the Dynamical Tyre Properties on the Motorcycle Driving Behaviour

1988-03-01
871227
The influence of the tyre properties on the driving behaviour of single-track vehicles has been measured by performing running tests with full-scale vehicles. The indoor dynamic tyre measurements using the sideslip angle as the input signal reveale that the sideforce and self-aligning moment characteristics are helpful explaining the measured driving behaviour. The obtained tyre parameters values and second order equations have been implemented in the simulation program ADINA-MOBSIP. This program is specially conceived for the simulation of the driving behaviour of single-track vehicles and is based on the finite element method.
Technical Paper

A Procedure for Evaluating Cycle Emissions from Raw Exhaust Gas Analyses

1988-03-01
871194
A procedure has been developed for evaluating equivalent drive cycle emission results from raw exhaust gas emissions data obtained from an engine under test on a computer controlled Vehicle Simulator Engine Dynamometer. The emitted species data is integrated with the air intake flow rate to determine the total mass of emissions, after correcting for the reduction in exhaust gas mass due to precipitation of the moisture of combustion. This procedure eliminates the need for the Constant Volume Sample (CVS) System attached to the vehicle exhaust while undergoing simulated drive testing on a chassis dynamometer to evaluate compliance of the test vehicle with the Australian Design Rules, ADR27 and ADR37. Sources of error with the procedure are examined by comparing the fuel consumption measured using a volumetric technique during the test with that evaluated by a carbon balance procedure as given in the Australian Design Rules.
Technical Paper

The Reality of Problem Solving

1999-05-10
1999-01-1626
Structured problem solving methods are utilized in the automotive industry for the efficient resolution of quality issues in manufacturing. Several problem solving methodologies have been developed, each with the same basic philosophy to prevent problem reoccurrence. Numerous barriers inhibit the effectiveness of problem solving. Although some tactical barriers may be overcome by training personnel, the majority of barriers are strategic or cultural in nature. Barriers at these two levels can only be removed by management level personnel. Management must shift its focus from firefighting to problem prevention. This shift can only be realized if problem prevention is addressed during design.
Technical Paper

Application of Shape Memory Alloys for Leading Edge Deicing

1999-04-20
1999-01-1585
Ice accumulation on aircraft wings during flight is a dangerous situation. To deal with this problem, current deicing systems either prevent ice accumulation by heating or break the ice layer once it is formed by dynamic motion of a leading edge device such as a boot. These systems may be deficient due to excessive energy requirements or ineffectiveness. In this project, the feasibility of using shape memory alloy (SMA) composite material for deicing purposes is investigated. SMA such as Nitinol wire has an unusual characteristic where it can be trained to generate a compressive strain upon application of an electric current through the wire. Several different versions of two inch radius semi-circular SMA composite specimen were manufactured and tested at Wichita State University. Ice was successfully shed in static icing tests while each of the subsequent versions reduced the power input requirement.
Technical Paper

Lean Ergonomics: Twelve Simple Rules to Fit Jobs to People

1999-05-10
1999-01-1636
This paper provides twelve rules to help reduce four key ergonomic risk factors (force, frequency, posture and mechanical stress). These rules were developed to assist individuals who may not have received extensive ergonomic training but who are involved in implementing any changes (major or minor) to manufacturing work stations. This includes changes in task and/or changes in equipment. A complete ergonomic analysis of a work situation is a good idea in most cases, but these rules will avoid many of the commonly occurring problems if applied early in the design or modification of a workplace.
Technical Paper

Preparing for High Performance Work Organizations – The UDM / GC Bachelor of Manufacturing Engineering Program

1999-05-10
1999-01-1637
There are many analogies between the development of education and industrial development in the United States during the 1900s. In both segments of our society the emphasis on quantity of output led to the use of ever more specialized tools and concepts with sub-optimization often reducing the overall output quality. More recently both education and industry, especially the manufacturing sector, have recognized the value added concepts of integration, i.e., applying a holistic approach to their operations. In so doing a new workplace has been defined, the “High Performance Work Organization” (HPWO) (1). The discussion of the effects this development has had on manufacturing of goods and services is left to other presentations in this conference. This presentation focuses on an example from education which illustrates how integration of experiential and academic activities has been set as the cornerstone of a new construct for engineering education.
Technical Paper

Gaining Engineering Competence in Plastics

1999-05-10
1999-01-1641
Plastics are largely regarded as commodity materials. However, they differ considerably from the materials which we became acquainted with during our college education. Although one can proceed to design plastic components and manufacture them without seriously considering a training program, the consequences can be substantial sacrifices to quality, development cost, part cost, and time to market, as well as adding a great deal of unnecessary stress to the workplace. This presentation explains why plastics are different and recommends a training curriculum that should be a part of strategic planning.
Technical Paper

Graduate Education in Manufacturing Engineering for the Automotive Industry of the Future

1999-05-10
1999-01-1638
This paper discusses the evolution of graduate education in manufacturing engineering and the curriculum needed to educate manufacturing engineers in the automotive industry. This paper examines the master's and doctoral curriculum in manufacturing engineering at the University of Michigan-Dearborn. Finally, it proposes future direction for graduate education in manufacturing that will be needed for the automotive industry of the future.
Technical Paper

Artificial Neural Network Based Energy Storage System Modeling for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2000-04-02
2000-01-1564
The modeling of the energy storage system (ESS) of a Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) poses a considerable challenge. The problem is not amenable to physical modeling without simplifying assumptions that compromise the accuracy of such models. An alternative is to build conventional empirical models. Such models, however, are time-consuming to build and are data-intensive. In this paper, we demonstrate the application of an artificial neural network (ANN) to modeling the ESS. The model maps the system's state-of-charge (SOC) and the vehicle's power requirement to the bus voltage and current. We show that ANN models can accurately capture the complex, non-linear correlations accurately. Further, we propose and deploy our new technique, Smart Select, for designing ANN training data.
Technical Paper

Investigation of a Roll Control System for an Off-road Vehicle

2000-05-01
2000-01-1646
The current popularity of the Sport Utility Vehicle (SUV) market has led to new developments aiming to increase product performance. Such vehicles pose a significant challenge as they must perform to a high standard over a large variety of road conditions. Previously, emphasis has been placed on off-road ability. However, SUVs are now seen as an alternative to conventional luxury cars, and hence are expected to perform similarly, but without significantly degrading off-road performance. The introduction of a roll control system can achieve body roll levels lower than a conventional sports saloon, whilst improving off-road ability by removing the compromises associated with conventional anti-roll bars. This paper investigates the characteristics of such a system by developing a computer simulation of the vehicle and the associated roll control scheme.
Technical Paper

Fundamental Physics Behind New Suspension Concept for Automobiles

2000-05-01
2000-01-1647
The Transverse Leaf suspension with Superior Roll Axis is a new suspension concept for automobiles. It enables the load transfer during a turn to be more evenly redistributed between the two wheels on the same axle thus optimizing its tires lateral force capabilities. The TLSRA concept is made up of a single transverse leaf spring linking the middle of the sprung mass to the outer end of 2 transverse suspension arms per axle. Those transverse arms are mounted close to the middle of the sprung mass with their attachment points located above the mass centroïd. Each wheel assembly is mounted directly onto the free end of its respective suspension arm. Because body roll is now counteracting vertical load transfer during transient and permanent operating conditions, this suspension enables designers to keep spring stiffness low without compromising road handling.
Technical Paper

Breaking Down Technology Barriers for Advanced Vehicles: The Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Program

2000-04-02
2000-01-1595
The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies (OAAT), in partnership with industry, is developing transportation technologies that will improve the energy efficiency of our transportation system. Most OAAT programs are focused exclusively on technology development. However, the twin goals of developing innovative technologies and transferring them to industry led OAAT to realize the growing need for people trained in non-traditional, emerging technologies. The Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) program combines graduate-level education with technology development and transfer by training a new generation of automotive engineers in critical multi-disciplinary technologies, by fostering cooperative research in those technologies, and by transferring those technologies directly to industrial organizations.
Technical Paper

An Architecture for Autonomous Agents in a Driving Simulator

2000-04-02
2000-01-1596
The addition of synthetic traffic to a driving simulation greatly enhances the realism of the virtual world. Giving this traffic human-like behavior is likewise desirable, and has been the focus of some research over the past few years. This paper presents a modular architecture for including autonomous traffic in a driving simulation, and describes the first steps taken toward the application of this architecture to the DaimlerChrysler Auburn Hills Simulator. By separating the planning part of the agent from the low-level control and vehicle dynamics systems, the described architecture permits the inclusion of powerful, previously developed components in a straightforward way; in the present application, agents use Soar to reason about their actions. This paper gives an overview of the structures of the agents, and of the entire system, describes the components and their implementations, and discusses the current state of the project and plans for the future.
Technical Paper

An Automatic Vehicle Controller for Stability and Handling Tests

2000-05-01
2000-01-1627
An automatic vehicle controller (AVC) which was specified, designed, fabricated, installed and used on a variety of vehicles, including automobiles, light trucks, and sport utility vehicles is described. The AVC controls the vehicle's steering, and input waveforms of virtually any type or complexity can be specified from computer files containing steering wheel angle commands as functions of time. Also, algorithms which use motion sensor feedback in the steering control logic can be programmed. Throttle and brake controls can also be provided.
Technical Paper

Elimination of Roll, Squat, and Dive Through Biased Suspension Response

2000-05-01
2000-01-1632
Conventionally sprung vehicles are subject to rolling and pitching of the sprung load as the vehicle corners and accelerates, respectively. Designs which incorporate active elements seek to control these movements, frequently resulting in compromised performance or reduced fuel economy. This paper considers the possible replacement of conventional springs, shocks, and anti-sway bars with specified fluid spring components. The fluid spring components offer biased response to dynamic load variations in the following manner: provide support of the sprung load equal to the magnitude of the load at each moment, and either compressing readily to absorb upward forces originating in the wheel assembly which exceed the magnitude of the load at that moment, or extending rapidly to provide support equal to the magnitude of the load at that moment, in the event the wheel assembly tracks through a hole.
Technical Paper

Utilizing a Genetic Algorithm to Optimize Vehicle Simulation Trajectories: Determining Initial Velocity of a Vehicle in Yaw

2000-05-01
2000-01-1616
A method was developed for determining the unknown initial velocity of vehicles in yaw based upon evidence of the vehicle’s trajectory. The problem is formulated as an optimization problem by minimizing the error between a simulation trajectory and the known vehicle trajectory as per tire marks. A search simulation is coded in Matlab. An objective function is formulated based upon the error between the search simulation’ trajectories and the trajectory prescribed by the tire mark evidence. Initial conditions and step driver inputs are the design variables. A genetic algorithm routine coded in Matlab, GAOT (Genetic Algorithm Optimization Toolbox), is implemented to determine the solution vector that results in a simulation trajectory that minimizes the objective function. Target simulations are created using EDVSM (Engineering Dynamics Vehicle Simulation Model). The optimization algorithm is implemented and errors in the resultant velocities are reported.
Technical Paper

Vehicle and Tire Modeling for DynamicAnalysis and Real-Time Simulation

2000-05-01
2000-01-1620
This paper reviews the development and application of a computer simulation for simulating ground vehicle dynamics including steady state tire behavior. The models have been developed over the last decade, and include treatment of sprung and unsprung masses, suspension characteristics and composite road plane tire forces. The models have been applied to single unit passenger cars, trucks and buses, and articulated tractor/trailer vehicles. The vehicle model uses composite parameters that are relatively easy to measure. The tire model responds to normal load, camber angle and composite tire patch slip, and its longitudinal and lateral forces interact with an equivalent friction ellipse formulation. The tire model can represent behavior on both paved and off-road surfaces. Tire model parameters can be automatically identified given tire force and moment test data.
Technical Paper

Dynamics Simulation Research on Rigid-Elastic Coupling System of Car Suspension

2000-05-01
2000-01-1622
In modern car, to reduce car deadweight, lightweight technology is widely used; and to improve comfortable and handling performance, many rubber bushings installed between car body and suspension. These parts have difference characteristics during car running at high speed comparing these at static state. Accounting the suspension performance has a decisive influence on a car, the flexible parts should be taken into account in the suspension/steering system simulation model. As a deviant phenomenon, the steering wheel shimmy affects the suspension's dynamic characteristics greatly. To analysis this abnormal running state, the front wheel bounce tracks were figured out by using different front suspension model. The flexible parts installed in suspension are idealized respectively as rigid poles, flexible beams or forces, hence, the rigid suspension analytical model and the rigid-elastic suspension model analytical were built respectively.
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